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18.06.2014
If the substation is immediately next to your home there is little in a practical sense you can do to reduce the magnetic fields.
As if cell phone radiation werena€™t enough of a threat to children, it has now become apparent that we have to consider the danger of how radio-frequency-emitting-baby monitors are affecting infants while they sleep in their cribs.A  As a conscientious parent, you may be using a seemingly harmless baby monitor as a safeguard for your infanta€“to let you know how they are doing while you arena€™t in the room. Baby monitors use a€?Decta€? or digitally enhanced cordless telecommunication technology to transmit signals. Powerwatch, a watchdog organization for radiation danger, says: A a€?A Dect monitor placed in your babya€™s bedroom will expose them to more pulsing microwave radiation than living near to a mobile phone mast would do. Predictably, marketers of the baby monitors have stated that they do not think there is any danger from their product, saying that they meet international safety standards. Some laboratory specialists in this kind of radiation have recommended placing the monitors at least 10 feet from an infanta€™s crib. Unfortunately for both my kids, who have now been out of nappies for a good many years, we used Dect type baby monitors, just out of ignorance. If it has to be wireless, prefer a low-band 35 to 50 MHz analogue model which does not pulse and remember to keep any baby monitor as far from your baby as possible, I recommend at least 1 metre away.
The safest baby monitor is a fully wired version, linking through the electrical wiring but these are not widely available.
Best to change your old cathode-ray monitors (the ones with the deep backs) to any type of flat screen monitor as these give of far less Electromagnetic fields than the old type which thankfully you cana€™t buy any more. Geobiology explores the relationship between life and the Eartha€™s physical and chemical environment. The history of geobiology in this respect dates back to 1929 when a German aristocrat Baron Gustov Von Pohl, an eminent dowser, made the extraordinary claim that cancer was caused by a€?energy linesa€™ that ran under the beds of the people that had died from the disease.
Underground Streams: a€?Water will flow through any underground passage, fracture of fissure.
The dark square with flashing white lines is a photographic print of microwaves radiating in the space above an underground watercourse taken in total darkness. Diagram depicts the flow of underground water and consequential chemical reactions within certain geological features that could be the origin of geopathic stress issues. The dipolar nature of water molecules can also be part of the origin of electromagnetic fields originating from ground contained water. The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the range of different types of Electromagnetic Radiation.a€?These are usually sorted by the frequency. For visual explanation, NASA have a simple but useful diagram, and there is a far more detailed diagram available from thinkgeek (purchase required). We believe that one of the main reasons that EMFs (particularly microwave frequencies) are potentially bioactive is due to the nature of the signal itself. We have evolved with the natural levels of EMFs produced by both the sun and world around us.
Power frequency (50Hz in the UK) is given off by any appliance or transmission of AC (alternating current) electrity.
Childhood leukaemia has been internationally accepted as linked to powerfrequency exposure magnetic fields, with a wealth of literature finding increases in risk to this and other illnesses.
It is well documented and generally accepted that over-exposure to ultraviolet rays can cause burning and skin cancer.
There are internationally accepted guidelines by the International Commission for Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) that have been designed to limit both residential and occupational exposure to levels that are safely below those that can heat up tissue. However, recently there has been a number of studies showing very specific biological effects far lower than these levels (see our Studies list), and as yet there is no international guidance that has taken any of these studies into effect.
Powerfrequency electromagnetic fields are generated by any appliance running off AC (alternating current) power - anything plugged into a main power socket will generate them to some degree. At the moment, health effects primarily associated with powerfrequency EMFs are due to the magnetic component - these include, but are not limited to, Childhood Leukaemia, Adult Leukaemia, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Miscarriage, and Clinical Depression. There is a fairly brief overview of health risks and evidence in the health concerns section of the electric power transmission article on Wikipedia.
The last type of geopathic disturbance that I want to talk about before we have a look at man-made electromagnetic energies concerns the earth's natural geomagnetic field (the one that makes a compass needles pointA  north). The first geomagnetogram (G1) typically represents the values of the Earths normal geomagnetic field taken by me in a farmer's field near Poynings village not far from where I live.
The second geomagnetogram (G2) was taken above a sprung mattress from a lady suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome and severe depression, and has a magnetic anomaly of 22,435.4 nT.
The Cliff of Tears a€?It is important not to underestimate the value of the earth's natural geomagnetic field (DC Field) which interacts with our bodies in many positive waysA  This DC field rarely shows an anomaly above or below 2% of its normal strength which differs according to the latitude in which you live. Unnatural Alterations in the Earth's Geomagnetic Field a€?A second and equally important influence on the sequence of mitosis is the role in which the normal earth's geomagnetic field (DC field) influences the formation and production of a healthy pregnancy.
Health risks due to exposure to electromagnetic fields EMFa€™s in the home were first suggested in America by Wertheimer and Leeper, when they estimated the levels people were exposed to, using a€?wire codesa€™, and the local incidence of childhood leukaemia. Stress sensitive hormones such as prolactin and thyroxide have been found to be elevated in people at work in high electromagnetic environments.A  Prolactin plays a key role in moderating parts of the neuro-immune system and may also be an important precipitator of auto immune diseases.
It has been scientifically proven for the first time, with a double blind study by means of an electrocardiogram, that the detrimental effects of a€?water veinsa€? and other geopathically disturbing phenomena can cause serious health problems to persons exposed to them.
This presentation took place in March 2003 in the large auditorium of the Saint Johanns-hospital Landesklinjken SalzburgA  Germany. At locations where Geopathic stress zones are present, subsurface water plays a predominantrole, either as lakes, slowly moving underground water, or as water streams.
Technical electromagnetic fields can also drastically affect the human body, as soon as certain field strengths are reached. The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the range of different types of Electromagnetic Radiation.These are usually sorted by the frequency. The Cliff of Tears It is important not to underestimate the value of the earth's natural geomagnetic field (DC Field) which interacts with our bodies in many positive waysA  This DC field rarely shows an anomaly above or below 2% of its normal strength which differs according to the latitude in which you live. Unnatural Alterations in the Earth's Geomagnetic Field A second and equally important influence on the sequence of mitosis is the role in which the normal earth's geomagnetic field (DC field) influences the formation and production of a healthy pregnancy. A few phone calls, and a hurry up shift on the Limo companies part, and we were all in the stretch limo headed for Toronto. We found the second-story, enclosed passageway, that leads from the three airport terminals to the Airport Hilton.We walked its length, passing the rail terminal, where we found an ATM and got some needed Euros. We arose early, the differences in time zones not yet acclimated into our circadian rhythms.
We bought some cappuccino and croissants, in an airport restaurant, and watched the giant aerial behemoths land and take off in this busy airport.
We climbed these ancient steps, enjoying the surreal experience of viewing the huge sculptures flanking the stairs headway and wondering at the many who had come this way throughout the ages.
Just up the rise, behind the triumphant arch of Constantine, we could see the now familiar broken circle of the remains of the coliseum.
Hunger was gnawing at us, so we stopped at a cute little trattoria labeled a€?planet pizza.a€? We ordered two slices of pizza and continued on, walking the narrow streets as we munched on our pizza. We sat for a time, watching the tourists, and enjoying the sunshine and 62 degree temperatures.
After lunch, we walked about the piazza, enjoying the controlled tumult and browsing the artists with their easels and the colorful souvenir vendors. We were becoming foot weary from the line of march, but headed southeast from the Piazza Navona, in search of the fabled Pantheon. Soon, we turned a corner and stood still for a moment, appreciating the classic lines of the Pantheon, a former pagan temple that had been constructed in 183 A.D. From the Pantheon, we followed our map to the Via Corso and headed back towards that huge monument dominating the skyline, the Vittorio Emmanuel II, in the Piazza Venezia. We walked the small and narrow streets nearby, looking in on the small vegetable and food shops. The ten oa€™clock bus into Rome looked like the Kowloon ferry at rush hour, so we opted to walk over to the train station to catch the express run into stazione terminal. At Stazione Terminal, we detrained and walked through the large terminal that connects the surface railways with the two principal subway lines which crisscross underneath Roma.
Next, we came upon one of the ancient Italian Monsignors celebrating mass at one of the side chapels. Even the sophisticated stand here quietly unsure of exactly what they are seeing, but respectful of the idea that the remains of so noteworthy a historical figure lay just a few yards away in plain sight.
We walked up the nearest boulevard to the Tiber, in search of one of the more storied edifices in Rome, the Castle San Angelo.
We emerged into a small courtyard, at the top of the castle, where a statue of St., Michael the archangel, stands ready to protect all with his sword and shield. On our way down, we espied several small exhibit rooms where huge a€?blunder bussesa€? and small cannon of many sorts lay on exhibit.Their fired lead must have cut down many attacking marauders in ages past. We crossed the Tiber at the Ponte Cavour and walked three blocks over to the Via Corso.We were headed for one of the more spacious and beautiful Piazzas in Rome, the Piazza Del Poppolo.
The Parkland is well cared for and looks like a pleasant spot for Romans to gather on a spring or summera€™s day.
We stopped by a station restaurant and bought some wonderful vegetable paninis (sandwiches) for later.
We enjoyed another swim in the hotel pool and then stopped by the hotela€™s atm for another 100 euros.
We retrieved our luggage from the bus and stood in line for a brief 20 minutes of check-in procedures. We walked the decks, exploring our ship and enjoyed the lounges, shop areas and the many other nooks and crannies of entertainment and activity spread around the decks. Deck #11 aft holds a smaller restaurant called the a€?Trattoria,a€? and serves Italian food every night. We met in the Stardust lounge on deck #10 and got tickets for our 10-hour tour of the Tuscan Countryside and the fabled walled city of Siena. As the tour bus careened down the highway, we looked at the pastoral scenes, of groves of olive trees and vineyards, dotting the gently rolling landscape.
Marco walked us from the bus parking area to the Chiesa San Domingo where we met our local guide a€?Rita.a€? She launched into what was to be a colorful and informed narrative of the Sienaa€™s history and development. We walked through the narrow, cobbled streets and admired the well preserved walls and quaint shops that appeared around every turn. We walked slowly along the medieval streets, admiring the ancient framing and well preserved architecture.
Just next to the Duomo, Rita pointed out an entire area that had been laid out to expand the church.
Marco led us to the ancient a€?Spade Fortea€? ristorante, on the periphery of the Piazza, for lunch. We still had time left after lunch, so we walked back to the Duomo and, for 6 euros each, entered the Musee da€™Opera, next to the Duomo.
The bus drove by the walled city of San Gimiano and we caught a glimpse of the open gates of what marco called a a€?medieval disneyland.a€? It looked like a great place to wander when the crowds were less intense.
We dressed for dinner this evening in a€?business attire.a€?It was one of the two a€?formal nightsa€? on the ship.
The seas were calm that night and we walked topside, enjoying the night air and each othera€™s company.We never lose sight of how fortunate we are to be with each other in these exotic and interesting locales. We passed through Recco, a Ligurian center for cooking, and then exited into the a sprawling town of Rappalo for the coastal ride into Santa Margarita, where we would take a small ferry to Porto Fino, the heart of the Italian Riveria. The Castello Brown is everything your imagination could place it to be, sited on the high promontory over a picture book Mediterranean village. In the quaint village below, we browsed the pricey shops, like Gucci & Ferragamo, noting the breath-taking prices listed in euros. The Canne waterfront surrounds the marina, a central square, filled with Sycamore trees, and replete with several cafes and their ubiquitous outside tables and chairs. We entered the A-8 Autostrade and drove through Nice and on towards Monaco, some 90 kilometers miles further along the fabled Cotea€™ da€™azur. From quaint and medieval EZE, we descended to the Middle Corniche Road for the picturesque ride into nearby Nice.
From the Palais, Patrick threaded the huge tour bus through the narrow streets, fighting the Easter-morning, Mass traffic. I thought that I had a pretty good command of French, but at moments like these, it seems to desert you. Pat and John were accompanied by friend Joanne, a retired teacher, Al and his mother Cora, also from celebration Florida and the Two Australians, Mike and Carmen Harchand. Revelry aside, the injury was throbbing insistently, so we returned to our cabin, with my hand elevated in the a€?French salute but with the wrong finger.a€? The seas were running rough this evening, with ten foot swells and 25 knot winds. We passed by the entrance to the Las Ramblas, the broad pedestrian promenade that extends into the city, and continued on.
The first wonder that we passed is Antonio Gaudia€™s a€?Batlo House.a€? Built in 1906, it is several stories high and has a delightful facade of painted ceramic tiles.
Next, we passed the Casa Mila, another Gaudi masterpiece, with its distinctive wavy and flowing, tiled facade. Then, we came to the sanctum sanctorum of architecture, the Cathedral of the Segrada Familia. The four seasons and many other symbols are represented in this flowing montage that is more enormous sculpture than architecture.
Restless, we wandered the decks, met and talked with the Martins and then found a nice photo of ourselves, taken in Sienaa€™s main Piazza, in the photo gallery. We stopped for a time, in one of the deck ten lounges, and read our books, enjoying the quiet mode of the ship at sea.
We walked topside, enjoying as always the collage of sun, sea and sky, as we knifed through the rolling swells. The Devonshire spread ( as in butt the size of) still engulfed us, so we did another five laps around the deck # 7 promenade.
Here’s the lot in the 1100 block of West Cavalcade, a few hundred feet east of the intersection of Main, Studewood, and 20th St.
Hadn’t heard anything out of these guys in a while but was wondering if they were going to get off the ground.
DESCRIPTION: During the Middle Ages the Greek tradition of disinterested research was stifled in Western Europe by a theological dictatorship which bade fair, for a time, to destroy all hope of a genuine intellectual revival. Most Arab cartographers also used Ptolemya€™s instructions in the construction of their own maps. Over the years, these enlightened Arabs injected new life and a storehouse of knowledge into the relatively backward science of Western Europe, and, for centuries, Arab culture actually dominated the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily. In the year 1138, the royal palace at Palermo, Sicily was the scene of a long-awaited meeting between an unusual Christian king and a distinguished Muslim scholar. The monarch was Roger II, King of Sicily; his distinguished guest the Arab geographer Abu Abdullah Mohammed Ibn al-Sharif al-Idrisi [Edrisi]. Al-Idrisia€™s writings tell us less about his own character and personality than about those of the man who became his host and patron.
Sicily in particular was an ideal meeting ground for the two civilizations a€“ Christian Europe and the Muslim Middle East.
Early in the 11th century a band of Norman adventurers, the Hautevilles, had ridden into southern Italy to wrest it from the Byzantine Greeks and the Muslims, and in 1101 Count Roger da€™Hauteville capped his career by conquering Sicily. Tall, dark-haired, bearded and corpulent, Roger, from a magnificent palace in Palermo, ruled his kingdom with a balanced mixture of diplomacy, ruthlessness, wisdom and skill that has led many historians to term his kingdom the best-governed European state of the Middle Ages. Rogera€™s interest in geography was the expression of a scientific curiosity just awakening in Europe, but inevitably he turned to a Muslim for help.
A few practical maps did exista€”marinersa€™ charts showing coastlines, capes, bays, shallows, ports of call and watering and provisioning placesa€”but in a typical medieval divorce of science and technology, these remained in the hands of navigators.
To carry out the project, Roger established an academy of geographers, with himself as director and al-Idrisi as permanent secretary, to gather and analyze information.
The academy began by studying and comparing the works of previous geographersa€”principal among them 12 scholars, 10 of them from the Muslim world. Al-Idrisia€™s two geographers from the pre-Islamic era were Paulus Orosius, a Spaniard whose popular History, written in the fifth century, included a volume of descriptive geography; and Ptolemy, the greatest of the classical geographers, whose Geography, written in the second century, had been entirely lost to Europe, but preserved in the Muslim world in an Arabic translation. After examining at length the geographical works they had collected, the king and the geographer observed that they were full of discrepancies and omissions, and decided to embark on original research.
During this research, al-Idrisi and Roger compared data, keeping the facts on which travelers agreed and eliminating conflicting information. Finally, however, the long 15-year geographical study was finished and the task of map making began. Al-Idrisi explained that the disk merely symbolized the shape of the world: The earth is round like a sphere, and the waters adhere to it and are maintained on it through natural equilibrium which suffers no variation. By al-Idrisia€™s time, Muslim astronomers had made great strides in methods of reckoning latitude.
Al-Idrisi himself gave three figures for the eartha€™s circumference, without deciding among them: Eratosthenesa€™ approximately correct estimate, a slightly smaller figure arrived at by Indian astronomers, and a still smaller numbera€”though larger than Ptolemya€™sa€”which was apparently agreed on by Sicilian scholars. On the disk, according to al-Idrisia€™s own account, were incised a€?by skillful workersa€? lines marking the limits of the seven climates of the habitable world, arbitrary divisions established by Ptolemy running east and west and bounded by parallels of latitude, from the Arctic to the Equator. The map, written in Arabic, shows the Eurasian continent in its entirety, but only shows the northern part of the African continent. The resulting book and associated maps which took 15 years to amass are, for this and the above reasons, unquestionably among the most interesting monuments of Arabian geography. Modern geographers have attempted to reconstruct the features of the silver planisphere by using a combination of the maps of Rogera€™s Book, which has survived in several texts, and its tables of longitudes and latitudes. Distortions, omissions, and misconceptions notwithstanding, the superiority of al-Idrisia€™s map over the world maps of medieval Europe is striking.
The first division of the first climate commences to the west of the Western Sea, which Idrisi called the Sea of Darkness. Following the Nile, still eastward, we find the nomadic Berbers who pasture their flock on the borders of a river flowing from the east, debouching into the Nile stream. It is clear that the part of southern Africa which is extended far to the east is a legacy from Ptolemy, but Arabian seafarers had taught Idrisi that the sea was open in the east, and in his own commentaries he writes: a€?The Sea of Sin [China] is an arm of the ocean which is called the Dark Sea [the Atlantic]a€?.
To the south al-Idrisi pictured a great river, the Nile of the Negroes, a composite of the Senegal and the Niger Rivers that flowed from Central Africa west to the Atlantic. Sicily, naturally, came in for special praise; it was a pearl of the age, and al-Idrisi told the story of the Norman conquest of the island by Roger da€™Hauteville, the greatest of Frankish princes, followed by the succession of the great king who bears the same name and who follows in his footsteps.
Idrisi was not, however, able to put the countries around the Baltic into proper shape, even though his notes show him to have been familiar with a great many places there, as in the rest of Europe. The impressive assemblage of facts from travelersa€™ accounts and geographical writings was interrupted now and then by fables, some taken directly from Ptolemy, some from popular folklore. Al-Idrisia€™s Rome had an oriental magnificence; ships with their freight sailed up the Tiber to be drawn thus loaded right up to the very shops of the merchants. The Arabs knew these islands through Ptolemy, and called them Jazaa€™ir al-Khalidat [The Eternal Isles], presumably a version of the Greek name. After telling us that the Canaries had been visited by Alexander the Great and that the tomb of a pre-Islamic South Arabian king, made of marble and colored glass, can be seen on one of them, al-Idrisi gives the names of two of the islands.
Even more interesting is al-Idrisia€™s account of an actual voyage of exploration into the western Atlantic, undertaken by 80 brave men from Lisbon whom he calls the mugharrirun, best rendered as a€?intrepid explorers.a€? The expedition must have taken place before 1147 - the date Lisbon fell to the Christians - but it is impossible to be more precise. It was from the city of Lisbon that the mugharrirun set out to sail the Sea of Darkness in order to discover what was in it and where it ended, as we have mentioned before. The inhabitants of the island of al-Sua€™ali are shaped like women and their canine teeth protrude. The island of Qalhan is inhabited by animal-headed people who swim in the sea to catch their food. Al-Ghawr makes sense; it means a depression surrounded by higher land, and occurs elsewhere in the Arab world as a place name.
Al-Idrisi gives the names of 13 islands in the western Atlantic; a 14th, visited by the mugharrirun, is nameless. On his map, Idrisi shows a long string of islands in the Western Ocean reaching north from the equator to Brittany. However, Arab geographers and astronomers were much too accurate in their latitude calculations to mistakenly spread the Canary Islands so widely over the ocean. The three intermediate islands in the chain may be the first cartographic representation of the Azores.
Idrisia€™s description of other islands in the Atlantic appear to have more to do with fanciful legends than with reality. Some of these islands resemble the islands of Irish legend, and the Arabs may have incorporated parts of the Celtic tradition into their own legends. At the latitude of Tangier, in the Grand Sea, there are situated islands named a€?The Fortunate Islands.a€? These are spread in the sea, not far away from the west coast [of Africa], the Barbary Coast. Al-Idrisi presented the planisphere, a silver celestial sphere and the book to his patron in 1154, just a few weeks before Roger died at 58, probably of a heart attack; he went on to compose another geographical work for William I, Rogera€™s successor.
According to Arab sources, Idrisi composed yet another more detailed text and map in 1161 for Rogera€™s son William II. In 1160, however, Sicilian barons rose in rebellion against William and during the disorders looted the palace; in a great fire in the courtyard, they burned government records, books and documentsa€”including a new Latin edition of Rogera€™s Book which al-Idrisi had presented to William. Since the barons had attacked the Muslims of Sicily with particular ferocitya€”killing, among many others, a famous poet named Yahya ibn al-Tifashia€”al-Idrisi fled to North Africa where, six years later, he died. As he had brought the Arabic text with him, however, his great work lived on, winning widespread fame, serving as a model for Muslim geographers and historians for centuries and providing the great Muslim historian, Ibn Khaldun, with practically all his geographical knowledge.
It is a curious thought that had Columbus been aware of the true distancea€”from al-Idrisia€™s estimatesa€”he might have hesitated to undertake his epoch-making voyage and might never have discovered that new world which came to light one morning on the far side of the Sea of Darkness. Idrisia€™s works are of exceptional quality when considered in comparison with other geographical writings of their period, partly by reason of their richness of detail, but mainly because of the afore mentioned a€?scientific methoda€™ that was employed, a procedure which was indeed unlike that adopted by most Latin scholars of that era.
There is, however, a markedly retrograde character to certain portions of his work, such as East Africa and South Asia; despite his narrative of the Lisbon Wanderers (see above and Beazely, vol. In view of its modernity and high intrinsic worth, it is difficult to understand why Idrisia€™s work, composed as it was at the chronological and geographical point of contact between the Islamic and Christian civilizations, remained so long un-utilized by Christian scholars in Sicily, Italy, or other Christian countries, until we remember that the primary - we might even say the sole - interest of the Latin West in Arabic literature centered on the preparation of calendars, star tables and horoscopes, and, to some extent, the recovery of ancient lore. Al-Idrisia€™s map places Gog and Magog in northern China, behind a great wall with a tower and a door; at the wall is an inscription, translated as a€?belongs to the Kufaya mountain range which encloses Gog and Magoga€?. The first translation known of Idrisia€™s work was published in Rome only in 1619, and then in a very much shortened form (the translator did not even know the authora€™s name). On the other hand, there is no question but that the Sicilo-Norman enthusiasm for geography exerted an indirect influence on the evolution of geographical knowledge, an influence that was to make itself felt more especially after the close of the Crusades period.
Detail of the a€?The large Idrisi Mapa€? showing Europe and North Africa,a€? re-oriented with North at the top. Reproduction and re-orientation of a map of the world adapted from the Muqaddimah [Introduction] to Ibn Khalduna€™s monumental work, The History of the World, 1381; derived from the 1154 al-Idrisi map. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph.
Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. Adafruit: The oldest street scene photos of New York City - Check out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York. The oldest street scene photos of New York CityCheck out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York. I still remember reading about Louis Daguerre's invention, the daguerreotype, in high school. The Making of the American Museum of Natural Historya€™s Wildlife DioramasFossil shark-jaw restoration, 1909. Very old portrait of three men identified as (from left to right) Henry, George, and Stephen Childs, November 25, 1842. In 1840, Hippolyte Bayard, a pioneer of early photography, created an image called Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man.
10 Times History Was Captured in Living ColorColor photographs go back to before you might think. In Germany and Austria today there are signs of the seriousness with which geopathic stress is taken. If you find time, this geopathic stress documentary is extremely interesting and compliments the work I have been doing over the last 12 years and 30 years my father before me with the same conclusions. Please scroll down the articles on this page for a more scientific understanding of geopathic stress. There is also an interesting piece of research at the end of the page about the credibility of Vega testing for geopathic stress. The most useful research document is below under the heading a€?Vienna Reporta€™ Read my summary and then either open up the original research document in German or the Poor English translation after the summary.
The first studies that proved a link between cancer and geopathic stress were carried out in the early 20th century in Austria and Germany but, so far geopathic stress has been largely ignored in the UK. A A A  Long term exposure in combination with other types of energy such as Hartman lines, high electromagnetic fields or geological faults can give rise to optimistic abnormal cell growth and cancer.
Germany has long been the seat of research in to the biological effects that pathogenic locations can have on both human and plant biochemistry. Historic roots of the investigation are built on claims that pathogenic zones exist at certain locations and that sleeping or spending long periods of time above them are linked to cancer, debilitating diseases of the central nervous system, chronic fatigue and general ill health.
The research was conducted by a team of distinguished professors, doctors, engineers, scientists and dowsers.
To test this hypothesis the research team used the services of three dowsers known for there expertise in locating earth energies. At present, these so called a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ can only be indicated by dowsers, with its presence being then verified with scientific instrumentation. The Project a€?The project involved the testing of 24 different biological parameters involving 985 trial volunteers in 6,943 investigations using 462, 421 individual measurements.
Decoder Analysis of the Total Bioelectric Status a€?This investigation was significant and was carried out on a number of patients from a country medical practice.
Heart Frequency Reaction (HFR) a€?In these investigations measurements from an electrocardiogram (ECG) were used in both sitting and lying down positions.
Akrale Re-warming Time a€?The temperature measurement at the finger tips revealed that after standardized cooling on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ the Rewarming time is delayed significantly.
Optical Flicker Fusion Frequency a€?This test measures the psycho sensory capabilities of the person. Coordinative Vegetative Rhythm a€?Passive rhythms such as breath and pulse frequency operate in balanced Coordinative rhythms especially when at rest. Muscle Frequency Analysis a€?Significant location variations in the distribution of the muscle action frequencies were found in areas of electric muscle potential. Calcium and Potassium a€?On a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ potassium levels increased with a rising significance and calcium increased significantly. Serotonin a€?Decreased by a factor of 6 on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ whilst increasing its metabolism to advance Tryptophan in compensation. The a€?Location Effecta€™ of the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ on regulatory systems of the human organism is proved without doubt and raises the question of which substratum, subsystem or system the location dependent powers primarily attack. The test results were lined up by Biometric Significance and are valued with the Serotonin and the Blood Corpuscle Decline Speed (BSG) in lead position. Serotonin a€?Serotonin is diminished on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ and its metabolism advances the tendency for Tryptophan to be increased. The research team concluded that there was no evidence to relate a€?Location Loada€™ to a specific illness but should be rather determined as a risk factor that can reinforce the effect of different pathogenic factors.
Only rudimental evidence is available today, if such zones could be measured using accepted physical apparatus.
One of the reasons why an incontrovertible physical measurement of the assumedly existing electromagnetic fields appears to be impossible at present could be that these are very variable, broad-banded and at the same time only present in very low power strengths, a€?hiddena€? in the surrounding electromagnetic noise.
One can assume that there are many origins for the effects of different locations on humans, animals and plants.
Low energy, broad-banded and dynamically changing EMFs, creating resonance with structures of the human organism, may well be part of the geopathy phenomenon. In addition, the dipolar nature of H2O-molecules can also be part of the origin of such fields.
Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals and certain ceramic materials to generate electrical and magnetic signals in response to applied mechanical stress. Inside an ideal quartz crystal, the electrical charge of the elements silicon and oxygen cancel each other out.
Another well known use of piezoelectricity is found in lighters using piezoelectric ignition: There, sudden mechanical pressure onto a synthetic quartz crystal block (containing high amounts of exactly aligned synthetic lattice crystal cells) leads to the generation of high voltage.
Another aspect of the geopathy phenomenon, which appears to be largely underestimated in its importance, could be found in the presence of a€?longitudinal scalar wavesa€? (5). The existence of longitudinal wave proportions, as also present in the near field of a dipol antenna, could already be shown experimentally by Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) (16-16). Proteins and most other bio-molecules are not at all a€?nonrigida€? structures; in order to fulfill their functions, they possess the ability to dynamically change their shapes within certain limits. Huge amounts of very tiny magnetic crystals (magnetite crystals) have been found in the brain, and these could react very sensitively to the slightest changes in magnetic fields (20). Even though in today's popular media, pseudo-scientific and quasi-medical reports on the topic of geopathy are presented to the public, no a€?peer revieweda€? medical journal indexed in MedLine had published statistically firm and sound provable evidence of geopathic effects on humans until most recently. Our first concepts how to address the geopathy phenomenon were based on the descriptions and personal discussions with the late Otto Bergsmann (a€  2004) and Alois Stacher (medical doctors, both from Vienna, Austria) and carried out in close co-operation with Adolf Wiebecke and his team (Salzburg and Oberalm, Austria). For detection geopathic stress, we have followed the design of a randomized, double-blinded non-clinical trial (54-44), following the ethical guidelines of the expanded Helsinki Declaration (56). During the experiments, the complete GDV system was mounted on a trolley, in order to measure the effects of the two different zones in the laboratory room directly a€?on sitea€? without moving the test person to another place.
To gain reliable data, we paid careful attention to a number of issues influencing stability, reproducibility and safety (24, 30, 37, 45): Throughout the whole study, the very same GDV system was used.
As overlaying technical fields possibly influencing the results may have been present, we used sophisticated calibrated equipment to scan and record low and high frequency EMFs, potential acoustic noxae or vibrations during the whole study period, as well as a variety of additional physical parameters. Further analyses were carried out for complementary medical parameters included in the GDV software package. Those people who are already in the beginning stages of poor health may sense an added sensitivity for diseases of different kinds when staying longer on geopathic locations, as well as notice that healing processes may take longer than usual. As there are no reliable measuring instruments available so far, presently it makes sense to take advice from an experienced dowser.
If constructional arrangements are not possible before erecting a building or before starting a reconstruction, which is supposedly the case in most instances, there are also other practical possibilities: provided that there is a will to do so, it should be possible to move beds or desk seats, in order to get them out of interference zones. Everyone can do something to prevent negative influences by sources that cause stress: anything that lowers stress in general also helps one deal with specific stress factors, and zones, from any origin.
Furthermore, many studies confirm that people who are a€?living healthilya€? a€“ who manage their weight, refrain from smoking, enjoy the outdoors, participate in sports, etc., - have stronger immune systems and feel definitely less stress than their a€?unhealthy livinga€? fellow men. For those who cannot (or do not want to) adopt many of the above mentioned choices, due to illness, age, or some other reasons, things could become more difficult. Our studies show that it does matter on which location you stay for a longer period of time. What is the relevance of our findings for hospitals, convalescent homes and rehabilitation centers? The term a€?wellnessa€?, which is composed of the ideals a€?well-beinga€? and a€?fitnessa€? as well as a€?life-stylea€? and a€?happinessa€?, to a modern point of view denotes a holistic concept of health.
In a pilot study (unpublished findings), we have found indications of more aggressive behavior by children living or working on geopathic locations. Naturally, the negative effects of geopathic stress zones also have considerable commercial impact. The follow-up costs associated with longer a€?chronica€? stays on geopathic interference zones are probably enormous: As said before, geopathy is a matter of a€?burdened work placesa€? leading to decreased ability of the employees to concentrate and to increased probability of employees' illnesses.
So far, the present scientific evidence of effects of geopathic zones on humans has been mainly found using complementary medical methods, with the exception of the GDV a€?area-of-glowa€? parameter.
At the same time, we have already started experiments above different geological zones to test such key parameters contained in saliva, using biochemical assaying well accepted by orthodox medicine: various hormones, neuropeptides and immunological relevant substances are going to be tested a€?non-invasivelya€?. The authors extend thanks for their great help in conducting the quoted research and its essential components to this manuscript. For their innovative and far-seeing pioneering work and active scientific exchange in the field of geopathy we thank Univ.-Doz. When it comes to the topic of earth radiation, water veins and earth dislocations a€“ the so-called geological disturbances a€“ the layperson will usually associate this with hocus-pocus concepts such as a€?Dowsers,a€? often a man with large whiskers and an ironic smile. Many people do not believe the dowsera€™s tale, and associate it with occult illusion a€“ even if successes have been reported simply by moving a bed to a different area of the room.
The most common reason for the prejudice of the person listening -- who generally considers himself to be moderna€?and intelligent -- is the fact that nowhere do we find soa€?many absurdities, contradictions and a€?silly thingsa€? as in this area.
Ten allegedly qualified dowsers generally come to ten different conclusions in the same apartment or building.
I am sickened when I am told how people play tricks with the fears and hopes of seriously ill individuals. I hope to make a contribution in this area so that we may have an objective discussion of this subject.
For years, sensitive electronic measuring devices have verified the old knowledge about earth radiations.
You can actually measure the natural radioactive radiation from the earth, all over the globe.
We are born amid these natural manifold-radiating processes and there is no doubt that they are appropriate, important, healthy, and life protecting.
But there are also zones (areas) where radiation intensities are noticeably different from the norm. I might measure a level of radiation along a long-line, for example, and often the intensity will change suddenly, giving me an entirely different value. Sometimes these higher intensity zones area€?frequent and can be detected every other yarda€?or so. It is interesting to note that gifted dowsers will show swinging of rods or pendulums exactly where you would measure these significant anomalies too. I do not like to define, prematurely, every swing of a rod by a gifted dowser or every measured peculiarity as a a€?water veina€? or a a€?dislocation.a€? I have never dug into the ground to find the object which I assumed to be in existence while I was measuring on top of the ground.
It is the task of science to connect one thing with another, and to analyze these connections. My practical experience is sufficient for me to know that concentrations of terrestrial radiation can be measured, and the findings will show noticeable differences from natural points of reference in the natural environment.
What do we really measure, with our sensitive electronic instruments, if the objects are earth radiation, geological disturbances, water veins and dislocations? I refer to my own personal experiences, with different measuring approaches, and do not pretend exclusiveness. That means: when you are above geological disturbances you can measure the distortion of the terrestrial magnetic field, similarly to that of magnetic steel.
Here the compass is not the appropriate device because the declinations are so small that they cannot generate any substantial swing.
This measurement approach is not appropriate for house and bedroom examinations, however, because the artificial distortions coming from steel used in construction, materials, metal fixtures, and even the bed itself, can cause a blur in the measurement or make a reading entirely impossible.
I think the argument is exaggerated; that these anomalies of terrestrial magnetic fields above geological disturbances are sufficient to cause biological problems. Conclusion: Though you can measure geological peculiarities, the application a€“ in rooms a€“ is rarely reliable.
A second peculiarity, as far as earth radiation is concerned, is that air ions often change.
Ion measurements are extremely difficult and ambiguous since many factors in your house mix up the air ions even more than the terrestrial radiation is capable of. This measurement is just impossible under the influence of an electrically radiating wall, or an electrostatically loaded curtain.
I have discovered that a plastic bag, within a five-yard distance of the measurement, can change the environment of the air ions more radically than what could be possible from the geological subsoil. Measurements of the VHF field strength often show a drop in the measurement curve when taken above disturbances.
Within buildings, however, evaluations are almost impossible as the measurements within walls are highly unreliable. One has to be very critical and attentive so as not to be taken in by too rash and incorrect conclusions. Many manuals say that locating geological disturbances by using the VHF field strength is childa€™s play.
The geo-rhythmogram measures the skin resistance of a person from hand to hand with simple electrodes and a fitting ohm-meter. When the skin resistance of a test person is normal, at 40 kilo ohm (Aschoff), the values can go up to 100, 200, or even higher when you are above zones of disturbance.
Even when all pre-conditions are fulfilled some problems remain: All stimuli towards the test person will be included into the measurement.
Only with enough experience can you relate anomalies of the skin resistance to geological stimuli, and totally exclude that they are not produced from radio alarms or a spring mattress. If you can do that, then the physical measurement can be reproduced and give a reliable result. Particularly interesting is the fifth possible approach to measuring terrestrial radiation. That means: As I measure the natural radioactive radiation with a sensitive radiometer, I will get values of 100 percent or more if the measure is above a so-called disturbance zone.
Though the natural basic radioactivity of the earth has some local differences due to climate and the earth level, the base level is generally consistent. From my experience, regular and reproducible increases in radioactivity above geological stimuli areas, in the range of up to 100 percent, are profound and are significant. If you can sleep for the next 20 years with only half the amount of radioactive disintegrations -- after a change of the bedroom position a€“ then, as a matter of caution, I see no reason to stay in the area that is doubly charged. I think it is greatly exaggerated to speak rashly of a€?cancer zonesa€? if you are referring to terrestrial radiation and other corresponding peculiarities. According to my own personal experience, and the findings of innumerable research and test reports, the healing successes after moving the bed cannot be discounted merely as psychological reaction placebo or coincidence.
During a meeting in Seattle, USA, I detected this phenomenon in a 22 floor hotel, on six different levels: in the underground garage, at the first floor near the reception, and on the roof -- always the same high values, down below and at the top, on the same premises. As you know, I have found houses in which the radioactive radiation was higher than that which could be found in playgrounds and public swimming pools near the Chernobyl accident.
The reason for this is radioactive construction materials: cinders, ashes, chemical gypsum, tiles, pumice and metallurgical stones -- all sorts of possible and impossible industry waste. Additionally, certain antiques, minerals and glazes a€“ in direct range of your body a€“ can radiate so strongly that biological risks can become immense.
While visiting three patients with brain tumors, I found just beside the head of one person a very old alarm clock that was radiating radioactivity; with another, a dark green glazed image of St. For measuring terrestrial radiation, I use my most expensive instruments: highly sensitive scintillation counters. My experiences with measurements of radioactivity soon led to the decision to build a measuring device especially well-suited for building, biological, and geo-biological work, and one that was constructed to my own specifications.
The very high sensitivity of the third prototype convinced me: more than 250 impulses per second in a normal radiation background, and more than 500 impulses per second on geologically disturbed surfaces. Besides its extreme measuring preciseness, the scintillation counter has the particular advantage of being extremely sensitive to gamma rays. With his super-sensitive measuring device (of more than 1,000 impulses per second!), he has shown that you can find water from the ground surface - guaranteed.
More than 35 years of experience makes it possible for Stangle to define, with his measurements, the exact depth, the amount a€“ to the very gallon -- the mineralization, and the temperature of the localized water. The Daimler-Benz company made five expensive unsuccessful drillings before they called Jakob Stangle with his scintillation counter. In 1972 Jakob Stangle walked through Vilsbiburg with his scintillation counter and totally confirmed the work of his sensitive predecessor by exact measurements, in two absolute blind tests. An architect intended to buy and renovate a large villa at the Baldeney Lake in Essen, Germany.
Another time, a doctor recommended to the manager of a concert agency to have her home examined by me. She also looked into the geological maps and found the disturbance was mapped by the Krefeld agency. After these results, I bought several geological maps from North Rhine Westfalia, Germany, and checked ten plotted geological disturbances with my measuring devices. The baby monitor next to their slumbering form is emitting radiation similar to the kind that is given off by a cordless phone and bombarding their not-yet-fully-formed skull with electromagnetic frequency radiation.A  These emissions are a known cause of childhood brain cancer. This kind of pulsing radiation is also used by cordless telephones and has been shown to be more harmful than the kind given off by cell phones.
We have had a number of reports from parents that their babies did not sleep well and cried a lot when they used DECT monitors.a€? The organization pointed out that a wired monitor does not cause the same kind of problems. Naturally your body voltage should be in harmony and in equilibrium with the eartha€™s natural Schumann based electrical field, which is under 350 mV and normally stable at about 2 mV. The term was adopted many years ago by some German dowsers, a€?geobiologistsa€™ who specialised in surveying houses for both geopathic and electromagnetic stress using both dowsing and scientific instruments.
To test his theory he persuaded the Mayor of the Bavarian town of Vilsbiburg to allow him to survey the town for such energies with his dowsing rod. As it does so it produces its own electromagnetic field often high into microwave frequency.
It has been known for a long time that when there is flowing water under a dwelling the inhabitants always feel more tired, are prone to premature aging and have a loss of vitality than those who sleep above neutral ground.
As an extremely dialectic medium, water favours the formation of potential vortices, which immediately after their formation contract swiftly. Background levels of EMFs vary hugely depending on which part of the spectrum being looked for - natural light is an obvious example. Electrical wiring creates electric and magnetic powerfrequency fields throughout houses and other wired buildings, but these levels are usually very low unless there is a wiring fault. Most areas of science can only deal in probabilities, and that becomes clearer as more scientific studies investigating health effects are produced.
There is more disagreement about ill health effects from radiofrequency radiation, which is newer for most of the population, though a well-established 'microwave sickness' has been described.
As a result fortunes are spent on protective sun cream and information services as to prudent avoidance of such exposures. Molecules in the food are vibrated by high levels of microwave frequency Electromagnetic energy, causing it to heat up and subsequently cook. This, coupled with misleading statements designed to imply that there is currently no published evidence showing a link from organisations such as WHO, are the primary reasons why this topic remains in such hotly-disputed contention. ICNIRP have set guidelines for residential and occupational exposure to powerfrequency magnetic fields, based primarily on electric shock responses and induced currents, currently set at 100 microtesla (AµT) - equivalent to 1 Gauss. The evidence on these is mixed, but the link with Childhood Leukaemia is now considered to be pretty solid, with a doubling in risk at magnetic fields above 0.4 AµT (again far below the guidelines set by ICNIRP).
The bottom line is that nature neverA  intended us to sleep on such a disturbed site as shown in figure G2 which has been artificially produced by the bed being placed near to a radiator ( causing the high spike to the right of the graph)A  and the springs causing the rest of the disturbed site.
As you can see the magnetic contours of this bed size area (6a€™x4a€™) are very gentle and slightly undulating showing an overall geomagnetic anomaly of 582 nT (nano Tesla). The sprung mattresses I have measured so far over the past two years have had magnetic anomalies between 4,000 and 61,000 nT. However there are instances in nature where abnormal magnetic anomalies exist usually due to a sudden change in mineralogy or geological structure over a short distance.
It appears that the exposure of a dividing cell to an inhomogeneous DC magnetic field causes a physical force to be exerted on the chromosomes or on one of the other microscopic structures associated with mitosis, resulting in structural abnormalities in the chromosomes. Since that time, international research has increased year by year, and the potential health risks have been identified as cancer (especially childhood leukaemia, probably the most studied illness because of the original findings), depression, suicide, miscarriage, some forms of dementia, respiratory and immune system problems. Research by scientists such as Ross Adey in the USA and Dr Cyril Smith here in Britain is moving the frontier of our understanding. Hubank of Vienna: a€?Speaking at a conference in England paid tribute to a group of Austrian researches composed of medical doctors, physicists and biochemists. There is clear indication that a combination of technical fields and Geopathic stress zones can multiply the effect and therefore become extremely harmful to all living beings. All passengers casually look up at a large electronic tote board that lists gate assignments.
I could see the white cliffs of Dover as we crossed over the English channel and flew across to France.
It seems that they had left an entire baggage cart, from our flight, at Heathrow during one of the a€?beat the clock a€? scenarios. Sounds of French, Italian, Spanish and several other languages swam around our ears as we sat musing about where we were. At the top of the steps, we crossed a small terrace and looked down into the elegant rubble that is the remains of the Roman Forum.
Its several tiers, all filled with open arches, even now reminds me of the many sports arenas we had visited.
Then, we set out over the very pricey Via Condotti, browsing the windows of Bvlgari, Gucci, Ferragamo and a score of other trendy shops.
We were tempted to enter the a€?Tre Scalinia€? and order a€?Tartuffo,a€? that wonderful roman delight that is a€?fried ice cream,a€? but passed on the opportunity in the interests of fitting into our clothes.
We wandered the back alleys, consulting our trusty map and once asking a merchant for directions.The trouble with asking questions in passable Italian is that the hearer assumes you speak the language fluently and rattles off a response in rapid fashion.
We showered and prepped for the day.NCL was putting on a buffet breakfast in the hotel for the early cruise ship passengers.
Three hundred and fifty cruise passengers had booked a few days in Rome and were expected this morning. We sought out and found the a€?Aa€? line that would take us up to the Vatican and the Chiesa San Pietro (St. We could see the walls of Vatican city up ahead of us and the huge dome of Saint Petera€™s against the skyline.
Petera€™s held a long line of pilgrims, school children on holiday and other penitents from the four corners of the globe.
We were debating where we would head next, when we noticed that the line had lessened for St. Petera€? stand in their wooded splendor, for all the world like an outsized throne for some race of giants. We sat through the mass understanding much and received communion, saying a prayer for Brothera€™s Paddya€™s repose. I said a brief prayer for all of those whom we had lost and moved on to the marbled hallway.
It is a circular and high walled fortress that has served in different eras as a castle for the Caesara€™s, a prison, a church and now a stone monument to antiquity. A small pile of stone cannonballs lay next to what must have been the remains of a medieval catapult, used to bomb the attackers with.
A few tug boats and a single scull, powered by a lone oarsman, were all that broke the surface of this venerable and storied river. We slowly climbed the winding steps, to its heights, noting the occasional bum sleeping in the park bushes. We walked along the parkway, dodging the odd service truck, and admired the imposing bulk of the Villa Borghese, sitting on a hill above us. A group of Spanish school kids were singing happy birthday to one of their group amidst much laughter. I signed up for an hour with the hotels internet station ( 20 euros) and sent a number of messages to friends and relatives across the ether of cyberspace. Then, we settled in with paninis, chips,acqua minerale con gassata and a good bottle of Chianti, while we read our books and got ready to join The Norwegian Dream for an itinerary we had long anticipated. On deck #12, aft, we found the a€?Sports Bara€? a small buffet-style restaurant that served all three meals daily. Like all liners, the boat is equipped with motorized, ocean-going tenders that are wholly enclosed and hold up to 128 passengers when full. It was followed with a nice spinach salad, a grilled tuna steak and a delightful cannolli and decaf cappuccino.
Its most famous Saint, Catherine of Siena, had been a dominican nun who was a a€?close associatea€? of the reigning pope in Avignon.
Then, we walked into the small piazza that holds the most prized treasure in Siena, the Duomo Santa Maria da€™ Assumption. We fell in with and enjoyed the company of two colorful residents of Celebration, Florida, Pat and John McGoldrick, former Beantown (Boston) residents and fellow Irish Americans.
Ensconced within are all of the original statuary and murals from the exterior of the church.As the marble became worn, throughout the centuries, artisans had replicated the original statuary and remounted them on the facade. We elected to choose again the Trattoria for dinner, where we were seated with Ray and Sarah from Atlanta.
Geographically, the rocky headland of Porto Fino separates the gulfs of Tivuglio and Paradisio. We enjoyed the colorful front street of nice hotels, shops and restaurants, as we exited the bus in the rain. The harbor area rings a small marina, with wonderful sailing yachts scattered amidst the smaller craft. Christiana took us through the commercial center of Genoa , stopping at the central a€?Piazza venti septembre, 1870a€? which commemorates the date of the Italian unification.
A light rain and a 42 degree chill greeted us, as we stood topside to watch the Dream get underway. The Mediterranean Sea sparkled a dazzling blue against the bright sun and lighter blue of the sheltering sky.
Francois Grimaldi, the founder of the line, came to the area in 1297, with a small army of soldiers, all disguised as monks.
We followed a nicely trimmed walkway to the a€?Rochea€? (rock) area, so named because it had literally been carved from the cliffside rock. The crenelated battlement of the original castle had been added to over the generations to produce an odd hybrid. Along the roadside, at several intersections, sit scale, bronzed models of Le Mans race cars, denoting the world famous auto race that roars through the streets of Monaco every May.
We skipped breakfast and had coffee topside, admiring the Marseilles harbor and the surrounding mountains, in the bright, Easter-morning sun. It is now the second largest city and largest commercial port in France, with one million people living in the metropolitan area. We set off from the port area, stopping first at the a€?Old Cathedrala€? in the a€?vieux port a€? area of the harbor.
A score or so of fishermen were minding stalls that sold fresh fish, everything from whole squid and lobsters, to eels. The kind and elderly woman, perhaps a nun in mufti, helped clean the wound, put antiseptic ointment on it and dressed it in gauze.
The city had erected three separate, exterior walls, for defensive purposes, as the city evolved over the centuries. Unfortunately , Antonio Gaudi was killed, in a traffic accident, at a young age and construction was interrupted. Built for a 1929 world exposition, this elegant structure and plaza is now an art museum. The theme for the evening was a€?American Presidents and their favorite foods.a€? We chose a Gerald Ford, Norwegian, salmon appetizer.
With this basis the Muslims combined the accumulated knowledge gained through exploration and travel. As his visitor entered the hall, the king rose, took his hand and led him across the carpeted marble to a place of honor beside the throne.
Born in Ceuta, Morocco, across the strait from Spain, al-Idrisi was then in his late 30a€™s. Roger II, son of a Norman-French soldier of fortune who had conquered Sicily at the beginning of the 12th century, was an anomaly among Christian monarchs of his time. Captured by the Arabs in 831, the island had remained in Muslim control until the end of the 11th century.
Four years later, he passed the territory on to his son, Roger, who in 1130 was crowned king as Roger II. His energy was a legenda€”one commentator remarked that Roger accomplished more asleep than other sovereigns did awakea€”and his court boasted a collection of philosophers, mathematicians, doctors, geographers and poets who had no superior in Europea€”and in whose company he spent much of his time.
Christian Europea€™s approach to map-making was still symbolic and fanciful, based on tradition and myth rather than scientific investigation, and used to illustrate books of pilgrimage, Biblical exegesis and other works.
He wanted to know the precise conditions of every area under his rule, and of the world outsidea€”its boundaries, climate, roads, the rivers that watered its lands, and the seas that bathed its coasts. Sicilya€™s busy and cosmopolitan ports provided an ideal place for such an inquiry, and for years hardly a ship docked at Palermo, Messina, Catania or Syracuse without its crew and passengers being interrogated about the places they had visited.
This process of collecting and assessing material took 15 years, during which, according to al-Idrisi, hardly a day passed when the king did not confer personally with the geographers, studying accounts that disagreed, examining astronomical coordinates, tables and itineraries, poring over books and weighing divergent opinions. First, under al-Idrisia€™s direction, a working copy was produced on a drawing board, with places sited on the map with compasses, following the tables that had already been prepared.
Although Ptolemy had discussed several kinds of projection (Book I, #119), the problem of flattening out the surface of a sphere so that it could be represented on a flat map would not be solved until the 16th and 17th centuriesa€”the Age of Explorationa€”and none too satisfactorily even then. Zach states in 1806 that a€?the oldest terrestrial globe that is known was made for King Roger II of Sicily in the 12th century, and is especially remarkable for the value of the metal which was used in its construction, this being 400 pounds of silver. Below the Equator, an unexplored southern temperate zone was thought to be separated from the familiar northern one by an impassable area of deadly heat. Two are in the BibliothA?que Nationale de France, including the oldest, dated to about 1300 (MS Arabe 2221). From this reconstruction it is evident that, like Ptolemy, al-Idrisi pictured the habitable world as occupying 180 of the 360 degrees of the worlda€™s longitude, from the Atlantic in the West to China in the East, and 64 degrees of its latitude, from the Arctic Ocean to the Equator. Contrasted with the quaint and picturesque, but almost totally uninformative maps of the Christian scholars, the features of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East are easily recognizable in al-Idrisia€™s representationa€”Britain, Ireland, Spain, Italy, the Red Sea and the Nile. He had no doubt met travelers and merchants from Scandinavia at the court of King Roger and received important information from them, but we know that the Arabs too had connections with the Baltic peoples and also those in Russia at that time. In Russia, winter daylight periods were so short that there was hardly time for Muslim travelers to perform all five obligatory daily prayers. Paris (Abariz) earned a condescending reference as a town of mediocre size, surrounded by vineyards and forests, situated on an island in the Seine, which surrounds it on all sides; however, it is extremely agreeable, strong, and susceptible of defense. The Strait of Gibraltar, according to Rogera€™s Book, did not exist when Alexander the Greata€”as medieval legend had ita€”invaded Spain. Discovered by Hanno in the fifth century BC, they were explored and colonized in 25 BC by Juba II, erudite king of Mauretania and husband of Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Antony and Cleopatra. Some sources speak of these islands as if they were legendary, telling us for example that on each of the six islands - there are in fact seven - there was a bronze statue, like the one in CA?diz, warning voyagers to turn back. The mugharrirun were so famous for their exploit that a street in Lisbon was named after them.


A street in Lisbon, near the hot springs, is still known as a€?The Street of the Intrepid Explorersa€?; it is named after them. It is hard to escape the impression that we owe the preservation of this account largely to the folk etymology in the last line.
The Azores are named after a kind of goshawk - in Portuguese, aA§or - prevalent there at the time of discovery. The inhabitants threw stones at the travelers and hurt several of Alexandera€™s companions.
A small fresh-water river runs down from the foot of the mountain, where the inhabitants live. Al-Mustashkin is probably a corruption of al-mushtakin, meaning a€?the complainersa€? - appropriate enough for a population in thrall to a dragon.
The Two Brothers could be the two small islands off Lanzarote in the Canaries, Alegranza and Graciosa, or indeed, any two prominent rocks off their coasts. This unnamed island, together with Masfahan, Laghus, The Two Brothers and possibly Sawa, are almost certainly islands in the Canary group.
After describing the Canary Islands, Idrisi refers to an island in the Western Sea named Raqa, which is the Isle of the Birds, Djaziratoa€™t-Toyour. Distinct from the Canary Islands were the Isle of Female Devils, the Isle of Illusion, the Island of Two Sorcerers, and the Isle of Lamentation [Gazirat al-Mustashkin], which was inhabited and fertile, with tilled fields, but controlled by a terrible dragon.
An exchange of ideas and reciprocal influences between the two cultures certainly took place.
This work is said to have been even more extensive than his earlier one, but only a few extracts have survived. At the same time, the silver planisphere and celestial sphere disappeared, apparently cut up and melted down. Although the Arabic text of Rogera€™s Book was published in Rome by the Medici press in 1592, it was not again available to Europeans in Latin until the 17th century.
Certainly the influence of Idrisia€™s Geography could not have been great in the world of letters or else traces of it would more easily be detected in Western literature. An explicit reference to Dul-Karnaia€™in (an Arabic name for Alexander, among others) by the gate, leaves no doubt as to Idrisia€™s source. Displays a Ptolemaic construction with an arrangement of horizontal divisions into seven parallel climate zones, originally oriented with South at the top. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium.
Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light.
Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop.
Half of the Limburg province of Belgium is added to the Netherlands, giving rise to a Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg (the latter being from September 5 joined to the German Confederation).June 3 a€“ Destruction of opium at Humen begins, casus belli for Britain to open the 3-year First Opium War against Qing dynasty China.
Bayard had just perfected the process of printing on to paper, which would come to define photography in the following century, but the French government had decided to invest instead in the daguerrotype, a process invented by his rival, Louis Daguerre. If you continue to stay in these areas especially during sleep, then in the long term the stresses on our bodies will emerge as more serious conditions such as, diseases of the central nervous system, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), miscarriages, and cancer. Not only are the public more generally aware, but their governments funds aid and continuing research in to the matter. Geopathic Stress is only one of them and it is becoming more difficult to gauge especially when the natural energy field is constantly changed and amplified by man-made electromagnetic fields.
The phenomenon has been linked to insomnia, migraine, headaches, loss of balance, short -term memory loss, joint pain, cot death, infertility, miscarriages, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME) and cancer. I have the original 134 page research document in German and a badly translated version in English. These pathogenic locations defined in the report as, a€?earth radiation's evoked by a discontinuity of the normal physical parameters on the surface of the earth,a€™ and shortened to a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ are the subject of the research. Such locations have been termed in China and many European countries as either a€?curseda€™ or a€?cancera€™ houses. The functioning hypothesis of the research was that geophysical characteristics of the surface of the earth are not uniform and that location dependent influences exist that can have a detrimental effect on both human and plant biochemical systems.
They were enlisted to independently dowse eight different locations and submit reports and diagrams of the strongest a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ found, together with a a€?Neutral Zonea€™ at the same location to enable them to carryout double blind experiments with volunteers at each selected location. Technology does not yet exist to do this the other way round; the dowser does not yet appear to be replaceable with scientific instrumentation. However because of the high standard of the research only significant results were accepted. The stereotypical result on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ was deterioration of the electro-biological functioning in the sense of depression or blockage of bioelectric functions.
In the 15 minute time exposure on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ the results remained under the significance barrier. An apparatus able to discriminate such low energy broadband EMFs from noise apparently is not yet available. Both, technical and biological systems can be influenced by EMFs, whereby numerous questions are still open, such as the concerning limits and the nature of physical interference fields (5). As an extremely dielectric medium, water favors the formation of potential vortices, which immediately after their formation contract swiftly. In nature, piezoelectrical dischargings can occur in some areas of geological a€?warpsa€? containing quartz sand particles, and may be another plausible cause of geopathic stress effects (14).
When a crystal lattice cell is compressed by mechanical pressure, an imbalance is the result, manifesting itself in the development of a tiny electrical voltage (Fig. In spite of the fact that scalar waves in the field theory of Maxwell are usually neglected and set to zero, numerous experiments can lead to the conclusion that they do really exist and influence the human organism (5). The presence of pure physical interactions and in addition also of a€?physiologic sensorsa€? located inside the body can be assumed. Physical resonance is defined as a synchronization of two sources which vibrate with the same pulse frequency but with contrary polarity. Internal protein dynamics can potentially affect protein function through a variety of mechanisms, some of which are tautological or obvious in nature while others are subtle and remain to be fully explored and appreciated (18). Black dots on magnetic resonance imaging pictures (MRI) of human brain tissue led researches to the idea that these could be magnetic particles. Evidence that these microscopically small magnetite particles would function for some kind of sensory perception in humans could not yet been confirmed.
Previously described effects and descriptions of the pioneers (1, 3 and others) in this area unfortunately arena€™t available in the standardized, scientifically acceptable nor reproducible format required for peer-reviewed medical journals, but rather as monographs. Because of the lack of a€?directa€? physical measurement techniques for the doubtlessly existing a€zenergy fieldsa€? at least partly originating in the ground, we decided to use the human body as an indicator. Being fascinated by its highly sensitive ability to detect stress effects, and also by the fact that this method is being used world-widely for manifold applications combining a€?pure physicsa€? with complimentary evaluation of apparently high accuracy, we could reproducibly show using this method that different zones above ground do exhibit different effects on the human organism.
In addition to the promising data presented in numerous publications before, including our own, we are presently in the middle of an evaluation targeting a validation of GDV mean area-of-glow as a reliable measure of certain aspects of stress. All test persons had been informed about the GDV system and related safety issues, and about the fact that they may feel a slight a€?crawlinga€? in their finger tips.
In practice, to capture one a€?static GDV imagea€?, a very stable high voltage (10 kV, 1.024 Hz, square pulses) is pulsed on and off every 10 ms for a duration of 0,5 s. For each test person and test phase, 50 single static measurements were performed (each finger tip was measured 5 times for 0,5 s). Before use, the GDV camera (kept inside the laboratory at constant room temperature) was switched on at least 30 minutes prior to measurement, and careful calibrations were performed.
In addition to the calculation of descriptive data (mean, median, standard deviation etc.), we carried out Gaussian normality tests and subsequently used the paired two-sample t-test for dependent variables to determine whether there are significant differences between the 4 experimental sub-period results. The two measurement areas in the laboratory used for the experiments turned out to be indistinguishable from the aspect of technical fields and acoustic background noise, and the field strength and loudness levels present were far below existing (safety) guidelines.
Statistical significance again was enormously high (p < 0,0001) when compared to the results on those zones without the a€?Wavea€? device (24). In later stages, it my not be impossible though that chronic stress caused by geopathic locations may finally even forward the development of malignant disease. However, according to the Munich barn-experiments (66-68) and other independent investigations, only a low percentage of the people claiming to be successful dowsers are actually capable of making reproducible and reliable conclusions. This includes methods of stress-management and relaxation techniques, such as meditation, tai chi, guided imaginative journeying, and also certain hypnotherapeutic approaches (69-73).
Para-scientific reports about sleeplessness or higher rates of occurrence of different diseases have been with us for many years. In hospitals, observant physicians and nurses sometimes know from experience that there appear to be locations of sickbeds where, remarkably, many patients have a delayed recovery, or in especially blatant cases they may not recover at all.
Wellness enhancing methods and applications aim to increase physical, psychological and spiritual well-being. Individual performance on a€?interference reduceda€? zones increases, and all sides - superintendents, managers and employees - would possibly benefit. This can produce enormous costs for our social and health systems, and the hidden costs we can only suspect today. As preliminarily presented in this book, we have already obtained data underlining the validity of GSV as a reliable instrument for measuring stress, provided that all pre-cautions are taken into account and that well-trained and experienced persons use it. Adolf WIEBECKE (Oberalm bei Salzburg), whom we want to congratulate for his most promising invention of the a€?Wavea€? device, for the possibility of doing experimental research using his device. Seidel P, Schmidl F, Becker C, Springborn U, Biering S, Grosse V, FA¶rster T, Lorenz P, Bechstein R: Planar high-temperature superconducting dc-SQUID gradiometers for different applications.
Hong R, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Weng EQ: Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on DNA of testicular cells and sperm chromatin structure in mice.
Chen P, Yang YQ, Tao HH, Yang HC: Effects of electromagnetic fields of different frequencies on proliferation and DNA damage of gallbladder cancer cells. Nylund R, Leszczynski D: Mobile phone radiation causes changes in gene and protein expression in human endothelial cell lines and the response seems to be genome- and proteome-dependent. Grassi C, Da€™Ascenzo M, Torsello A, Martinotti G, Wolf F, Cittadini A, Azzena GB: Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and their role in modulation of neuroendocrine cell proliferation and death. Hecker R: Emission elektrischer und magnetischer Signale von Gestein infolge A¤uAYerer mechanischer Belastungen. Baureus Koch CL, Sommarin M, Persson BR, Salford LG, Eberhardt JL: Interaction between weak low frequency magnetic fields and cell membranes. Mathie A, Kennard LE, Veale EL: Neuronal ion channels and their sensitivity to extremely low frequency weak electric field effects. Dobson P, Oa€™Keefe E: Investigations into stress and its management using the gas discharge visualization technique. Russo M, Choudhri AF, Whitworth G, Weinberg AD, Bickel W, Oz MC: Quantitative analysis of reproducible changes in high-voltage electrophotography. Bascom R, Buyantseva L, Zhegmin Q, Dolina M, Korotkov K: Gas discharge visualization (GDV)- bioelectrography. Korotkov KG, Popechitelev EP: Method for gas discharge visualization and automation of the system of realizing it in clinical practice.
Treugut H, Gorner C, Ludtke R, Schmid P, Fuss R: Reliabilitat der Energetischen Terminalpunktdiagnose (ETD) nach Mandel bei Kranken. Medvedev SN, Mala€™tseva AS, Popkova AM, Serov VV, Igonina NP, Tkacheva OI, Kozin AN: Possibilities of the use of Korean acupuncture Su Jok in the clinical practice. Kato M, Honma K, Shigemitsu T, Shiga Y: Circularly polarized 50-Hz magnetic field exposure reduces pineal gland and blood melatonin concentrations of Long-Evans rats. Burch JB, Reif JS, Yost MG: Geomagnetic disturbances are associated with reduced nocturnal excretion of a melatonin metabolite in humans.
Jajte J, Zmyslony M: The role of melatonin in the molecular mechanism of weak, static and extremely low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields (ELF). Torpy DJ, Chrousos GP: The three-way interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and gonadal axes and the immune system.
This often results in the purchase of expensive screening and de-jamming devices, for which only the unreliable producer and distributor gets any profit.
We all know that the earth a€“ in fact, all of life a€“ a€?radiatesa€? as a natural process.a€?There exists a strong terrestrial magnetic field, which guarantees that the top of a compass is always drawn to the north, no matter where you are in the world. It has been known for a long time that underground watercourses and geological dislocation produce spectacular radiation intensities. Sensitive magnetometers can, however, easily make these distortions visible and can be defined as biologically effective by experts. This method is only justified when you know that artificial fields, from say a€“ magnetic steel, are not in the area.
That is hardly possible because the magnetic field of some spring mattresses equals more than a hundred water veins. The importance of these findings to the area above the disturbance is very much in dispute. The results of these unqualified statements are that credulous laymen go over their bedrooms with a 30 dollar portable radio and assume there are water veins (and other phenomena of terrestrial radiation) whenever NBC or ABC gets bad reception, or a song by Elvis is jammed by noise. The much more exact electro- geobioscopy measures the skin resistance between one hand and acupuncture points on the other hand. You should consider however, that every response of a human being to the stimuli of his environment is a specific one, ita€™s individual, and cannot be easily transferred to others. This radioactive electromagnetic radiation is considered the most penetrating, strongest and biologically most hazardous kind of all of the known radioactive rays. But no onea€?can deny that an avoidable risk exists undera€?long-term influence, such as sleeping every nighta€?for eight hours in the same physical position, and doing that for many years. Regardless of the kind of radiation, no sensible scientist dares to contradict this opinion. For measuring construction material, I use proportional and Geiger-Muller-counter tubes, and xenon-large-area detectors. The rays are converted into light flashes, boosted as electrical impulses via a photo-multiplier and then calculated and displayed by sophisticated electronics. Wust had already reported about measurements of gamma rays at a€?geopathic zones.a€? The scientists, physicists and doctors Williams, Weber, Cody, Lorenz and Bickel (the last one from California) had made similar successful experiments. He, more than anybody else, has shown that there is a relationship between subterraneous water sources and ionizing radioactive radiation. All bells rang when the drilling machine cut the granite crack 500 yards below a€“ out of which the curative water came. There turns out to be significant relationships between these zones and cancer patients of the town, as they were sleeping exactly above these zones. My measurement of the radioactivity, with the scintillation counter, showed a 12-yard wide disturbance that could be detected in the whole house, outside the building, and in the nearby yard.
He found there was indeed a water-bearing dislocation, which was officially plotted on two geological maps made in 1911 and in 1980. In all cases, my scintillation counter showed, for hundreds of yards, values that were well above average.
Digital baby monitors use high frequency pulsed signals, just like mobile phones and wi-fi, and though the power levels are low they are kept close to the child all night so may represent a significant risk.
The Mayor agreed and in January that year Baron Von Pohl accompanied by the Mayor and other officials measured numerous energy lines that ran through the streets and houses of the town.
This field will fluctuate depending on what is dissolved in it, how fast it is flowing or whether it is interacting with any other type of earth energy. While water running beneath a domestic dwelling should be avoided, a stream situated nearby and open to the sky will favourably discharge its negative energies harmlessly into the atmosphere. Taking its electric charge distribution in to account, turning a water molecule will result in a changed field composition. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents). The earth's magnetic fields are static fields, unlike man-made alternating current (AC), which has no natural counterpart. Unfortunately the studies are not always well done, and the flaws in any given study (showing an effect or otherwise) are often not reported.
Precautionary levels which will protect us from illness have not been agreed on, as some countries wish the levels to be lower than others. If you stood in front of an operational microwave with no door your insides would slowly be cooked. The reason for these abnormally high magnetic abnormalities is a result of the bed springs intensifying the magnetic flux of these fields, made worse by the interaction of high magnetic fields around the bed and house from numerous electrical appliances, extension cables running under the bed and transformers placed near to the bed. One instance of this is in the USA, at a place called Gyngywamp, near Croton, Connecticut knownA  as 'The Cliff of Tears' where visitors to this site very frequently become depressed, gums start to bleed and nose bleeds occur. Messages pass between the brain, nerves and organs and even from cell to cell by electro- magnetic signalling. In the course of several years research using classical medical methods they investigated about 1000 people for the effects of these geopathic interference zones. There were about 400 people present including numerous renowned specialists; physicians, physicists and geologists, in the all-German audience.
Also, metal ions moved by water can induce small intensity broadband electromagnetic fields (EMF). We had finished packing the evening before, so we had time to stop at a nearby restaurant and had bagels and coffee, while reading the paper. Traffic was light, at the peace bridge and on the Queen Elizabeth Expressway, so we breezed into Torontoa€™s Pearson airport in 90 minutes, well in time for all of us to relax and check in for our afternoon flights.
The plane was a€?sro,a€? every seat was filled.A few of the piccolo mostro (little monsters) squawked a bit during the flight but it went quickly enough. The neatly outlined farms, of the French country side, flashed below us in a well ordered array. Once, this small area had been graced with rows of gleaming white marble structures, the business, commerce and affairs of much of the western world had been waged here daily. We dodged their insistent sales pitches and walked out onto the Via Imperiali, walking towards the Vittorio Emmanuel II monument. The fascination of Rome is that you stumble upon these grand and ancient monuments so casually when you turn a street corner.
We were headed in the distance towards the Fiume Tiber and the Piazza Navona, another famous gathering place and site of three majestic Bernini fountains. We smiled, strained to understand and thanked the man for a€?su aiutoa€? (his help) As a parenthetical, I dona€™t know that we have ever found a people as gracious, patient and willing to help as we have the Italians. It has classic greek columns in the front and a large dome that has at its center and open a€?occulia€? that lets light enter the dimly lit church. You got so your ear could hear them approach and you knew you had to run like hell to get out of their way. We relaxed in the room, wrote up our notes and then went for an invigorating swim in the hotela€™s pool.
Four blocks over, we spilled into one of the most famous squares in the modern world.The Piazza San Pietro was already crowded with pilgrims by mid morning.
We walked about the piazza enjoying the semi-circle of the grand columns with their statues of popes and saints standing atop them.
A line was gathered near a tombed figure with an open, glass side, so we stood patiently in line to see what drew the attention. The frescoes on the walls, the gilded and painted windows and the wealth of two thousand years held us in awe.
I figured a mass and a lighted candle at the Vatican might give him some juice in the far beyond.
For 5 euros each, we entered and walked around the inside periphery of this two thousand year old castle. Off the courtyard lies a circular verandah that overlooks all of Rome.We sat for a bit and enjoyed the view, then found a tiny cafe where we had a cappuccino with other pilgrims who visiting the fortress. We retraced our path, down the circular ramp, and exited onto the esplanade along the Tiber, replete with cadres of africans hawking all manner of souvenirs.
It is a functioning museum, with a collection of intersting sculptures and art works, but we were tiring with the day and wanted to push on.
A swirl of languages provided an auditory bath for our ears, as we walked amid the crowds, enjoying the life and laughter of so many around us. We had to ask how the Italian key board works, to find the ampersand symbol that is used in e-mail addresses.
The lobby was awash with businessmen, attending some conference or other, and hundreds of other cruise-ship passengers wandering about. The surrounding countryside was devoted mainly to agriculture, with many vineyards running along the coast.
The papal states took possession of the harbor in the 14th century and it had evolved into the chief commercial port of Rome during unification in 1870. We stood in our orange life vests, with whistle and water activated light, and listened patiently to the crew member assigned to us.
It is our custom, when cruising, to have a drink at the topside bar and watch the ship leave port. We were seated at a small table for two and ordered a bottle of Meridian Merlot from a Ukranian wine steward named a€?Igor.a€? We exchanged several comments in Russian and enjoyed the conversation with him.
Siena is south and east of Florence, a beautiful city of art and culture that we had already visited and enjoyed on a previous trip.
We stopped in the Piazza Tolomei, the home of the aforementioned banking syndicate, Monte Dei Pasche.
Finished in the late 1300a€™s, this Romanesque, white and green striped, marble epiphany, with roseate trim, is impressive.
A lively lunch, well seasoned with several flagons of the local Chianti, consisted of pasta and mushrooms in sauce, asparagus risotto, (no carne for four), cheese, green beans and salad,finished off with a ricotta cheese desert that was wonderful and accompanied throughout with aqua frizzante. Looking at these originals gives you an appreciation for the odd seven hundred years that the place had been around. A huge, victory-arch framed three floral gardens that are dedicated to Christobal Colon (Columbus) and his three ships on their voyage of discovery to the Americas in 1492. The lights, of the whole amphitheater of Genoa, were twinkling in the dark as we eased from the harbor and set off Westward along the Ligurian Coast. We drove down the grand boulevard, Avenue Crossette and viewed the huge hotels, the site of the international film festival and even a statuesque column to the emperor, Napoleon.
They attacked the surprised Genoese defenders and overwhelmed them, taking possession of the area and declaring it the Principality of Monaco. We walked along the Boulevard San Martin, passing two pricey homes that housed the royal daughters, and stopped to visit the Church of the Immaculate Conception.
Reluctantly, we left the a€?Rochea€? area, with its palace and fairy tales, and returned to the bus.
We parked at another huge garage and took the elevators and escalators up to a small plaza that houses the Monaco Opera house. Parked out front today, were an Aston Martin, two lamberghinia€™s, several Jaguars, the odd couple of lesser Mercedes and a row of other luxury cars, with an attendant to watch over them. Czar Nicholas of Russia, and Queen Victoria of England, and scores of lesser roalty, had been frequent visitors to the area. It is of green and white striped marble construction, like the church in Siena, but much less ornate. We watched as several fishermen worked around their small fishing dories, cleaning and mending nets. By now, I was recovering a bit and managed to remember enough French to thank her and say that she was a€?very kind for helping me.a€? I kept my hand elevated, in a position of a€?The french salute, but with the wrong finger,a€? as we walked around the grounds of the cathedral. Was this not the land from whence the phrase had originated a€?waiting for Godot?a€? We stopped by the a€?slop chutea€? for a salad and then sat topside for a bit, admiring the harbor on such a bright and sunny day.
Mary took over the job of transcribing my travel notes and agreed to take notes on the next few days tours, until I could manage to grip a pen well enough to write.
Portions of all three still existed and had been added to architecturally over the years in something the guide called a€?architectural lasagna.a€? It is a nIce turn of phrase. The a€?newer sectionsa€? of Barcelona are laid out in a geometrical grid, with broad boulevards and more green spaces. The streets in the area have ornamental wrought iron lamp posts and the buildings are adorned with ornate metal floral designs. Originally planned as a 60 residence housing project for the wealthy, only two homes were ever built. It is flanked by a lovely parkland that stretches along the edge of this hillside and looks out over the city and harbor. We squeezed into a table with two charming Southern Belles from Kentucky, Sandy and JoQuetta.
We were bouncing messages off satellites, all over the world, and in instant communication with friends five thousand miles away. A  Because there are other causes of these illnesses, it is not clear what role EMFa€™s play in their development. Almost at once the two men began to discuss the project for which the scholar had been asked to come from North Africa: the creation of the first accuratea€”and scientifica€”map of the entire known world.
After studying in Cordoba, in Muslim Spain, he had spent some years in travel, covering the length of the Mediterranean, from Lisbon to Damascus. His co-religionists, commenting on his oriental life-style, complete with harem and eunuchs, disparagingly referred to him as the a€?half-heathen kinga€? and a€?the baptized Sultan of Sicily.a€? Educated by Greek and Arab tutors, he was an intellectual with a taste for scientific inquiry, and relished the company of Muslim scholars, of whom al-Idrisi was one of the most celebrated. Like Muslim Spain, it was a beacon of prosperity to a Europe caught in the economic slow-down we call the Dark Ages. In mathematics, as in the political sphere, al-Idrisi wrote of his patron, the extent of his learning cannot be described. Picturesque and colorful, European maps showed a circular earth composed of three continents equal in sizea€”Asia, Africa and Europea€”separated by narrow bands of water.
While medieval Europe had become fragmented and parochial, both politically and commercially, the Muslim world was unified by a flourishing long-distance commerce as well as by religion and culture.
The commissiona€™s agents haunted the ports, and if they discovered a traveler who had visited any particularly exotic region, he was conducted to the palace at Palermo to be questioned by al-Idrisi or even by Roger.
Then a great disk almost 80 inches in diameter and weighing over 300 pounds was fabricated out of silver, chosen for its malleability and permanence. The great geographer Gerardus Mercator commented, If you wish to sail from one port to another, here is a chart . A knowledge of this globe would not have come down to our day had not Idrisi, a famous geographer of that time, given an especial description of the same, under the title Nothatol mostak [Pleasure of the Soul].a€? According to other scholars it is more probable that the reference here is to a circular disc or planisphere made by Idrisi, or an armillary sphere, but not to a terrestrial globe. Following the rough sketch prepared by al-Idrisi, the silversmiths transferred the outlines of countries, oceans, rivers, gulfs, peninsulas and islands to the planisphere. The planisphere showed the sources of the Nilea€”not explored by Europeans until the 19th century, but evidently known to 12th century Muslim travelersa€”and the cities of central Sudan. Al-Idrisi described the lost city of Ghana (near Timbuktu, on the Niger) as the most considerable, the most densely peopled, and the largest trading center of the Negro countries. Few cities are comparable in the solidity and height of buildings, the beauty of the surrounding country, and the fertility of the lands watered by the Tagus.
The Norwegians had to harvest their grain when it was still green and dry it at their hearths since the sun shines very rarely upon them.
Because the inhabitants of Africa and Europe waged continual warfare, Alexander decided to separate them by a canal, which he cut between Tangier and al-Andalus (southern Spain). A passionate art collector, Juba was also interested in science and technology, inventing a new method of making purple dye from the orchil plant - and the export of orchil from the Atlantic islands was of economic importance until early this century.
But al-Idrisi tells of an attempted expedition to the Canaries in the late 12th century, during the reign of the Almoravid amir Yusuf ibn Tashafin. This is probably Tenerife, and the round mountain would be the 3,600-meter-high (12,000-foot) volcano called Pico de Teide.
Eighty men, all ordinary people, got together and built a large ship and stocked it with enough food and water for several months. The sheep are a problem, for the Azores were uninhabited when settled in the 15th century, and even if we slightly stretch the meaning of the word ghanam, which can also mean a€?goats,a€? we are still left with the problem of the origin of the creatures. There are many rivers and pools, and thickets where donkeys and long-horned cattle take refuge.
There used to be a dragon in the area, and the people were forced to feed it with bulls, donkeys or even humans, according to the legend; when Alexander arrived, the people complained to him of the dragona€™s depredations.
Al-Sa€™ali is a word that refers to a kind of female demon or vampire; judging by al-Idrisia€™s description of the female inhabitants of the island, it is apt. This story of Alexander and the dragon echoes the Eleventh Labor of Hercules, the Golden Apples of the Hesperides, guarded by the dragon Ladon.
It could be argued that the first six islands, spread over three entire climate zones between the equator and the Strait of Gibraltar, represent the six known Canary Islands, forced into this north-south alignment by the physical constraints of the circular map with its narrow band of the Surrounding Ocean.
The first two islands are the Canary Islands, properly shown in the first climate zone and carried forward from Ptolemya€™s map as the Fortunate Islands or Islands of the Blest.
This story may be a borrowing from Greek mythology, where a dragon guarded the golden apples of the Hesperides. In the 1400a€™s, therefore, Christopher Columbus had to rely on other sources of information. Unlike a multitude of Arabic writings of far less intrinsic value, the Rogerian Description found no Gerard of Cremona (translator of Ptolemy into Latin) to put it into Latin, and the authoritative geographical knowledge of the Western world was destined to develop unenriched by the treasures which Roger and Idrisi together had amassed. Gog and Magog appeared on Arabian maps as Yajoj wa Majoj from the 10th century; they appear on Al-Idrisia€™s map of 1154 under the same names. The climate numbers are given along the vertical axis, and the ten longitudinal divisions are given across the top. The text was accompanied by 71 part maps, a world map and 70 sectional itinerary maps, representing the seven climates each divided longitudinally into 10 sections.
As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt.
It didna€™t take long for others to seize the new technology and create daguerreotypes of New York City street scenes. Daguerreotypes are sharply defined, highly reflective, one-of-a-kind photographs on silver-coated copper plates, usually packaged behind glass and kept in protective cases.
While we are asleep our body should be resting so it can repair body cells, fight infections and absorb nutrients from food. In some schools children are moved at frequent intervals to avoid possible harmful effects. If geopathic stress is suspected, it makes sense to move away from the source or to think about dealing with the threat.
Women are more likely to be at risk from geopathic stress because their hormonal systems are more susceptible.
The aim of the report is to establish whether these a€?Disturbed Sitesa€™ can produce statistically significant results to support the high degree of topicality the phenomenon is having in both main stream and alternative medical practices.
A number of these were rejected when illnesses (circulation interference and infections) were discovered. Three silver electrodes were used placed on the forehead, palms and soles; a microprocessor based unit automatically produced the results. All measured parameters gave reference to location dependence with the integral rake size for Systolic ventricle work showing significantly different behaviour. It was thought however, that if the experiment allowed further time exposure the investigation may have achieved a significant result.
The Biometric analysis showed that on the a€?Indifferent Zonea€™ the pulse-breath quotient remained in balance but was significantly affected on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™. One of the main functions of Serotonin is to act as a neurotransmitter in the parasympathetic system which controls energy provision.
Gernot PAUSER: University Clinic for Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and General Intensive Care, Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, University Clinics of the Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg Federal Clinics (SALK), Salzburg, Austria. A recent technological innovation can now aid us in this quest, allowing a sophisticated physical measurability of deviations of the earth's magnetic field: the SQUIDa€“technology.
In addition to the discussed weak, broadband transversal electromagnetic and magnetic fields assumed to be originated in the ground, other forms of a€?energiesa€? might exist, such as the often controversially discussed longitudinal scalar waves (5). There is growing experimental evidence that EMFs - at least those of technical origin a€“ can have significant effects on cells and the entire organism. If you turn a water molecule with its electric charge distribution, then from the moving charge a magnetic field results. The effect was already discovered in 1824 by David Brewster and then experimentally elaborated by Pierre and Jacques Curie in 1880. According to Professor Konstantin Meyl (Furtwangen University, Germany), to a measurement technician scalar waves experimentally manifest as (antenna-)noise, a mixture of frequencies and wavelengths.
However, an extensive discussion of the origin and effects of radioactivity from the ground would go far beyond the scope of this manuscript. In the case of resonance, information is being exchanged, energies are transmitted and, in fact, a component of balance between the sources is being formed (from personal communication, A.
Certain processes of proteins as parts of their 3-D conformation have the ability to oscillate or rotate.
From post mortem brains, magnetite crystals of a size of 50 nm could be isolated, and their magnetic field could be measured.
However, speculations are that the presence of magnetite crystals in brain might be understood as proof of a a€?submerged magnetic sensora€?, similar to that of carrier pigeons or whales, theoretically easing human orientation and direction a€“ thus a kind of a€?relict of evolutiona€?. Nevertheless, this doesna€™t lower their importance and relevance: Those pioneers in research on the geopathy phenomenon neither had the scientific-medical verifiability methods that are available today, nor was the time mature for such publications in the kind of medical journals we know today. In our first approaches, we utilized methods from complementary medicine (bio-resonance, kinesiology, heart-rate variability, etc.). Petersburg, Russia), as used in that work, delivers a number of sensitive and reproducible parameters (25-46).
Although not yet completed, our tests appear to show that this is indeed the case: Parallel measurements of the diurnal time courses of GDV mean area of glow and of biochemical parameters collected from saliva (50-53) indicate that the diurnal curve progressions of GDV image areas and the levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) go parallel, whilst another accepted parameter of stress, saliva alpha-amylase, progresses just the opposite to IgA and GDV. Fifty-two voluntary test persons were measured at two locations, one of which has been identified by a group of six distinguished dowsers as being a a€?geopathic zonea€? and the other a a€?neutral zonea€?. The electric field produces a visible gas discharge glow around the fingertip (Kirlian image), and such corona discharges have been recorded from each of the 10 fingertips of the test person repeatedly. In addition, we have recorded dynamic GDV images from both ring fingers, repeated 3 times during each test period. Each test person was asked to thoroughly wash their hands using a pH neutral laboratory soap (without re-fattening properties), followed by wiping the fingertips with alcohol.
From the results of our studies it can be concluded that geopathic zones do cause stress in nearly all of the persons tested. Such zones might cause distress (a€?malignant stressa€?) even when present for a short time, but there are also reports that (not scientifically proven) energetically stimulating zones (a€?positive energy zonesa€?) might exist, often also referred to as a€?power placesa€?. During the planning stage in construction of new buildings, the geopathy phenomenon should be taken into account, so as to consciously design and construct buildings and rooms in a manner that, in areas where people will stay for longer periods of time, geopathic exposure should be as low as possible.
Therefore it makes sense to consult with a competent building environment engineer who has experience, skill and expertise in these matters. Interestingly, these positive lifestyle choices may also show up indirectly and in the subconscious: even technically derived EMFs seem to have much less of a negative effect with people who prefer such an a€?awarea€? way of life. It is clear that the accumulation of different factors stress can have strong effects on humans, animals and even plants.
One of the tests, taken in a care center for children displaying behavioral problems, additionally showed, among other changes, that the incidence of bedwetting [nocturnal enuresis] definitely decreased when the a€?Wavea€? was present, and that the learning ability and the quality of sleep changed for the better (unpublished findings). A serious athlete who doesna€™t sleep well before a competition is far from being as able-bodied as someone who has had a€?a good night's resta€?.
When individuals feel better, they will perform better, and be healthier and happier at work too a€“ facts that would also have economic consequences. Parameters measured in saliva in parallel to GDV, such as IgA, alpha-amylase and cortisol, appear to change in level in direct relationship to the GDV mean area of glow. From an extended vortex and field theory to a technical, biological and historical use of longitudinal waves.
Their findings usually provide shockingly different interpretations of the biological effects of natural conditions.
Once I move past this zone, the striking radiation intensity can decrease, giving me a a€?normala€™ value again.
In all three cases, the radioactivity coming from these items were several times higher than the law allows for workers in nuclear power plants a€“ and for a short period of time only.
Some of the well- known mineral waters exist only because he found their origin deep in the earth. They found water, which had the prophesied 17 degree hardness, and which flowed abundantly. Many stores are discontinuing analogue baby monitors as the new high frequency DECT models are more versatile and can carry more information.
Baron Von Pohla€™s energy lines were then compared with the towna€™s record of houses where people had died from cancer during the last ten years, which showed a remarkable coincidence. Dr WA?rst conducted experiments in several German towns, in the rooms of cancer patients and found unusual amounts of gamma radiation in the houses he surveyed using a Geiger a€“counter. Interference with the earths natural energy field is particularly marked by the flow of these underground streams especially where two watercourses or other types of energy line cross. If thus in a pipe a hydronamic flow vortex is produced, an electric and magnetic vortex and eddy current, are the result. Microwave frequency exposure is a relatively new phenomenon: 100 years ago the background radiation was millions of times lower than it is now, and it is as recent as the mobile phone boom (~1990's) that the modern, digitally pulsed signals have become ubiquitous in the Western world. Because of this, microwave ovens are stringently designed against leaks, and opening the door operates a safety mechanism which disables the oven, thus removing the risk to the operator. Within our evolutionary history our bodies own magnetic field has integrated with this magnetic field which is responsible for controlling amongst other things, circadian rhythms, mood changes and certain hormone production such as melatonin and serotonin. Our forefathers sleeping on straw or feathered mattresses in houses devoid of any electrical fields or microwave energy would not have experienced such geomagnetic disturbances.
Much of the research in the past 35 years into EMF health effects has concentrated on magnetic fields because they are easier to measure and it was thought they were more likely to interact with our bodiesa€™ cells. When this is interfered with by outside EMFa€™s problems begin to emerge, as the systems that control and regulate our bodies are impaired. They found that the altered electrical and magnetic field above a geographical distressed zone changed the electrical impulses passing along the nerves of the body.
At that instant, the entire passenger compliment, for that flight, drops what they are doing and sprints for the assigned gate, some as far as a 15 minute walk away. Then, the Italian Alps crowded the skyline.They are hills of the craggy and black granite variety, much like our own Rocky Mountains. The line was long and passengers were annoyed,some engaging in delightful histrionics, replete with loud voices and wild gestures. My minds eye could picture the parade of legions and cornucopia of other traffic that had passed this way before us in the 2700 years of Romea€™s history. Now, it took an active imagination to look into the dustbin of history and see what once was mighty Rome.
The Coliseum looked majestic, as we looked over our shoulders, like some ancient mirage that would vanish the moment we stopped looking.
We were headed to the most famous meeting spot in all of Rome, The a€?Spanish Steps.a€? They are a series of broad stone stairways that lead from the Piazza Espanga to the five-star Hotel Hassler, once the site of the Villa Medici, with its distinctive twin towers. We sat in a small park on the Piazza Venezia and looked out over the monument with its huge Italian flags wafting in the afternoon breeze. It was busy with flight crews coming and going and scores of other travelers from everywhere.The airport location is ideal for weary passengers arriving from all points of the globe. We sat down with a couple from Toronto and had a pleasant conversation.He is a retired fire fighter and she works in food service. Long lines waited to get into the Vatican museum and its moist desired visual prize, the Sistina Chapella (Sistine Chapel).
The appeared for all the world like a semi circle of stone hawkers calling forth the faithful to come in and see what was cooking inside. We jumped into line and soon were admitted into the venerable wonder that is the church of St.
We scurried over to the entrance to the underground crypt, thankful for the empty bellies of the many pilgrims who now donned the noon feedbag.
A long marble hallway, opened every few yards into a grotto with a marble sarcoughogus that housed the remains of another Pope. The stone work had been mended throughout the years, but reflected differing styles of stones and means of repair from the many eras of its menders. The ornate facade of the Palace of Justice, just up ahead, looks like something from 19th century Paris, in its dirty-gray limestone majesty. Part of the ancient wall of Rome, with its standing city gate, frames the North side of the piazza.
At its peak, we looked out over the Piazza del Poppolo and enjoyed the view of much of Rome.
We found the subway entrance nearby and walked down into the bowels of Rome, to catch the a€?Aa€? train back to the terminal. At 9 A,M, we walked through the lobby and again dined at the buffet breakfast put on by NCL in the hotel. The cabin was compact, but included a small sitting area, sliding doors onto a balcony and a small bathroom and shower.It was to be our home for the next twelve days. If you ever needed this sucker, in an emergency, it might well pay to know how to hell to get on board the craft. The powerful tug a€?Eduardo Roacea€? helped nudge the dream in a 180 degree pivot, so she was bow first and able to steam more ably from the congested harbor area. He was to be one of several of the mostly Phillipino and eastern European wait staff with whom we were to interact. After dinner, we strolled the decks and now open shops (they close when in port) and enjoyed the comings and goings of the passengers in the lounges.
The Pisamonte range hemmed the flat coastal plain into a narrow strip of tillable land, where farmers grew large commercial crops of grapes, sunflower seeds, olives and wheat. She had been so venerated by the church, that when the Sienese wanted her body interred in the Chiesa San Domingo, Rome had only sent her head and a finger to be buried there, retaining the rest of her remains for veneration in Rome.
We enjoyed the McGoldricka€™s company and were half lit from the Chianti when we emerged into the central piazza some 90 minutes later. I am not much taken by religious art, but had to admire the pure artistry in stone so casually laid before us. We were high in the hills and caught pictorial visages of the valleys surrounding Siena, San Gimiano and the nearby towns. Topside, we looked out and viewed the amphitheater of Genoa, that surrounds the busy commercial port. A land road now reaches Porto Fino, but in the early part of the century, it had only been accessible by boat, increasing its attraction for those looking to a€?get awaya€? from it all.
We saw a sign with an arrow for a€?Castello Browna€? and walked the steep and terraced steps leading above the village.
It is impressive enough, but the real treasure, for Americans, is to walk by a simple grave stone, amidst ancient Monagasque royalty, embedded in the floor near the main altar.
We were having lunch in a€?La Chaumiere,a€? a picturesque, mountainside restaurant with a killer view of all of Monaco and the mediteranean beyond. Cap Da€™antibe, and the sparkling blue Mediterranean, are things you could look at all day.
Along the waterfront, pricey hotels dominate the grand boulevard for a stretch of seven kilometers. We much enjoyed the Martina€™s company and talked long enough for us to be the last ones in the Trattoria. We had the option of a full day tour in Provence, but had decided that too many full day tours were wearing us a little thin.
Byzantine in style, like sacre Coeur in Paris, it sits on the site of a much older church first established there in 1100 A.D. Elaborate gates , with decorative iron works guarded the palais.Three marble lions strode atop the impressive gates. It stands high on the summit of a hill, and features a huge gold tinted statue of a€?Notre Dame,a€? Mary, the mother of Christ. It was the McGoldricks 24th wedding anniversary and we had been looking forward to joining them. My right hand was swollen, black and blue but felt well enough to get through the daya€™s tour. It is apparently the local custom for Godfathers to purchase ornate cakes for their godchildren on this day.
The impression we got was of a very clean and well ordered city, with little graffiti, litter or urban blight. The three other facades of the church are radically different in design, all reflecting the dynamics of the Spanish church and government in different periods of the cathedrals construction.
The ship gathered speed and we reluctantly waived farewell to a beautiful and unique city in Catalonia. Calamari, risotto with shrimp, penne pasta, cannoli and decaf cappuccino all accompanied a Mondavi Merlot. The stitches and wound looked icky, but the tissue was already showing signs it might grow back together. I uncorked a bottle of champagne, that the cruise line had given us, and we toasted our good fortune at being here with each other. As a young man with poetic pretensions he had written student verse celebrating wine and good company, but in the course of his journeys he had discovered his real passion: geography.
The occupying Arabs had built dams, irrigation systems, reservoirs and water towers, introduced new cropsa€”oranges and lemons, cotton, date palms, ricea€”and exploited the islanda€™s mines and fishing grounds. Nor is there any limit to his knowledge of the sciences, so deeply and wisely has he studied them in every particular.
The Garden of Eden and Paradise were at the top and Jerusalem at the center, while fabulous monsters occupied the unexplored regionsa€”Sirens, dragons, men with dogsa€™ heads, men with feet shaped like umbrellas with which they protected themselves from the sun while lying down (see #205, #207, #224, #226). The mission he entrusted to al-Idrisi was intellectually Herculean: to collect and evaluate all available geographical knowledgea€”from books and from on-the-spot observersa€”and to organize it into an accurate and meaningful representation of the world.
Muslim merchants, pilgrims and officials used so-called a€?road booksa€?, itineraries that described routes, traveling conditions and cities along the way. What was the climate of the country, its rivers and lakes, mountains, coastal configurations and soil?
All creatures are stable on the surface of the earth, the air attracting what is light, the earth what is heavy, as the magnet attracts iron. The mathematician al-Khwarizmi reduced Ptolemya€™s estimate of the length of the Mediterranean Sea from 62 to 52 degrees; the Spanish Muslim astronomer al-Zarqali further adjusted the figure to the correct 42 degrees.
Roger II of Sicily had his world map drawn on a six-foot diameter circle of silver weighing about 450 pounds. The Baltic area and Poland were represented much more precisely than on Ptolemya€™s maps, showing the fruit of the geographersa€™ investigations. In the fourth section of the first climate, al-Idrisi located the sources of the Nile in their approximately correct position, though he pictured the Nile of the Negroes as joining the Egyptian Nile at that point. The gardens of Toledo are laced with canals on which are erected water wheels used in irrigating the orchards, which produce in prodigious quantity fruits of inexpressible beauty and quality. Juba populated the Canaries with Berber-speaking colonists, perhaps the ancestors of the Guanches. The admiral in charge of the expedition died just as it was about to set out, so the venture came to nothing.
Then they set sail with the first gentle easterly and sailed for about eleven daya€™s, until they came to a sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little light. The a€?sea with heavy waves, evil-smelling, ridden with reefs and with very little lighta€? can probably be ignored, for the passage is influenced by the a€?land of darknessa€? thought to exist in the farthest West, and the reefs may echo a passage in Platoa€™s Timeus which speaks of the shallows in the Atlantic marking the site where Atlantis sank.
No large mammals are indigenous to the Azores, and sheep or goats could only have been brought to the island by previous mariners.
In the Arabic-speaking world, popular legend transferred a number of the heroic deeds of Hercules to Alexander - including the building of a land bridge across the Pillars of Hercules.
The wood is deep black, and merchants come to the island to harvest it and then sell it to the kings of the farthest West.
The same linear arrangement of islands appears on 14th century maps such as the 1351Laurentian portolano (Book III, #233), and, a full century later, on the Bartolomeo Pareto map (1455), since it was still impossible to determine longitude. The sixth island, shown opposite the entrance to the Mediterranean, would be al-Ghanam [Island of Sheep], Madeira.
I think that Babcock comes close, but, rather than the cormorant, the bird referred to is the goshawk [Afar], a species of hawk that closely resembles an eagle and abounds in the Azores, and from which the entire archipelago gets its name. On the Island of Two Heathen Brothers, two pirates lived until they were turned into rocks, and the inhabitants of the Island of Kalhan had the bodies of men and the heads of animals. Using a globe prepared by a German cartographer named Martin Behaim (Book III, #258), based on Ptolemya€™s miscalculations, Columbus also added in Marco Poloa€™s equally misleading estimates of distances and concluded, incorrectly, that by sailing west from Spain he could reach Japan or India after no more than a 4,000 mile voyage.
The consecutive numbers sometimes used to refer to the sectional maps are shown in the upper right corner of each section.
A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene.
The Government, which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. However, if we sleep in an area affected by geopathic stress, our body has to use all its energy just to keep its vital organs going. Reports from other countries such as Switzerland, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Scandinavia indicate that they too have been taking notice.
Geopathic stress - or harmful earth rays - is natural radiation that rises up through the earth and is distorted by weak electromagnetic fields created by underground streams, certain mineral concentrations and fault lines. Foresight, the pre-conception care organisation, even suggests that couples trying for a baby should get their homes checked for geopathic stress and ensure that electrical equipment is not located under their beds as this can cause electromagnetic stress and deplete the immune system.a€?For many of us who fall sick and seek the help of a doctor a few minutes is spent discussing symptoms and lifestyle quickly followed by the doctor scribbling on a proscription pad.
In order to rule out possible influences of man made electromagnetic or microwave disturbances at each location an independent report from an electromechanical engineer was requested for each chosen site. Other participants were also used from the Outpatients Department for Physical Therapy in the Rehabilitation Centre, Grobming and from the Surgery of Dr. This deterioration of the HFR was thought to be due to a€?Location loada€™ from the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™. Hacker: Head, IGGMB - Research Institute for Frontier Questions of Medicine and Biotechnology, Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, University Clinics of the Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg Federal Clinics (SALK), Salzburg, Austria. In recent years, the expressions a€?geopathic stressa€? and a€?geopathic interference zonesa€? have been accepted internationally to describe the phenomenon. At present, for most aspects contained herein, only hypotheses can be formed - and there are many of them.
With Super-Conducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID), it is possible to quantify variations of one ten billionth [American English] of the earth's magnetic field. Certain ions and metals moved by water can a€“ depending on concentration, composition and flow rate a€“ can indeed lead to geoelectricity.
If thus in a pipe a hydrodynamic flow vortex is produced, an electric and a magnetic vortex, the potential vortex and the eddy current, are the result (5). Although also present in tourmaline, topaz, cane sugar and Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate), the effect became particularly known for quartz.
Vice versa, quartz can be triggered to oscillate by applying a voltage to it (a€?quartz oscillator crystala€?; in use for example in crystal controlled clocks).
In the case of plasma waves, they are charged particles, and in the case of sound waves, they are air particles.
Inside our body, there are the a€?intrinsica€? (internal) structures and molecules of the organism, which are either a€?resonatinga€? because of their physical nature (as with stringed instruments: compare the vibration of the string alone versus string with resonator sound box), or create a certain frequency themselves.
Such only a few nanometers sized processes have been discussed as possible sites of resonance induced by external EMFs, acting as a€?protein-antennasa€? (19).
The research was done in a special laboratory room that was completely shielded from the natural magnetic field of the earth by tons of steel. But, if it would really be a relict, those particles would not exist in such a high quantity anymore. Nonetheless, what these people achieved, and their courage, as well as of the publishers who rightly published their works, deserve high credits.
Although successful in some areas addressed, the effects found had not the high statistical significance required, and the methodology used was not a generally accepted one, guaranteeing medical relevance and reproducibility. For us, the mean a€?area-of-glowa€? was the best possible means for sensitively indicate stress.
In other words, a higher GDV mean area of glow value corresponds to a higher IgA level (to be understood as an sign for lower stress or relaxation), and a lower GDV mean area of glow value can be understood as an indication for higher levels of alpha-amylase, i.e. In the specific setup for the static GDV images used in our study, the overall GDV image area values calculated are to be understood as mean values of 50 single finger GDV images in total, per test period. A number of further statistical analyses were performed, also including distribution-independent tests.
Such areas have been dowsed within some churches and other buildings constructed centuries or often thousands of years ago. Mental components are just as important: the more someone lives consciously, and even optimistically, in a state of positive thought, the less external stress factors can influence the person somatically.
Possibilities to minimize the effects of geopathy on our organism in general have already been discussed above. Thus, for this practical reason it may be worth considering installing a device that has a balancing effect here. The results of our research are of great relevance for a€?wellness-centersa€? too: sustainable success in relaxation and stress management methods is essentially dependent upon the particular location of sleeping and of therapy beds. The number of staff on sick leave will probably decrease in the long run, when all employees work at geopathically (and otherwise also) more balanced work places.
Soon, we shall have completed those experiments testing a number of test persons sufficiently high for good-practice statistical examination. Petersburg Division of the Russian Ministry of Culture, State Editing and Publishing Unit a€?Kulturaa€™, Petersburg, pp 58a€“83 (1999). After hundreds of tests, I can say: With special ion meters (electronic instruments that measure the number of small ions in the air) you can detect increased measurement values above the area of a disturbance a€“ particularly in the range of positive air ions. My electro-geobioscopic measurements use test devices that are well tested in medicine: Aschoff, MORA, and Vega.
The below link will take you to analogue baby monitors that I have found is still available.
Well this surprised the establishment at the time, and knowing Vilsbiburg to have a high degree on cancer victims anywayA  he was asked to repeat the exercise in the City of Stetten which had a far lower incidence of cancer thus ironing out any chance factors.
StA¤ngle, who had a very good reputation of locating water bearing fissures in crystalline rock with his dowsing rod developed a stintilisation counter more sensitive and accurate than a Geiger counter and carried out a scientific survey in the French town of Moulins where a local physician, Dr, J Prichard claimed that cancer victims in the town dwelt above geological faults. In a league table of radiation associated with biological damage, the outside line of a subterranean water course would be at the very top since it is found in association with many terminal and debilitating diseases.
You can't see, feel or hear electromagnetic fields, apart from visible light, which is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Each static magnetic field bump or sink on geomagnetogram (G2) may speed up or slow down body fluids (blood and lymphatic) in exposed areas such as the brain, heart, lung, liver, legs etc.


Most scientists believe that, although EMFa€™s do not directly cause the illness in most cases, at least, living in fields above 200 nT (nano Tesla) may make a person develop the cancer or other illness, when if they didn't live in this field level, their bodies would be able to repair themselves, or cope with the daily damage from other causes in a healthier way.
This wrong or confused information resulted in the dysfunction of individual organs and also explained the high number of diseases.
The Caribbean flights all fly out of Toronto in the early hours of the day and the European flights in the early evening hours.
The hills were laden with snow beneath us as we soared over them.They looked cold, jagged and forbidding. We had decided to eat at the Hotela€™s a€?Taverna,a€? rather than risk ramming around the area when we were this tired. We collapsed into a dreamless sleep of crowds, noisy children and the other bugaboos of travel crowding our heads. We dressed for the day and walked the half mile over to the airport terminal.Throngs of people were scurrying about.
The remaining spaces are crowded by large brick apartment complexes, stretching all along the train line that runs from the airport to Rome. The painted frescoes and saints statues had replaced the many ancient and pagan deities that had once adorned the niches in the walls. We sat in the Antico cafe and enjoyed a cappuccino, looking out over the ancient Theater Marcello, another gracious ruin where the Caesars had enjoyed theater productions. The train was just about to leave the station, so we sprinted down the track and jumped on board just as the conductor gave the engineer the wave off. Complexes of brick condos and apartments signaled the arrival of the local stations, which we breezed through without stopping.
We had already viewed this wonder on a previous visit and were not ungrateful that we didna€™t have to stand in the two-hour long line. He had loomed large in my child hood and now I was here staring at his elegantly clad remains, like some rural Russian first encountering Lenina€™s tomb in Red Square in Moscow.
A 60 foot high cliff, with grecian columned buildings, marks the eastern edge of the Villa Borghese and frame much of the remainder of the piazza. Then, we came upon the top of the Spanish steps and the storied Hotel Hassler and a few other four star and elegant small hotels. The winds were freshening and the waves were splashing high above the seawall, as we glided from port, waving by to Roma until we could return once again.
It is from these small range of mountains that the world-famous Cararra marble is quarried.
The olive trees took thirty years to mature enough to yield sufficient fruit for a pressing. Many were small walled villages from the middle ages, replete with castle walls, church and bell tower.
Nearby Florence and the beautiful walled village of San Gimiano also sit on this road and prospered from the pilgrims and commercial traffic that flowed along its length. It all sounds a bit grisly to us now, but it was the time-honored custom of the medieval church in Italy.
One large center and two smaller flanking triangles, of painted Murano glass, project colorful scenes of the Virgin Mary. The Piazza is cobbled, and slanted to funnel into a flat area just in front of the Siena City Hall. Oysters Rockerfeller, salad, lobster tails and peach cobbler, with merlot and cappuccino, were wonderful. The Norwegian Dream would motor 118 miles North, to Genoa this evening, arriving by early morning. The city is shaped like an alluvial amphitheater and carved from the surrounding mountains, like Naples far to the South.
The bus traversed several large tunnels, through the surrounding mountains, in our passage south to the Ligurian coast. The coastal hills rose steeply, behind the narrow strip of road, as we motored past the Porto Fino headland and coasted towards the small harbor area that is Porto Fino.
Bougainvillea and other flowers were in bloom here and gave an aura of color and warmth even in the rain.
Flagons of Chianti and a soft, white wine accompanied fried mushrooms, pasta in pesto sauce, seafood lasagna, fried fish cakes (for the vegetarians.) Strawberries in lemon ice, with Decaf cappuccinos finished this tasty repast. It is glass walled and occupies three terraces and the entire rear of the ship on deck # 9. It would be a long day for us, so we headed to the cabin to read and retire from another hard day of touristing. The wholea€? countrya€? is carved from the cliffa€™s side, with terraced sections up and down the mountain. It reads a€?Gratia Patriciaa€? and houses the remains of Philadelphia-born film star, Grace Kelly.
I smiled momentarily, remembering an episode from the Television series, a€?The Sopranos.a€? The main character had unknowingly parroted a remark he hard from his shrink, referring to a€?Captain Tebesa€? as an elegant place to visit. Across the roadway , from the hotel and along the seaside, run a similar lengthy of beaches.
Mary and I reversed course and walked along the marina and haborside, into the main square of Canne. The waiter was too polite to ask us to leave, but I had been thrown out of enough places already to recognize the imminent nature of the a€?buma€™s rush.a€? We made our goodnights and returned to the cabin, to read and relax. The guide wasna€™t doing any hand flips over the architectural style and there didna€™t appear to be any large crowds around on this, an Easter morning. Andre Dumas, a native of Marseilles, had written the a€?Man in the Iron maska€? using these prisons as his locale.
Strollers, tourists and shoppers were already out and about the small a€?old harbor.a€? The restaurants were open, and the chairs put out, for the coffee drinkers. My hand was throbbing to beat the band, but hey, no one likes a whiner, so we went and were glad we did. A former Roman outpost, from the first century, Barcelona is now the heart of the Catalonia region of Spain. Gaudi offers a unique marriage of art and architecture that is elegant in composition and a delight to the eyes. The front facade rises in four towering and conical spires of dark brown sandstone, that narrow into tapered and brown-stone, laced pillars. I could write several chapters on this elegant sandstone epiphany, but suffice it to say that it is a conceptual marriage of architect Antonio Gaudi, and painter Salvatore Dali.
A large fountain, floral gardens and a well-ordered square complete and compliment this lovely square. I managed, in my best high school German, to tell the Germans that a set of my mothera€™s grand parents had come from Munich and that Buffalo has a sister-city relationship with Dortmund, a mid sized city near Dusseldorf. He is responsible for singular innovations and for marvelous inventions, such as no prince has ever before realized. His purpose was partly practical, but mostly scientific: to produce a work that would sum up all the contemporary knowledge of the physical world.
Other Muslim scholars, like the Iraqi astronomer al-Battani and the Persian al-Biruni (#214.3), composed tables giving the latitudes of leading cities. The works of Al-Idrisi include Nozhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq al-afaq - a compendium of the geographic and sociological knowledge of his time as well as descriptions of his own travels illustrated with over seventy maps; Kharitat al-`alam al-ma`mour min al-ard [Map of the inhabited regions of the earth] wherein he divided the world into seven regions, the first extending from the equator to 23 degrees latitude, and the seventh being from 54 to 63 degrees followed by a region uninhabitable due to cold and snow. The British Isles also were treated with a surprising insight, probably due to contacts between Norman England and Norman Sicily. It is a considerable island, whose shape is that of the head of an ostrich, and where there are flourishing towns, high mountains, great rivers and plains.
Gradually, knowledge of the location of the Canaries was lost, even though Lanzarote, the island nearest the North African coast, lies less than 100 kilometers [60 miles] west of the mainland. Al-ldrisi says the admirala€™s curiosity was aroused by smoke rising from the sea in the west, probably the result of volcanic activity. Neither name is Arabic, nor do they appear to be transcriptions of Greek, Latin or Romance - but the fact that these two islands had names at all means mariners must have visited them, and the names are either native designations or hark back to some lost, perhaps oral, source.
They were sure they were about to perish, so they changed course to the south and sailed for twelve days, until they came to Sheep Island, There were so many sheep it was impossible to count them, and they ranged freely, with no one to watch them.
The Azores lie almost 1,300 kilometers (about 800 miles) west of the coast of Portugal - one-third of the way to America.
Some Greek mythographers thought the Islands of the Hesperides lay off the coast of North Africa, and we have already seen how al-Idrisi associates Alexander with two of the Atlantic islands. The island is said to have been inhabited in the past, but it fell to ruin and serpents infested the land.
Al-Sua€™ali and al-Mustashkin both sound completely legendary, but there is nothing legendary about Hasran and Qalhan, which sound as if they might belong together. During the period of rediscovery of the Azores under Prince Henry the Navigator, these birds were supposedly responsible for guiding the sailors to these distant islands. According to one historian, friendly relations were established between the Sultan of Spain and the invaders.
Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. As a result our immune system becomes weakened, which means it has difficulty in absorbing nutrients or fighting off infections as efficiently as it should. Claims and counter claims abound regarding devises to achieve this, leaving the public in total confusion.
The wave lengths of the disturbed natural radiation can seriously affect our health, causing cancer, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME) infertility and miscarriage. It may surprise you therefore, that in many European countries, Germany and Austria in particular, one ofA  the first questions the doctor may ask is about theA  location of your bed and how long have you been sleeping there.
Most explanations tried concentrate on the existence of natural electromagnetic fields (EMFs) present at particular locations, a€?interferinga€? with the organisms. Overlapping, or a a€?build upa€? of resonance effects are also part of the geopathic phenomenon.
With a proportion of 12 % of the upper eartha€™s crust, quartz is the most frequent mineral after feldspar. In the case of resonance, both sources attract each other, which can be explained and calculated by the occurrence of field changes during that process (5). When experimentally irradiated by EMFs of frequencies in between about 1-2 GHz, they displayed a changing of conformation, respectively changing in their manner of oscillation, even when only very low field strengths had been applied (19). Magnetic particles in the brain could turn out to be one of the reasons why dowsing can work. Furthermore, one can acquire a€?corona diagramsa€? in the manner of complementary medicine from the individual allocation of the a€?coronaa€? gas discharge from the different fingertips, following the principles of the energya€“meridian theory and of acupuncture.
The exact test design, as well as the way how dowsers independently labeled the different zones in the laboratory test room, have been described in detail (24). The glass plate surface of the GDV camera was cleaned using alcohol frequently, and it was taken care that none of the test persons had wet hands.
The corona diagrams directed into a weakening of the energies of the immune system and the pineal organ (which might be understood as an indication of possible changes of the melatonin production) (compare to: 57-60), the cardiovascular and the urinary system in many of the test persons.
The a€?Wavea€? device investigated in our study could therefore, by its balancing effect, not only aid in lowering of stress, but also be understood as a tool for disease prevention. Concerning the a€?Wavea€? device especially interesting is the fact, that it substantially reduces stress in people on a€?neutral zonesa€? too, a finding which indicates that there is no real a€?neutral zonea€? existing. In the following, we will briefly show what addressing geopathy do affect health care facilities, public places, and economy. By inference, if these results are applied to public facilities in general, the a€?Wavea€? could probably have a number of desirable effects in schools, offices, banks, supermarkets, etc. Contrarily, at a€?highly burdeneda€? workplaces, performance will decrease, discontentment grows, and the vulnerability to diseases and the resulting rise of employees' illnesses will be greater.
Ursula DEMARMELS-HACKER, for her love and support, and for abandoning many evenings and weekends of togetherness to find time for investigation and creation of this manuscript.
Whilst WA?rst and StA¤ngle thought that gamma radiation from fissures could be a significant cause of cancer, more recent studies suggest that this is unlikely as gamma radiation tends to whiz straight through the body rather than causing direct hits on DNA.
Sleep time exposure to the same sharp variations of magnetic fields for years may induce some chronic health effect. Indeed, in the town nearby, doctors and nurses are familiar with this sudden onset of illness in visitors to this old Indian sacred site. They proved a weakening in the immune system, which interacts with the wrongly programmed nervous system in persons who had been exposed. Using a randomized double blinded trial*, it has been scientifically shown that Geopathic stress zones do cause chronic stress and therefore can weaken the body's defence systems. Finally, this stress, in combination with a possible suppression of certain functions of the immune system. It was here that we encountered the curious version of what we were to call a€?beat the clock.a€? Terminal # 1 is the jump site for many of the shorter European flights from London. How the heck the luggage guys can figure this out and bring the right baggage to the quickly assigned gate appeared to be problematic, as we were to find out.
We waited resignedly for our turn and then filled out the appropriate forms, with the besieged agent at the desk. We recognized the bleary look in some of their eyes and knew that they had just flown in from far away. Throngs of tourists, from all over the globe, swirled around us in a multi-cultural sea that was dizzying to the ear. The Romans had staged sea battles, gladiator contests and all manner of spectator sports in these halls. It was one of those magical moments when you are very glad to be alive and with a loved one. After our swim, we read our books and soon fell into the arms of Morpheus, where we slept like dead alligators in a swamp, for a blissful eight hours. We crossed over the Tiber River and smaller streams, noting the unique triangular, truss-supports on some of the more rural bridges.
We hung on to over head straps and looked out into the gloomy subway, eyes unseeing like the most veteran romans.
We had purchased rosaries on a previous trip and wondered again at the whole a€?blessed at the vaticana€? scam. I looked on amused and amazed at what i was seeing, as the temporal veil of two thousand years of recent history raced through my mind. Inside, we followed the circular walkway that rose gradually up the 90 some feet into the air, to the castles battlements high above us.The ramp was designed to carry popes and caesars in coaches ,high above us, where they could be walled in from besieging marauders.
Twin churches on antiquity, now banks, guard the entrance to the Via Corso to the South, and the rest of Rome. Further down the parkway we knew lay the hotel Hassler at the top of the imposing Spanish Steps. We thought about stopping at the Hotel Hassler for coffee or a drink, but were convinced that they would recognize me for a scoundrel and give us the heave ho. We found a spot where we could hang from over head straps and enjoyed the ride back to the Airport. Nazaire France from 1991-1993 for $240 million dollars and originally named the MS Dreamward.
After dinner, the stewards would take whatever portion of the bottle of wine that you consumed and save it for you in a central repository where you could call for it from any of the several restaurants on board. Michaelangelo had been a frequent visitor in the quarries, to select blocks of marble for his sculptings. This treasured fruit would yield 19 kilograms of oil from every 100 kilograms of olives pressed. I dona€™t think we, as Americansa€™ have much of an appreciation for this a€?quiltwork of principalitiesa€? that made up a region, each warring with the other over the ages.
The Monte Dei Pasche, a commercial banking syndicate of Siena, had also become the bankers for the papal states and collected both interest on their loans and outstanding debts for the popes for centuries.
Around its periphery are a series of hotels, trendy shops and restaurants with awnings and chairs for tourists and Sienans to enjoy the Tuscan sun. A series of large ravines, carved by glacial or ancient river action, were speckled with housing complexes and spanned by lengthy bridges, now loaded with morning traffic. We could see Castello Brown high above the village.It looks like a medieval fortress, but later proved to be but fhe fancy digs of a former 19th century British ambassador.
Afterwards, we walked along the narrow harbor path, looking in the various shops and taverns facing the sea.
Meridian Merlot accompanied a three-berry compote, a lemon fruit soup, salmon and risotto, with chocolate cake and decaf cappuccino. Several eighty and hundred-foot power yachts lay at anchor in the upscale marina, attesting to the citya€™s glamourous reputation.
The police were cordoning off a route from the Palace to the Church, for the royal family, and clearing traffic from the streets. Several flagons, of a decent , house, red wine, accompanied salad, pasta, cheesecake and cappuccino. We passed on the privilege and watched for a time the ebb and flow of tourists walking in and out.
Above the beaches runs an elevated promenade upon which throngs of natives and tourists were walking. It had been a long and enjoyable day, in a fairy-tale setting, that evaporated from our consciousness with the setting sun.
Some places were elaborately laid out, with formal tableware, perhaps in anticipation of Easter Brunches later in the morning.
The site had been built to commemorate the arrival of water, in underground pipes, to Marseilles. The sight lines, from the elevated promontory, were gorgeous, but our attention was a bit distracted. The doctor was away from the ship, so she further cleaned and disinfected the wound and wrapped it in sterile gauge. He didna€™t think much of the tissue would survive, but put five stitches along the underside of my ring finger, disinfected the wound, wrapped it in sterile gauze. The entire front facade, beneath them, is engraved with images of the life of the Holy Family, the birth of Christ, the adoration of the Magi, the crucifiixtion and death of Christ and the last judgment.
After dinner, we walked the decks for a while enjoying the comings and goings of so diverse a population of passengers. Her English was better than my German, so we talked for a bit about the usual pleasantries.
Others belonged to a later tradition of systematic geography, like the 10th century scholars Ibn Hawqal (#213) and al-Masa€™udi (#212), who produced books intended as something more than practical guides for the tax collector or the postman: as additions to the fund of human knowledge.
An element of subjectivity entered into the fact that southern Italy was represented as larger than the north, and that Sicily occupied a substantial part of the Western Mediterranean, in contrast to Sardinia and Corsica, which shrank in scale. This country is most fertile; its inhabitants are brave, active and enterprising, but all is in the grip of perpetual winter. The Greeks called the Canary Islands TA?n MakarA?n NA“soi [The Islands of the Blessed], and they were regarded as the furthest known land to the west.
In another passage al-Idrisi gives more details of this island - incidentally showing that a longer account of the voyage of the mugharrirun must have existed.
In the 19th century, Carthaginian coins were found on the most westerly of the islands, Corvo - 31A° west longitude - and although the find has been questioned, the origin of the coins has never been satisfactorily explained.
But if the word is Arabic, one would expect it to be preceded by the definite article a€?ala€?.
Since the only inhabited islands in the western Atlantic just before the coming of the Europeans were the Canaries, Hasran may belong to that groupa€”unless, of course, it is to be sought in the Caribbean! If the isle of Raqa is indeed one of the Azores, then the discovery of these islands occurred as early as the 10th century. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot.
And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced.
For over two weeks in the summer of 2002, scientists and conservators at this prestigious facility subjected the artifact, its frame, and support materials to extensive and rigorous non-destructive testing. From an incredible range of gadgets offered there are many tales about their ineffectiveness or of making the receiver feel much worse. These questions are routinely asked not only by several thousand doctors, but also many cancer specialist hospitals will recommend a Geopathic Surveyor or Geobiologist as they are often called to investigate your home before deciding on a course of therapy or reaching for the prescription pad.
It was reckoned with over 95 a€“ percentile certainty that there is a location influence on the governing system of the circulation.
Many a€?specialistsa€? presume that the origin to be in the ground a€“ below the earth surface. Furthermore, technically generated EMFs are present on every place on earth; their likely influence on our health is presently the subject of intensive worldwide research.
Whittaker already in 1904 showed mathematically that the known and accepted Laplace Wave Equation of the year 1787, besides indicating transversal electro-magnetic waves, also describes longitudinal scalar waves (15). The magnetite-particles could also be visualized and further analyzed using a high-definition transmission electron microscope.
In any case, magnetite crystals in the brain could possibly be a hint to explain how (certain qualities of) geopathic zones may affect the body: Magnetite reacts more than one million times stronger to an external magnetic field than every other biological material. Using that particular aspect, we were able to indicate which organ systems of the body might be affected by geopathic stress.
A third marker, saliva cortisol, although displaying its very own rhythmicity, also appears to fit into the concept that GDV could be reliably used for biophysical stress measurement (Hacker and Augner, unpublished results). Altogether, more than 137,000 individual fingertip GDV corona images were captured, interpreted by means of computer-aided image analysis and analyzed in detail using bio-statistics. For further calculations and analyses, the GDV Meridian Analysis and the GDV Diagram software (both with version no. The latter device had been mounted or de-mounted in another room at an upper floor, and neither the test persons nor the examiners could see if the device was present or not. The test persons were advised to keep their fingers still and relaxed during measurements and not to apply undue pressure when putting their fingers onto the glass plate at an angle of approximately 30-degrees to the instrument axis (28).
If present for a prolonged time, however, eustress may soon turn to distress and thereby suppress the immune system. We would therefore suggest using a terminology towards a a€?more geopathica€? and a€?geologically more neutrala€? zone in this context. Johanns-Hospital, so far, more than 50 a€?Wavea€? devices have been installed to harmonize critical locations - especially in the intensive care unit and in the entire surgical ward), and at other major hospitals (e.g. Thus, especially in already existing establishments, the purposeful placement of a€?Wavea€? devices can be of great benefit. The aggregate economic success of a company or institution can very well be in the balance; responsible (and visionary) managers should take heed of the results of our studies in their plans and act accordingly. Petersburg Division of Russian Ministry of Culture, State Editing and Publishing nit, a€?Kulturaa€™, pp 84a€“108 (1999). Harger, chairman of the city's medical scientific association, declared that all such a€?deadly earth currentsa€™ ran beneath the beds of all the 5,348 people who had died from cancer during the last 21 years.
The culprit is thought to be the more pernicious alpha radiation from Radon which is found with high levels of gamma radiation. The World Health Organization in a health criteria report recognizes interactions between variations in static magnetic fields in cellular tissues to include an induction of electrical potentials and magneto hydrodynamic effects in the circulatory systems and by direct stimulation of nerve and muscle cells even under extremely weak thresholds. The causation seems to be that within a few meters the geomagnetic DC field varies from 330 milligauss at an 80 degree dip to 700 milligauss at a 59 degree dip. Confirmation of these experiments continue to appear and links have been, formed with the onset of cancer, Alzheimer's Disease, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Miscarriages, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and other diseases of the central nervous system. The Apennines extend down the spine of Italy, appearing like some great skeleton on an exhibit, in a natural history museum. We had some decent Chianti, very tasty caesar salads and bread, with cappuccinos afterwards. We watched amused at the scores of a€?smart carsa€? and compacts scurried in and out of the congestion, jockeying for position in the moving metal stream. I could picture the Romans arriving late, complaining of the heavy chariot traffic, as the sat in their assigned seats, waving at acquaintances and craning their necks to see what dignitaries now sat on the elevated dais. The Spanish Ambassador to Italy had once lived in a villa, just off these steps, giving them their name.
We admired the smooth marble and artistic workmanship and pondered for a time the march of civilizations that had come here to worship throughout the centuries, each praying to a a€?goda€? that they held dear. Then, we were standing in from of a glassed-in sepulcher that reputedly holds the remains of the founder of the catholic church, the rock upon which Christ had built his earthly church, Peter, the fisherman. A tunnel even supposedly exited underground.It ran from the vatican, some blocks over, to the fortress where popes could retreat in times of attack. We sat by the fountain, listening to a musical group playing nearby, and enjoying the whole panoply of activities that swirled around us in this huge meeting place in Rome. We walked about, enjoying the many artists who were painting alfresco portraits of the tourists, much like the Place du Tetre, behind Sacre Cour, in Paris. The first pressing is the most valued and usually labeled a€?extra virgin oil.a€? A killing frost had destroyed much of the local trees in the 1980a€™s. It gives rise to our fascination with castles, moats and the whole medieval mythology that surrounds such areas.
The syndicate was so successful that in later years the Siena City council had mandated that 50% of their annual profits were to be turned over to the city for a€?public improvements.a€? The annual rebate now runs to $150 million a year and funds much of the restoration of the medieval town. Each year, on July 12 and August 16th, a colorful horse race is run around the periphery of this wide Piazza, with ten especially trained horses and jockeys representing parts of the city.
We laughed a lot, enjoyed the food and each othera€™a€™s company and made a nice day from a soggy one. An interesting collection of brick-faced apartments, all shaped in the form of tan pyramids, caught our eye towards the shoreline.
Directly in front of the casino, and rising upwards to a level of the city some 50 feet above, are a series of terraced fountains and floral gardens all bedecked in colorful flags and pendants. We noticed that many of the stately older villas,along the roadway, were in some state of decline. The beaches sported colorful names like a€?Miami,a€? and a€?Opera.a€? In the Summers, this place must really rock and roll!
It was too chilly to sit in the outdoor cafes, so we walked the length of the area, drinking in the sights and sounds of a place that we would never perhaps return to.
A detachment of the French foreign legion had been stationed at this imposing stone edifice.
He told me to a€? take two aspirins and garglea€? and come back in a few days to see how it progressed. The statue was supposedly pointing towards the West and the new world, but somehow, the statues orientation had been turned so he was pointing South. They do things like that in Europe where centuries are relatively much shorter spans of time than in America.
The homes, more Spanish style, Hansel and Gretel-type cottages, also feature elegantly tiled exteriors that are in the Dr. We sat for a time in the star dust lounge, but the entertainment was just as lame as our previous encounter. In addition, scientific expeditions were dispatched to areas on which information was lacking. Contrary to a still popular misconception that up to the time of Columbus everyone believed the world was flat, many scholars and astronomers since at least the fifth century B.C. Not surprisingly, the best part of both map and text, accurate and detailed, dealt with Sicily itself.
It forms an island 300 miles long by 150 miles wide: this is surrounded by the Nile on all sides and at all seasons .
Al-Idrisi gave the names of many English towns, principally ports, with the distances between them.
They caught some of the sheep and slaughtered them, but the flesh was so bitter they could not eat it.
He says Sheep Island is large, shrouded in shadows, and filled with small sheep whose flesh is bitter and inedible. Corvo is marked on the Canterino map of 1351, where the name occurs as Corvini - considerably before its official discovery. The result was a very complete scientific and technical analysis of the object, which in turn provided better criteria for its secure and permanent case design and presentation in the lobby of the newly-renovated Harry Ransom Center.The plate also received extensive attention from the photographic technicians at the Institute, who spent a day and a half with the original heliograph in their photographic studios in order to record photographically and digitally all aspects of the plate. There are many products on the market that claim to cure some or all geopathic zones of its noxious energy.
However, if we sleep in an area affected by geopathic stress, our body has to use all ita€™s energy just to keepA  vital organs going.
The search, using both dowsing methods to locate geopathic energies and scientific instruments to detect man made electromagnetic energies willA  determine whether your illness is linked to geopathic stress electromagnetic stress or both. Frequencies in between about 0,1 Hz up to the GHz-range are being suggested in public literature. The most exciting result of those experiments was that, most of the regions of the brain appear to contain about five million biogenous a€?single-domaina€? magnetite crystals per gram wet weight on average, and the meninges (pia and dura mater) contain even more than 100 million.
Recently, in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, an article describes possible roles that magnetic ferrous amalgamations could play in neurological disease (21). The accordant calculations and projections were done interactively using specific software for analysis, based on the energy-emission-analysis according to Mandel (47-48), the Su-Jok-System of acupuncture (49) and clinical data of thousands of test persons from the St.
In order to minimize chronobiologic influences to a sensible degree, the experiments were carried out only in forenoons, and also in that respect, phase randomization in time was an important prerequisite (24). As already stated above, technical fields and noxae [nocent influences] of different kinds are present everywhere on earth.
In the workplace and in the home: this is only part of the whole picture, because a€?ready to goa€? or rested and productive employers and employees should also be able to benefit at peace and harmony at home. Research in this field continues with an increasing number of sophisticated environmental measuring instruments coming on the market to aid the geobiologist in identifying causative factors to illness and disease.
The very high electric fields associated with high voltage overhead power lines also cause air ionization, charging toxic aerosols so that they become even more dangerous.
We had had the foresight to pack some essential in our carry-ons and werena€™t too disturbed at the loss of our luggage. The bus let us off on the Piazza Campodoglio, just behind the Vittorio Emmanuel II monument, that enormous a€?wedding cakea€? that seems to dominate all of the Roman skyline.
We wondered again at the many parades of conquering armies that had this way trod, dazed captives, strange animals and other trophies of victory shepherded before them, to the delight of the cheering throngs.
The Romans had even engineered a means of stretching a huge canvass across the top of the structure, when the high sun of summer was beating down on the arena.
They set out their chairs, under awnings, and wait for the tourists to come and sit in the Roman sun, dining and watching each other.
I wonder if any of then considered the similarities of their exercise rather that the dissimilarities? The street was awash with people going to work and throngs more, even at this early hour, headed to the Vatican. We had been here twice before, but stood silently in awe of Michaelangeloa€™s white-marble epiphany.
As in most situations, when you find yourself overwhelmed by what you see, it soon becomes normal. We always do a double blink when we find ourselves in places like this, to remind us that we are really here and not meandering in some day dream in a place far away. It was getting late in the afternoon and we were thinking about making our way back across the city to the stazione terminal and the train back to the airport Hilton.
The newer trees were only now approaching the proper maturity to deliver ripe olives for oil pressing.
On one hilltop, we espied the village of Monteregione, with its village wall and twelve turrets rising above the skyline.It is an outline much known in Italy and used on their former currency. A column stood in this piazza, atop which is the form of a she wolf, with two infants suckling her.
That was to be the last time we agreed to a€?share a tablea€? with strangers when asked by the various maitre-da€™s. Along the many coastal areas, we noticed the old fishermena€™s homes, that are painted in various bright Mediterranean pastels. We boarded and I stopped by the deck # 9 internet cafe to send a few message into cyber space. We were now on the a€?middle corniche (cliff) road.a€? Most of the coast, in this area, is a very steep hillside that slopes precipitously towards the Mediterranean. The population of the Monaco is comprised of 10,000 French, 10,000 Italians, 5,000 Monagasque (natives) and a sprinkling of other nationalities.
The sun was shining brightly overhead, the Mediterranean sparkled blue in the distance and a fairy tale changing of the guard was in progress for a fairy tale prince. We walked about the beautiful parkland, enjoying the flowers, the bright colors and the activity in and around the casino.
We wandered its narrow alleys, dodging other tourist who had been game enough for the walk. It was getting late and cooling off, so we walked back to the dock and stood patiently in the long line for the tender ride back to the ship. Looking out towards the fortress, on the very edge of the harbor, is a large stone arch built to commemorate French soldiers killed in the Orient. Across the small plaza, from the Cathedral, sits a more modern building with a huge painting by Picasso, on its facade. Reliefs of fruits and vegetables, animals and other symbols of nature display a pantheistic overview of God and creation.
It is these chance encounters, with people from everywhere, that really make a cruise enjoyable. Draftsmen and cartographers accompanied these expeditions so that a visual record of the country could be made.
The greater part of the country is only habitable on the borders of the Nile for the rest of the country . Hastings was a considerable town, densely populated, with many buildings, markets, much industry and commerce; Dover, to the east, was an equally important town not far from the mouth of the river of London, the broad and swiftly flowing Thames.
In 1402 the Normans partially conquered them, meeting stiff resistance from the indigenous Guanches. They took some sheepskins and sailed on to the south for another twelve days until they sighted an island.
Nearby is another island, called Raqa, which is the home of a red bird the size of an eagle, which catches fish in its claws and never flies far from the island. Certain adventures of Sinbad the Sailor, from Tales of the Arabian Nights, are almost identical to those of Saint Brendan. The object was documented under all manner of scientific lights, including infrared and ultraviolet spectra. Most of these claims are quite dubious and do not stand up to the most rudimental scientific testing. As a result our immune system becomes weakened, which means it doesna€™t absorb nutrients or fight off infections effectively.
If so, you will be advised how to avoid or eliminate these harmful energies from your home so you stand a better chance of responding to any treatment given. In our following attempts at explanation, we will concentrate on natural sources possibly originating from the a€?grounda€?, i.e. As we could show, the a€?Wavea€? device in fact can help, and its exceptional promise as a preventive measure is of great interest.
Gerfried BRANDSTETTER (manager of the science department of the Salzburg federal government); Landeshauptfrau Mag. To varying degrees the health consequences of staying above one of these geopathically stressed locations can be replicatedA  in our own homes by the choice of mattresses we use.A  The bottom line is, if you suspect your sleeping site is being disturbed by an unusually high magnetic anomaly then buy a bed that has a wooden base and place there upon a mattress that has no springs and make sure it is not placed near a radiator or other heavy metal object. In the 1930a€™s a French engineer Pierie Cody who lived in the sea-port of Le HavreA knew of local a€?cancer housesa€™ in the port where many people had died from cancer over the years.
It is one of the pitfalls of travel.The airlines are usually pretty good about getting your lost bags to you in the next 24 hours.
Now, throngs of people from everywhere come by daily and sit on the stairs, admiring the view and enjoying the throngs that come to sit by them.
We sat for a time near the a€?Four Riversa€? fountain and admired the artistry of the Master Bernini. Sadly, I informed them that it existed now but in their memories from that classic chariot race scene in a€?Ben Hur.a€? What was left was now a large rectangular park area, overlooked by the ancient palaces on the Capitoline Hill.
We walked the length of the funeral chamber to its end where thoughtful officials had provided restrooms for the throngs.
It is always unnerving to sleep the first night at sea when there are high waves, until you got used to the rhythms of the ship.
We stopped at a road side rest station called a€?AGIPa€? where passengers used the facilities and sipped cappuccino for 3 euros each. The entire effect of the cathedral is to catch your breath, at the artistic array of creations inside.Each had been created to show glory to god. Custom had dictated this as a means for the fisherman to espy their dwellings as they approached safe harbor and home. By now, we were puffing with the exertion and wondering how the various workmen got up and down these paths every day.
It is traversed, from East to West, by three roughly parallel roads called appropriately, the a€?Lower cornichea€? (closer to the sea) the middle corniche ( which we now traversed) and the a€?upper cornichea€?, higher above us. This was a Hans Christian Anderson day-dream flashing before us in the brilliant noon day sun. We found and entered an elegant hostelry called a€?Chateau de la Chevre da€™Or,a€? roughly, the a€?house of the golden goat.
Across the river, on the rise of a hill, stands an old stone palace used by the French Royalty at differing times. A smaller green-bronzed statue, of a maiden with her arms raised was erected, in front of the arch, to commemorate the French soldiers killed in North Africa. The bus driver and a colleague did a credible imitation of the three monkeys, pointing to the church above and saying a€?medicine.a€? We staunched the blood flow with tissues and a few antiseptic hand wipes. My best guess if that the construction crew screwed up, at the installation, and it had been too costly to correct the error.
Gaudi intended his creation to have 18 spires, 12 for the apostles, 4 for the evangelists, one each for Mary and Jesus.
This hombre had one fertile imagination, that he was able to sculpt into brick and mortar in structures. You may get there sooner or you may not get there as soon as you expected, but you will certainly get there. In the mid-15th century, the Spanish took control of the Canaries and continued the conquest. The settlers quickly burned down all the forests, so it is now hard to know for certain, but some sort of scented wood may have once grown there. But whether the Irish borrowed these myths from the Arabs, or vice versa, or if they both obtained them from an earlier common source is a matter of conjecture. Fortunately there are now a growing number of dowsers that are equipped with scientific monitoring instruments that can test such claims. To locate geopathic stress dowsers visit land, offices and homes where theyA  seekA  the location of underground streams, geological faults or the eartha€™s natural grid lines. This equipment known as the Genitron Felix - 3 detects ultra short and radio microwave frequencies with the ability to print them out on a [UKW- Spektrometer und Linienschreiber] This equipment is used in German universities and research institutes that confirms dowsable energy above subterranean water lines. Effects central nervous system and the brain in the ways which effect powerful hormonal mechanisms. We had momentarily mistaken the Capitoline steps for the a€?Spanish Steps,a€? until corrected by a friendly tourist. We walked out into the Piazza San Pietro and immediately noted the colorful costumes of the Swiss Guard, with their razor sharp pikes, standing before the entrance to Vatican city. Supposedly Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome who had been suckled by a she wolf, had fled Rome and sought sanctuary in Siena. It sure did keep your attention, as Rita commented quietly on the many artistic and cultural aspects of the works that we were observing. Residents pay no income taxes, thanks to casino revenues, and are generally well heeled, even by Monagasque standards. I had the presence of mind to think of the huge swelling of tissue to come, and managed to slip the large college ring, from my finger.
Unfortunately for us, both the Dali and the Picasso art museums were closed on that Easter Monday. Al-Idrisia€™s silver disk, or planisphere, was a form of projection considerably in advance of others of its time. Fighting was still going on when Columbus used the islands as the first stop on all four of his voyages to the Caribbean.
They headed toward it in order to explore and when they were not far offshore, they suddenly found themselves surrounded by boats, which forced their ship to land beside a city on the shore.
A king of the Franks heard of this, al-Idrisi adds, and sent a ship to the island to bring him that fruit and some of the birds, but the ship was lost and never returned. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
After checking large numbers of these dwellings, Cody concluded that the air in these a€?Cancer Housesa€™ were ionized to an unusual degree.
Important areas to be aware of are bedrooms, especially where pillows are on beds, because EMFa€™s affect an area of the brain, called the pineal gland, which works to protect the body against illness overnight. Now, it lay like an ancient and broken sign post pointing faintly to a grandeur that once was Rome.
Throngs of other tourists from everywhere stood around us, as we too pitched coins backwards over our shoulders in hope of returning to Rome yet again.We had done this twice before and returned each time, so maybe the magic works. These hardy warriors are all trained infantrymen from the Swiss Army, who stand ready to rock and roll, with whatever comes their way, to protect the pope and Vatican City.
They no longer asked for tips in the loo, they had sliding doors that only opened to admit one, if you inserted .60 euros in a slot .
From this port, you can access Florence, Pisa and a bit further out, the medieval, walled city of Siena.
No one had really ever substantiated the claim, but it made for great symbolism and interest both to the natives and the tourists. Christopher Columbus had been born and raised in these environs before he sailed to the new worlds for Espagna. It was an elegantly manicured parkland from which to stare out over the sapphire blue Mediterranean. We repaired to our cabin to write up our notes, shower and prep for dinner with the Martins. Perhaps this was because the allies had bombed the port area back to the middle ages during WW II? I had visions of sitting in an emergency room, at some French hospital, with the boat sailing away for Barcelona without me. Barcelona had been an interesting melange of Moor, Jew and Spaniard until 1492, that pivotal discovery year. The Guanches were not finally subdued until the end of the 16th century, when they and their language virtually disappeared.
They saw the men who lived there; they were light-complexioned, with very little facial hair. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
However, for thousands of years people from all over the world have been finding underground water for wells and mineral deposits to mine by dowsing methods. From various other tests Cody concluded that the ionization radiation consisted of positively charged Alpha Particles. It is also a good idea to look at places like a favourite armchair, or in front of a computer or TV.
We watched and enjoyed the tourists, from many countries, snapping pictures of the fountain and each other. In past ages, their duty had not been ceremonial in the many times that both Rome and the Vatican had been under siege, from some particularly surly invader bent on plunder and mayhem.
Andrea Doria, a middle ages naval admiral, and figure of note in Italian history, had also lived here. The ship had several of the motorized tenders shuttling passengers back and forth from the shore. As we sipped pricey cappuccino (18 euros),we gazed out over the sapphire blue of the Mediterranean far below.
The doctor offered me pain pills, but i advised that I would probably be drinking several glasses of wine for dinner. Internal religious strife had generated the expulsion of the Moors and the jews from Spain that year. We had an opportunity to stay and visit the Las Ramblas esplanade, but were tiring from today's and the many previous tours we had taken.
And in the ninth century, 70 Muslim scholars, working under the patronage of Caliph al-Maa€™mun, gathered in the Syrian Desert to determine the length of a degree of latitude. There are arid wastes where one must walk two, four, five, or twelve days before finding water .
From the few words of Guanche preserved in the Spanish chronicles, we know they spoke a form of Berber, and were therefore probably descended from Jubaa€™s colonists.
Remember ita€™s the energy from the water and other artefacts that they first respond to as it rises from deep beneath the ground to the surface. The only known source of alpha particle emission in dwellings was from a radioactive gas called Radon. It is important that places like these where you are sitting or lying still for a longish period of time should have low EMFa€™s; cells tend to cope better with external fields if the person is moving around. The buildings all around the piazza are replete with papal insignia and looked impossibly old to us, pilgrims from a land where three hundred years is a long time. We were seated by deferential waiters and ordered, in our best Italian, Minestrone zuppa, pizza, with aqua minerale and cappuccino. The guide mentioned something about him negotiating a treaty with Charles V of Spain, but it was getting a little too deep in Italian history for me to follow.
We entered our boat and waited until the craft filled with passengers, then slowly motored into shore, where our bus was waiting. Someone with our surname (Martin) must have either been on the ground floor founding this place or donated half of the land for its creation.
Mary espied Phillip, our guide, and insisted that I needed some medical attention immediately. We lunched at the four seasons, on deck #9 ,and then repaired to our cabin, for a well earned conversation with Mr. Rather than rely on travelersa€™ guesses of distance, as previous astronomers had done, they used wooden rods to measure the road they traveled until they saw a change of one degree in the elevation of the polestar.
Yet when Europeans encountered them, they had no memory of the mainland; having no boats, they were unaware that the other islands in the group were inhabited. When you are sitting still and particular cells keep being interfered with by EMFa€™s, there is an increased risk that the damage may become unrepairable.
We ate slowly and enjoyed our surroundings and each other, never forgetting who we are and how far we had come to be sitting here under the Roman sun.The tab was a reasonable 40 euros.
He walked me into the offices of the cathedral, turned me over to an elderly woman and skittled away, the weasel. Their calculation resulted in a figure for the eartha€™s circumference equivalent to 22,422 miles, an error of 3.6 percent, almost as accurate as Eratosthenesa€™ estimate and a considerable improvement over Ptolemya€™s. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.
Fortunately, we had a very brief time to spend and had to leave before we put the money back into the machines. Far below in the village, a small shed houses two donkeys who used to ferry people and luggage to this pricey Inn, in the mountains above Monaco.
I guess it becomes more understandable, of their recent posture towards conflict, in the middle east. On the fourth day a man who spoke Arabic entered and asked them who they were and where they were going and what was the name of their country. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. They told him everything and he said not to worry, and that he was the kinga€™s interpreter. It is here, in the village below, that we met and talked to Peter and Julia Martin for the first time.
The next day they were taken into the kinga€™s presence and he asked the same questions they had been asked by the interpreter.
It is worthwhile taking particular precautionary action with regard to childrena€™s living environments.
They told him what they had told the interpreter the day before, of how they had embarked upon the ocean in order to find out about it and see the wonders it contained, and how they had come to this place. We had noticed them on a few tours and decided to ask them to join us for dinner this evening. They agreed, perhaps wondering at the forwardness of yankees in soliciting social engagements.
Manners got the better of them though and they agreed to meet us later in the evening for dinner. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. When dawn broke and the sun rose, we found we were in great pain because we had been so tightly bound. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
One of them asked us: a€?Do you know how far you are from your country?a€™ a€?No,a€™ we answered. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing.
The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative.
This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers.
He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.
Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce.
The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight.
In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii.
Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs.
Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable.
Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made.
A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image.
Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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