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The genome of a squirrel-sized, saucer-eyed lemur from Madagascar may help scientists understand how HIV-like viruses coevolved with primates, according to research published online Dec.
Ancestors of this lemur colonized Madagascar about 75 million years ago, and since then, lemurs and their lentivirus-carrying cousins on the African mainland have been evolving separately. Estimates of the age of this lentivirus, called pSIVgml, go as far back as 85 million years, when the primate family that includes lemurs split from the evolutionary branch that yielded monkeys, apes and humans. Gifford remains cautious about overestimating the virus's age, warning that the virus could have been spread within the last 14 million years by something that could cross the ocean, such as a bat. Gifford's find suggests lentiviruses could be discovered elsewhere, perhaps in Asian and New World monkeys. Until now, scientists thought lentiviruses were too young to have participated in this evolutionary back-and-forth. The research "raises interesting questions about how mammals have dealt with these types of viruses over a minimum of 14 million years, what kind of defenses they have developed, and why some mammal species have lost these viruses," said Beatrice Hahn, PhD, a professor at the University of Alabama-Birmingham who studies human retroviruses. Gifford and Shafer conducted this study with researchers from the Imperial College of London and the Institute for Emergent Infections at the James Martin 21st Century School at Oxford. Stephanie Pappas is an intern in the medical school's Office of Communication & Public Affairs. According to a recent research study, some of the patients inoculated with Zostavax, the shingles vaccine created by Merck, shed the varicella virus through their saliva and inoculation sites for a month after immunization. A retrospective study in January showed that Merck’s live accentuated varicella virus halved the risk of developing shingles. The prospective study found that there was virus DNA on saliva swabs of over half of the subjects 10 minutes after vaccination. The varicella zoster virus is used in Merck’s chicken pox vaccine as well, which has been connected to documented cases of indirect infection by coming into contact with recently vaccinated individuals. I went to the supermarket yesterday and I have to admit, I spent a moment wondering if there was ebola on the shopping cart.
I fully realize that I'm two months early, but why not get into the habit now before the rush in two months.
WASHINGTON -- Recent attacks by a Democratic outside group blame congressional Republicans for exacerbating the Ebola epidemic by continuously seeking to cut funds for government health agencies. After the GOP took control of the House in 2011, the administration protected CDC funding by relying on new funding streams from the Affordable Care Act. In FY 2010, the budget authority requested by the president for the CDC was $6.38 billion, according to administration figures. But these non-traditional funding sources couldn't reverse the general movement to austerity the following year.
Still, the fact that the president went along with those austere times complicates the attacks that Democrats are making against Republicans today.
In FY 2012, the budget request was $5.81 billion while the Prevention and Public Health Fund helped soften the blow by adding $752 million. In FY 2013, the budget request was $4.99 billion, while the Prevention and Public Health Fund helped soften the blow by adding $903 million. In FY 2014, the budget request was $5.22 billion, while the Prevention and Public Health Fund helped soften the blow by adding $755 million.

In FY 2015, the budget request is $5.39 billion, while the Prevention and Public Health Fund is expected to add an additional $809 million. So now the federal health bureaucrats in charge of controlling diseases and pandemics want more money to do their jobs. At $7 billion, the Centers for Disease Control 2014 budget is nearly 200 percent bigger now than it was in 2000. Here’s a reminder of what the CDC does with money that’s supposed to go to real disease control. As I pointed out years ago, the CDC has its own private funding pipeline in the form of “Friends of CDC,” an Atlanta-based group of deep-pocketed corporations, now including ATT, Costco, General Motors, Google, IBM and Microsoft.
In fact, said Rob Gifford, PhD, former postdoctoral researcher in infectious diseases and the study's lead author, lentiviruses may have existed in ancestral primates as long as 85 million years ago.
Some retroviruses infect cells that mature into sperm or eggs, incorporating viral DNA into the host's genome.
He searched the genome sequencing of each species for strings of nucleotides that matched the modern lentivirus genome and found one lurking in the DNA of the tiny gray mouse lemur. The last of the land bridges between Madagascar and Africa disappeared 14 million years ago, suggesting that lentiviruses are likely at least that old.
But Shafer said that sort of cross-species transmission is unlikely, becauce the leap from primate to bat and back would be difficult for a lentivirus to make. Primates infected with the simian version of HIV are protected from developing AIDS by several genes which code for proteins in the immune system that slow or block retroviral reproduction. But if Gifford and his colleagues find more evidence that lentiviruses and primates have been in each other's genetic business for many millions of years, they could turn that assumption on its head. Funding was provided by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the James Martin 21st Century School. Catherine DiGiorgio of the University of Texas - Houston, may have positive and negative implications on the latest recommendation by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that all adults over 60 receive the vaccine, according to Fierce Vaccines.
Two of the patients still had varicella DNA on their saliva swabs 28 days after inoculation, Fierce Vaccines reports. It may not display this or other websites correctly.You should upgrade or use an alternative browser.
I grabbed a complimentary wipe at the door, and I scrubbed the shopping cart handle with gusto.
A new ad by the group Agenda Project Action Fund all but accused the GOP of letting people die by draining funds from the CDC and the National Institutes of Health. The president's recent budget includes a slight increase in both CDC and NIH funding -- though well short of what Democrats and medical research advocates say is necessary. And so, other media outlets that have looked at the president's requests have put forward different statistics. That year the Prevention and Public Health Fund helped soften the blow by adding $610 million.
Those evil, stingy Republicans actually approved CDC funding increases in January larger than what President Obama requested.
At Obama’s behest, in the wake of high-profile school shootings, the CDC scored $10 million last year to study violent video games and media images, as well as to assess “existing strategies for preventing gun violence and identifying the most pressing research questions, with the greatest potential public health impact.” Whatever that means.

The CDC’s “Injury Centers” (Did you know there are 13 of them?) have crafted a “national action plan” and funded countless studies to prevent boo-boos and accidents on the nation’s playgrounds. The CDC has funded studies and campaigns “promoting positive community norms” and “safe, stable, nurturing relationships (SSNRs)” in homes and schools. In 2000, the agency essentially lied to Congress about how it spent up to $7.5 million earmarked each year since 1993 for research on the deadly hantavirus.
The findings could provide insight into why non-human primates don't get AIDS and lead to treatments for humans. No one knew lentiviruses could be inherited this way until last year, when Gifford discovered Rabbit Endogenous Lentivirus type K among the DNA of the European rabbit.
Four hundred kilometers of ocean divide the two branches of primates, limiting the opportunities to swap germs.
Previous research suggests these genes evolved in response to millions of years of retrovirus infection.
New insights about the evolution of ancient innate immune defenses against retroviruses could lead to HIV treatments or vaccines. DiGiorgio and other researchers do not yet know if the virus shed after immunization is infectious. The funding for the CDC that year ended up at $6.73 billion after the other accounts were taken into effect. Certainly, it's fair to say that Republicans were more interested than Democrats in cutting the budgets of those agencies during the past few years.
According to administration figures, Obama requested $5.47 billion for the CDC for FY 2015, which is a $180 million increase from FY 2014. Maybe if they hadn’t been so busy squandering their massive government subsidies on everything but their core mission, we taxpayers might actually feel a twinge of sympathy.
Thomas Frieden appoints a 15-member “Community Preventive Services Task Force” to promote pet Nanny State projects. Apparently, there aren’t enough teachers, parents, local school districts, and county and state regulators to police the slides and seesaws. The Secretary, in the Secretary's discretion, shall determine whether a particular condition constitutes a communicable disease of the type specified in section 1 of this order. The cuts were softened by the fact that the CDC received money from additional funding streams. An obscure Obamacare rule–Section 4003(b)(1)–stealthily increased the task force’s authority to study “any policies, programs, processes or activities designed to affect or otherwise affecting health at the population level.” Last year, the meddling panel extended the agency’s reach into transportation safety with a call to impose a federal universal motorcycle helmet law on the country. The doctors and scientists and researchers are just as frustrated with their management as anyone else is. In that fiscal year, additional funding streams actually resulted in a higher overall account for the CDC than the prior year.
The CDC also misspent $22.7 million appropriated for chronic fatigue syndrome and was investigated in 2001 for squandering $13 million on hepatitis C research.

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