Wooden buildings west midlands,garden shed sale essex ct,sheds woodbridge va zip code,building plans for a large shed workshop - Review

21.09.2014
This single storey holiday house sits on an unusually flat site overlooking a wild flower meadow that is populated by Deer during the evening.
The house is simply planned, kitchen, bathrooms, utility and entrance lobby are accommodated in a thick wall facing north, the occupied spaces all face south, connected by a simple top lit circulation route.Every effort is being made to minimise disruption between inside and out, floor to ceiling glazed openings maximise solar gain during the day, and will dissappear during the evening reinforcing the connection to outside. Traditionally constructed including the re-use of stone already on the site, completion is targetted for february 2006. Burnside, Plockton – a development of 24 houses in a sensitive site on the approach to Plockton in Rosshire (just before the school if you know the area). Based on the principles of homezones the external spaces will be entirely shared surfaces, and incorporate novel ideas for traffic calming. The client is Lochalsh and Skye Housing Association, an application for planning was lodged at the beginning of June.
Workshops & Wooden Garages in West Sussex and SurreyWhy not invest in a workshop where you have the space to store your tools and an area to build something new? Beside the famous mines along the downstream Feather River and the mines on the Yuba in Sierra County, gold was discovered above Graeagle in 1851 by a small group of miners who discovered a rich ledge of exposed gold bearing quartz high on Eureka Peak. During the winter months mining slowed or ceased and miners discovered a new avenue for their energy and winter boredom through a€?long boardinga€? or a€?snowshoeinga€? (todaya€™s skia€™s).
Together with the history of the long boarders and the tramway or ski lift, Plumas Eureka State Park is said to be the home of the worlda€™s first ski hill. By about 1884, there were enough people in the area to warrant the establishment of voting precincts.
Clio, located a few miles south of Graeagle, became a hub for the timber industry by 1903 when a railroad was established there. Graeagle began as a mill town, being part of a 12,000 acre timber tract acquisition by Arthur Davies from the Sierra Iron Company back in 1916. Arthur Davies built a new sawmill in June of 1916 behind the current Graeagle grocery store (The Graeagle Store).
The new mill needed housing for its employees at this new endeavor, so Davies had his company houses in the Sardine Valley transported via the Boca-Loyalton Railroad to Graeagle.
With the assorted buildings and other improvements, including a large dairy and a company store, the community started to take form, centering around the mill.
The California Fruit Exchange then utilized the lumber facilities to make a multitude of fruit boxes that were needed within the fruit industry in the Sacramento valley.
A millpond was created, a box factory built, molding and planing mills erected as well as drying kilns. One of the many buildings still standing in the area is the old a€?dairya€?, a stone building, built in the 1930a€™s, that is situated near the Blairsden bridge on the Feather River, just a short walk or bike ride from downtown Graeagle. Other structures and buildings in town included a potato shed dug into the hill across from the store, a tall white house across from the dairy that was both a stagecoach stop and hotel, two large three story bunk houses along Gray Eagle Creek, a blacksmith shop and the present day maintenance shop.
By this time, there were about 600 workers in the woods and at the mill, including the families. By the 30a€™s and 40a€™s, some roads began to be paved, and gas or propane began replacing wood stoves in local homes. With the mines shutting down and with World War II, activities slowed down for a short period. Today, the West family maintain the beautiful town of Graeagle in much the same manner of yesteryear, providing modern services for the community and developing small segments of their holdings.
Several different versions of how Graeagle (pronounced Gray Eagle) got its name have been produced. But more modern day history has it that when the California Fruit Exchange took over, they wanted to change the name of the town from Davies Mill to something else. A A A  As with all of California, the Graeagle area was initially inhabited by Native Americans. A A A  Beside the famous mines along the downstream Feather River and the mines on the Yuba in Sierra County, gold was discovered above Graeagle in 1851 by a small group of miners who discovered a rich ledge of exposed gold bearing quartz high on Eureka Peak. A A A  During the winter months mining slowed or ceased and miners discovered a new avenue for their energy and winter boredom through a€?long boardinga€? or a€?snowshoeinga€? (todaya€™s skia€™s). A A A  Together with the history of the long boarders and the tramway or ski lift, Plumas Eureka State Park is said to be the home of the worlda€™s first ski hill. A A A  By about 1884, there were enough people in the area to warrant the establishment of voting precincts. A A A  Clio, located a few miles south of Graeagle, became a hub for the timber industry by 1903 when a railroad was established there.
A A A  Graeagle began as a mill town, being part of a 12,000 acre timber tract acquisition by Arthur Davies from the Sierra Iron Company back in 1916. A A A  Arthur Davies built a new sawmill in June of 1916 behind the current Graeagle grocery store (The Graeagle Store). A A A  The new mill needed housing for its employees at this new endeavor, so Davies had his company houses in the Sardine Valley transported via the Boca-Loyalton Railroad to Graeagle. A A A  With the assorted buildings and other improvements, including a large dairy and a company store, the community started to take form, centering around the mill. A A A  The California Fruit Exchange then utilized the lumber facilities to make a multitude of fruit boxes that were needed within the fruit industry in the Sacramento valley. A A A  A millpond was created, a box factory built, molding and planing mills erected as well as drying kilns. A A A  One of the many buildings still standing in the area is the old a€?dairya€?, a stone building, built in the 1930a€™s, that is situated near the Blairsden bridge on the Feather River, just a short walk or bike ride from downtown Graeagle. A A A  Other structures and buildings in town included a potato shed dug into the hill across from the store, a tall white house across from the dairy that was both a stagecoach stop and hotel, two large three story bunk houses along Gray Eagle Creek, a blacksmith shop and the present day maintenance shop. A A A  By this time, there were about 600 workers in the woods and at the mill, including the families.
A A A  By the 30a€™s and 40a€™s, some roads began to be paved, and gas or propane began replacing wood stoves in local homes.
A A A  The Graeagle Fire Department sponsored many social events, including a Christmas Gala.
A A A  With the mines shutting down and with World War II, activities slowed down for a short period. A A A  Today, the West family maintain the beautiful town of Graeagle in much the same manner of yesteryear, providing modern services for the community and developing small segments of their holdings. A A A  Several different versions of how Graeagle (pronounced Gray Eagle) got its name have been produced. A A A  But more modern day history has it that when the California Fruit Exchange took over, they wanted to change the name of the town from Davies Mill to something else. During the 19th century, from around 1850, a number of beautiful hotel buildings were erected in the classic Swiss style, particularly around the fjords of West Norway.
The Hotel has collected a number of art works and collectibles which are displayed throughout the hotel and give it its special appeal and atmosphere. The Nitter Walaker Family have run the Walaker Hotell since 1690 and today it is being run by the 8th and 9th generations. The totally 23 guest rooms are spread in 3 different houses and most rooms have a view over the fjord and towards Urnes stave church, which is situated on the opposite side of the fjord. The Jostedalsbre glacier is a short car drive from the hotel, where the Breheim Centre lies at the foot of the most well-known glacier spur, Nigardsbreen. Visnes Hotel and Villa Visnes are situated innermost in Nordfjord in the beautiful area of Stryn. Home-made meals from Norwegian raw ingredients, inspired by the continental cuisine, are served in the distinctive rooms and dining halls.
Visnes Hotel and Villa Visnes are ideal for parties, conferences and for individual guests who want a different type of hotel stay.
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Thon Hotel Kautokeino opens in June 2008 - We welcome you to a unique experinence in Northern Norway!
The hotel was built in year 1857 in the Swiss style and is one of the little old wooden hotel in Norway that offers tailoring and a homely atmosphere.
Norsjo Hotel is conveniently situated right in the middle of the beautiful Telemark, giving close access to the sites and features of Southern Norway. For over 200 years the goal of this restaurant has been to show hospitality and service to guests.
Kjobmandsgaarden Hotel is located in the middle of Mandal downtown, with narrow streets and white-colored buildings.
Sandtorgholmen Hotel is idyllically located on a peninsula pointing into Tjeldsundet – the sound separating Hinnoya from the mainland. When the hotel was built in 1984, they asked themselves what could get people to come to Overhalla, of all places, to be taught, meet or just live.
Use this space to create a self-styled ad (with your chosen image and a click through link to your website). DESCRIPTION: In so far as ancient cartography is concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian artifact is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by agents of Bernardino Drovetti, the French Consul General in Egypt, between 1814 and 1821 and now preserved in the Egizio Museum of Turin, Italy.
It is now known that Drovetti obtained both the quarry map and tomb plan, along with many other papyri, from Amennakhtea€™s family tomb at Deir el-Medina. The extant papyrus consists of two principal sections, earlier thought to belong to two different documents.
The second section of the papyrus comprises a number of fragments for which the final placement, based on careful study of the fibers of the papyrus, has yet to be made. The Turin Papyrus fragments were long considered the earliest surviving topographical map from Egypt to have come to light. The route marked as leading off from the cross valley to the left is likewise described as a€?another road that leads to the ym.a€? The placement of the second section to the right of the map of the gold region seems correct, since it would then constitute the beginning of a papyrus roll, which would normally suffer greater damage. The difficulties in matching features depicted and labeled on the papyrus with those on the ground are compounded by the absence of any indications of scale.
Two geologists from the University of Toledo in Ohio examined the map and recognized topographical features from the map, a roadway still in use and the mountains on both sides, shown as cones.
An ancient Egyptian map drawn on a scroll of papyrus paper was discovered between 1814 and 1821 by agents of Bernardino Drovetti, the French Consul General in Egypt.
The current reconstruction of the map in the Egyptian Museum, which dates to the early 1900a€™s, is incorrect in several of its details. The map was rolled up when discovered and subsequently handled, and this explains the especially poor preservation of the rightmost portion in Figure 3, which formed the outer abraded surface of the scroll.
The Turin papyrus map is notable for being the only topographic map to survive from ancient Egypt and also for being one of the earliest maps in the world with real geographic content. From the good agreement between the modern maps of the area and the Turin Map, it can be seen that the papyrus clearly depicts Wadi Hammamata€™s long course and eventual confluence with wadis Atalla and el-Sid, the surrounding hills (shown as stylized conical forms with wavy flanks that are laid out flat on both sides of the valleys), the quarry for bekhen-stone, and the gold mine and settlement at Bir Umm Fawakhir (a€?Well of the Mother of Potterya€™). Fragment A shows five cultural features associated with the gold-mining settlement, including: four houses, a temple dedicated to the God Amun (the large white area subdivided by walls), a monument stone honoring King Sety I (1290-1279 BC of the New Kingdoma€™s 19th Dynasty), a water reservoir, and, at the confluence of wadis Hammamat and el-Sid, a water well with an encircling wall that casts a shadow on its right side.
On map fragments A and H, within the main valley represented by multi-colored dots, there are three small drawings of trees, which from their form can be identified as Tamarisks. The papyrus map also has numerous annotations written in hieratic script (the cursive form of hieroglyphic writing) that identify the features shown on the map (see Table 1 for translations), including: the destinations of the valley routes (texts 1-3, 9 and 16 on fragment A), the distance between the bekhen-stone quarry and gold mine (text 17 on fragment E), the location of gold deposits in the hills (texts 4-5, 11-12 and 16a€™ on fragments A and D), the gold-mining settlement (texts 6-8 and 10 on fragment A), the bekhen-stone quarry (text 20 on fragment H), and the sizes of the quarried bekhen-stone blocks (texts 23 and 25-28 on fragments M-P).
Besides being a topographic map of surprisingly modern aspect, the Turin papyrus is also a geologic map because it accurately shows the geographic distribution of different rock types (the black hills with Hammamat siliciclastics, and the pink hills with Dokhan volcanics, Atalla serpentinite and Fawakhir granite) and the lithologically diverse wadi gravel (the brown, green and white dots within the main valley that represent different kinds of rocks), and it also contains information on quarrying and mining (see Table 2 for a description of the geologic units).
There he was told to gather a large quantity of copper [which would have been used for the tools wielded by the workers excavating the royal and private tombs] and bring them to the Temple. Guards of the Treasury, Paynodjom and Amenmose son of Tjewenany, and the servant Pnekhemope. Synopsis, Part 2: Hori returned to Karnak Temple in the company of Paynodjom and Amenmose plus the two Foremen of the Tomb, Nekhemmut (Horia€™s brother) and Anherkhe.
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An awkward triangular site, has created an unusual form which maximises aspect and views over the harbour, the extension is raised above the existing ground floor level to create additional privacy within the new living space.
This spurred a great influx of people into the area above Graeagle, in the present day community of Johnsville and Plumas Eureka State Park. Today, the Plumas Eureka Ski Club continues the legacy by holding the historic long board races that culminate in the world championships at the old Eureka Ski Hill. The park displays remnants of its history through the preservation of many of the mine buildings left from the period, a rebuilt stamp mill, a blacksmith shop complete with docents, a wonderful museum and one of the areas best campgrounds. Lumber mills were started in the area at about this period, near Mohawk and later by the present-day Plumas Eureka golf course. By 1917, Clio boasted three mills, the Clio Lumber Company, the McKenzie Mill and the Burkhard and Gracey Mill. Initially the new plant was cutting about 50,000 board feet of mostly pine lumber per day, but in 1917 a fire destroyed the mill. The homes were sawn in half so that they would fit on the B&L flatcars, then moved by rail to Beckwourth, where they were transferred to NCO trains and carried to Clio. Fresh milk was delivered daily to the family homes and the cookhouse, which is the present day Knotty Pine Tavern.This building also housed a pool table, barbershop, an upstairs beauty parlor and an adjoining ice cream parlor. Story goes that the store fire happened as a result of a cover up for shortages in the payroll by one of the time keepers.
The maintenance shop was built to accommodate locomotives, with a railway running in one door and out the other. Electric stoves appeared in the early 1940a€™s and radios began keeping the populace abreast on outside issues and for entertainment. They were the group that provided for the boxing arena and prizefights that were held twice monthly, giving locals summer entertainment. Teams from all over Northern California, even from as far away as Salt Lake City, came to Graeagle to play the national pastime. After the war, the mill continued but in 1951 the millpond was washed out and in 1954 the cookhouse shut down for good because it was losing too much money.
To commemorate this event, the mill whistle blew for five solid minutes signifying that the last log had gone through the band mill. The downtown perimeter of Graeagle has been preserved with its historic charm of an earlier period of Plumas County history. The hotel is situated in Solvorn, which has been described as a small, south coast village right in the middle of Indre Sogn. In the old cowshed there is today a distinctive art gallery, Galleri Walaker 300, which was opened on the family's 300th anniversary in 1990.
You can take a walk to the mountains directly from the hotel, or just stroll along beside the water. Visnes Hotel, originally a an inn, is today run by the 6th generation of the Visnes family. Post your local events and reviews, enter our competitions, and join in the chat on the talk boards. The map was made about 1150 BC by the well-known a€?Scribe of the Tomba€? Amennakhte, son of Ipuy.
If the map was made for Ramesses IVa€™s big quarrying expedition then why did Amennakhte keep it, and why did he and others reuse its backside for documents and drawings unrelated to the map?


The more important section is a fragment, measuring approximately 40 cm high, generally called the a€?map of the gold minesa€?.
Near the junction of the cross valley with the upper route a circular, dark-colored image is marked, with a second partially overlapping design in a darker black line. Its principal feature is the continuation of the wide, winding route of the wadi interspersed with stones. The papyrus clearly has a character distinct from the cosmological drawings of the universe or of the routes to, or depiction of, the after-life found within the formal context of religious art. This requires the resolution of questions concerning the placement of fragments in the second section and the identification of the places to which the roads to the left of the viewer are said to lead. The map would then show on the right (that is, the West) the darker a€?schista€? areas of the main part of Wadi al-Hammamat, with the gold mines of the region of Bir Umm Fawakhir some twenty-five kilometers to the East.
Annotations on the second portion of the papyrus suggest that the document was drawn up in connection with work on the extraction and transport of stone, ultimately destined perhaps for a royal tomb in the Valley of the Kings. The geographical content depicts three roads leading from unidentified Egyptian gold mines to the Red Sea.
The colors pink, brown, black and white were used to illustrate mountains and other features; however, the geologists James Harrell and Max Brown believe that these colors were not used for aesthetics, but that they a€?correspond with the actual appearance of the rocks making up the mountainsa€?. The map came from a private tomb in the ancient village of Deir el-Medina, near the modern-day city of Luxor (ancient Thebes) in Egypt (Figure 1).
A new arrangement of the map fragments has been proposed and this is shown in Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6. Map of Egypt showing the locations of Reir el-Medina,a€? the Valley of Kings and Wadi Hammamat. An unknown amount of the papyrus has been lost at its right edge and so fragments K and N-P cannot be correctly placed. The arrangement of the papyrus map fragments as currently displayed in the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy. Although there are a few older topographic maps from outside Egypt, they are all quite crude and rather abstract in comparison to the relatively modern-looking map drawn on the Turin papyrus.
Bekhen-stone (geologically, metagraywacke sandstone and siltstone) is a beautiful grayish-green ornamental stone that was highly prized by the ancient Egyptians.
The brown patch of ground opposite the settlement may represent an area where either mine tailings were dumped or farming was practiced. The tree on fragment H (Figure 9), which is drawn upside-down, is just opposite the bekhen-stone quarry (the green oval at the base of the brownish black hill) and at the center of the sharp bend in the valley.
Text 18 on fragment F is especially important for understanding the purpose of the map because it refers to a bekhen-stone quarrying expedition and the destination of the quarried blocks.
Detail of the papyrus map (fragment H) showing an upside down tree in the wadi directly opposite from the bekhen-stone quarry, which is shown as a greenish oval embedded within the brownish black hillside.
Additionally notable are the representation of iron-stained, gold-bearing quartz veins with three radiating bands on the pink hill above the gold-mining settlement on fragment A (beneath text 5), and text 11 on fragment A, which reads very much like a legend on modern geologic maps by explaining what the pink coloring represents.
Texts 17 and 18 are written in a script that is bold, calligraphic and near-hieroglyphic in style. They met with Ramessenkhte and turned over the requested copper to the Scribe Khonsmose, who received it for the Treasury of Amun.
Map of Egypt showing the locations of Reir el-Medina, the Valley of Kings and Wadi Hammamat. This knowledge passed on to kings, emperors, sultans and their families and members of their royal courts. The new form will be constructed from traditional materials, including locally sourced oak. Thirty six mines formed the Eureka Company, 76 the Washington Company and about 40 miners claimed the Rough and Ready. The park itself is a popular place to visit in the summer months for hiking, biking, backpacking, fishing, interpretive programs and history tours. From this point, a combination of horses, wagons and vehicles moved the assorted buildings to Graeagle. It was at this point that the California Fruit Exchange of Sacramento came into the picture and offered Davies $1 million for his holdings, which by the time the deal closed had risen to $1.25 million for the Davies mill complex. A dance hall (the Graeagle Restaurant) and movie theater completed the offerings, along with a filling station, at the same location of the present day Chevron station. Grades 1-8 were taught in the two room school, with high school being located over in Portola. One of the bunk houses burned to the ground in the 60a€™s and the other was dismantled by Tom Maher of Gold Lake and is now the Gold Lake Store.
Slot machines were leased from Harry Jones in Portola and these provided for most of the profits for these events. Baseball and boxing were the favorite summer activities and in September the California Fruit Exchange sent three or four carloads of grapes to Graeagle. Relatively speaking the wages earned per day by a mill worker could pay the monthly rent in only one day. Another economic reality was that the availability of marketable logs was disappearing nearby.
With huge stacks of cut lumber remaining, the planing mill continued until May of 1957 when lumber activity in the Mohawk Valley shut down. Baker came to the area in 1856 on horseback stumping for the election of the famous explorer John C. Fortunately, the fjords of West Norway are still graced with these beautiful buildings, thanks to enthusiastic and often devout restoration work which has returned the hotel buildings to their former glory. Since then the establishment has undergone constant development which continues to this day.
In 1999, the family bought the neighboring hotel, Villa Visnes and a magnificent and unique building in the dragon style from 1898. It was prepared for one of the quarrying expeditions sent to Wadi Hammamat by King Ramesses IV (1156-1150 BC) of the New Kingdoma€™s 20th Dynasty. First, the text on the map side is in Amennakhtea€™s distinctive handwriting, which is well known to Egyptologists who have studied his many other writings. It depicts two broad roads, running parallel to each other through pinkish-red mountainous regions.
The draftsman has distributed distinctive features in accordance with the reality of a particular area, adding clarity by the use of legends and contrasting colors. In descriptions of property in the later period, the points of the compass are given in the order South, North, East, West, suggesting that Egyptians oriented themselves facing South, with North behind them, the West to their right and the East to their left. A more recent comparison of the features shown on the map with the ground matches the various features specifically mentioned in the gold map with the central area of Wadi al-Hammamat and with the upper part of the papyrus constituting the North. The only indication of its purpose seems to be given in the series of hieratic notations written on those areas left blank above and below the route and the black areas depicted on the fragments of the second section.
Some of these notes seem to give measurements of blocks; one seems to provide measurements of actual distances separating points on the map. A prominent feature of the plan is what seems to be a winding wadi, or ravine, about the same width as the roads, in the mountains of Egypta€™s eastern desert between Qift on the Nile, down from Thebes, and Quseir on the Red Sea. One regiona€™s sedimentary rocks, which range from purplish to dark gray and dark green, are mapped in black. This village housed the workers responsible for excavating and decorating the royal tombs of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1539-1075 BC) in the nearby Valley of Kings and Valley of Queens. The principal changes are the transposition of map fragments H-J and E, the placement of L at the bottom of E, and the narrowing of gaps between many of the fragments (which shortens the map to about 210 cm). The map is not truncated here, but drawings of an unknown number of stone blocks and the accompanying texts are missing. This map shows a 15 km stretch of Wadi Hammamat (a€?Valley of Many Bathsa€™) in the central part of Egypta€™s Eastern Desert (Figure 1).
The only quarry was in Wadi Hammamat, and this was worked sporadically from the Early Dynastic period through Roman times (about 3000 BC to 400 AD).
On the ancient map, this is the only major bend in Wadi Hammamat prior to its confluence with Wadi Atalla. The Turin papyrus is the oldest known geologic map in the world and it is all the more remarkable considering that it would be another 2900 years before the next geologic map was made and this was in France during the mid-1700a€™s.
Note that a€?a€¦a€? indicates missing text, untranslated ancient Egyptian words are italicized, and comments are given within brackets. Turin 1879, verso II),a€? Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 31 (1994): 91-97. Volume 1: Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean, pp.
They ate from silver plates, drank from silver cups, used silver utensils and stored their food in silver containers.Generations ago, pioneers trekking across the Wild West in the US faced many hardships. The California Gold Rush of 1848-49 also lured lots of miners into the surrounding hills searching for gold.
The miners soon learned to use this motorized lift to transport themselves during the winter time for these longboard races. In the wintertime, cross country skiing and snowshoeing are enjoyed along with the monthly longboard races. 89 near Dog Valley and Stampede Reservoir) as well as a sawmill in Delleker, just outside of present day Portola.
To this day, one can still see visible signs of the joining on the red houses that adorn the main street.
And with over half of the towna€™s population being single, each and every a€?school marma€? was courted regularly , got married and evidently they didna€™t stay on to teach for very long. But by mid-summer of 1923, the Graeagle store and the Knotty Pine Tavern were rebuilt and were reopened. There were orchestras out of Reno, door prizes donated by local merchants and a large supper was served at midnight.
It was such a big event that when it arrived, the mill whistle would blow and everyone gathered to receive a share of the grapes.
And, cardboard boxes started replacing wooden boxes for the transport of fruit and vegetables nationwide. The mills equipment was auctioned off as two hundred buyers from all over the western states came in late May of 1957 to buy the sawmill, box factory and planing mill equipment. Many new building , remodeling and expansion projects have been carried out without diminishing the distinctive architecture and charm of the Swiss chalet-style complex. The purpose of these expeditions was to obtain blocks of bekhen-stone that would be carved into statues of the gods, king and other notables. And second, the first and earliest text on the backside of the papyrus was written and signed by Amennakhte.
Because papyrus paper was an expensive commodity in ancient Egypt, it was common practice among scribes to use the originally blank backsides once whatever was written or drawn on the front side was no longer needed.
They are drawn horizontally across the papyrus, the lower with indications of a rocky bed or sparse vegetation, characteristic of the larger dried-up watercourses or wadia€™s that form the natural routes across the eastern desert from the Nile to the Red Sea. A little below and to the right of the design is another, more oblong in shape, colored green with the zigzag lines by which the ancient Egyptians conventionally represented water.
In contrast with the gold-mine section, the area on each side of the road is colored black, and the legend indicates that in this area the stone known to the ancient Egyptians as bekhen is to be found. The texts indicate that the area depicted must be along the natural route from Coptos (Qift) on the Nile through the eastern desert via Wadi al-Hammamat to the port of Quseir on the Red Sea. If this placement were correct and the fragments of the second portion were to be placed to the right, it would require the ym to which the road now leads westward, that is, back to the Nile, to be taken in some sense other than the Red Sea.
In contrast with the hieratic texts on the gold map identifying geographical features, these texts refer to the transport of a statute. Soon after it was found, the map was sold to king Charles Felix, ruler of the northern Italian Kingdom of Sardenia and Piedmont. The Egyptian Museum has many small map fragments that it left out of its reconstruction (and are also missing from Figures 3-8) and eventually these a€?pieces of the puzzlea€™ will be added to create a more complete map. The top is oriented toward the south and the source of the Nile River with west on the right side and east to the left.
The gold mine at Bir Umm Fawakhir was active during the New Kingdom and again in the Ptolemaic through Early Byzantine periods (about 1500 BC to 600 AD). As seen in Figure 9, however, Wadi Hammamat actually has many sharp bends as well as wide meanderings. There is no reason to think, however, that the ancient author intentionally set out to make a geologic map. Gardiner, a€?The tomb of Ramesses IV and the Turin plan of a royal tomb,a€? Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 4 (1917): 130-158.
Then, farming families followed and they too migrated into the Mohawk Valley, the Sierra Valley and other areas of California.
The miners started above Eureka Lake and traveled about 1700 feet downhill, at speeds up to 80 miles per hour on homemade skis up to 12 ft.
Other dwellings also came from the Clairville and Delleker areas by placing giant logs under each to act as a skid and then they were methodically moved by either horse teams or Mack trucks to Graeagle.
A steam line that ran across the highway serviced the large red houses on the hill (across from the current grocery store). A large dedication ball was thrown with nearly 500 people attending, supposedly the largest to that date gathering of guests and visitors in the county. The women shared long hours too, keeping domestic duties such as cooking on woodstoves, washing the family clothes on washboards and other manual chores of the day. Besides the Christmas Gala, the Graeagle Fire Department also managed monthly Saturday night dances that became known as the Firemana€™s Ball. Fremonta€™s nickname was the Gray Eagle of Republicanism and therefore the name, Gray Eagle.
Arthur Davies, was looking outside when she saw the sign designating a€?Gray Eagle Creeka€? and she came up with the idea to merely drop the a€?ya€? out of gray and make it into one word. Today, the hotel is a highly modern facility resounding with tradition and culture, in addition to being one of Norway?s largest fine hotels catering for tourists. A now famous rock-cut inscription or stela (officially designated CM 12) was left on the quarry wall by this king to commemorate his final and largest expedition during the third year of his six-year reign. In other words, the papyrus map became scrap paper after the quarrying expedition it recorded lost its importance, perhaps following Ramesses IVa€™s death a few years after the map was made. Legends written in hieratic, the cursive hieroglyphic everyday hand of the time, explain where these routes to the left are leading. Within the design there are traces of a hieratic group, apparently to be read as a€?cisterna€?, a€?water-place,a€? or the like. This black or dark green stone, generally called schist by Egyptian archaeologists, is more properly identified as graywacke. This route was used in ancient times in the course of expeditions to the Red Sea for trading voyages south to the land known to the Egyptians as Punt [Somaliland]. Such a view seems to be supported by the legend designating the upper route of the gold map leading off to the left as a€?the road that leads to the ym,a€? that is, to the Red Sea, taking ym in its most common meaning. It would likewise place the area of bekhen stone to the east of the location of the main quarry inscriptions in Wadi al-Hammamat.
A text of five lines, of which the first four lack their beginnings, seems to reflect a situation in which a king sent an expedition to the Wadi al-Hammamat to bring a statue back to Thebes.


To judge from instructions contained in a model letter copied by a pupil as part of his scribal training (instructions that seem to refer to the same general area as the Turin Map), calculations of distance are the kind of work a scribe might be expected to do. It is believed that this map also displays the gold-bearing basin to the east of Coptos (shown in pink on the original map) in the mountainous region of Nubia [part of modern Sudan] located at Bir Umm Fawakhir in the Wadi Hammamat. According to these geologists, this is probably one of the oldest surviving geological maps and the earliest evidence of geological thought. In 1824, this king established the Egyptian Museum in Turin, the kingdoma€™s capital, and here the map has resided ever since. Figures 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8 are computer-generated photo-mosaics derived from digital scans of photographs taken of the papyrus.
There is no constant scale used on the map, but by comparison with the actual distances in Wadi Hammamat it is evident that the scale varies between 50 and 100 m for each 1 cm on the map. Because the ancient map was drawn on a papyrus scroll, which would have resembled a modern roll of paper towels, the author did not have the freedom to show the true wandering course of Wadi Hammamat and so included only the most important bend, the one near the bekhen-stone quarry. From the colors used for the hills and wadi gravel, it is evident that he merely drew what he literally saw in the desert a€“ the real hills and surface gravels have the same general colors as those on the map (Table 2). Brown, a€?The oldest surviving topographical map from ancient Egypt (Turin Papyri 1879, 1899 and 1969),a€? Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 29 (1992): 81-105. Bacteria, algae, etc., found a fertile breeding ground in wooden casks, which were carried by the wagons. Ranches were established as the meadows were ideal for raising beef and dairy cattle, providing hay for feed.
About 1872, the town of Johnsville came into existence, it being more of a business and family oriented community. Picnics and family dinners were additional community events, along with an occasional silent movie. An additional bonus that the California Fruit Exchange did was provide every family with a free turkey at Christmas time and free turkey dinners were provided for the bachelors at Thanksgiving and at Christmas time. Another version is that a local Indian Chief, named Grayeagle, once resided here and thus the name. Thus the new name a€?Graeaglea€? won the contest and gave the community the name that it enjoys to this day.
According to the inscription, this included 8,362 men, which makes it the largest recorded quarrying expedition to Wadi Hammamat after one about 800 years earlier during the Middle Kingdoma€™s 12th Dynasty.
As one of the two a€?Scribes of the Tomba€™ during Ramesses IVa€™s reign (along with Hori, son of Khons, who also wrote some of the later texts on the back), Amennakhte was an important administrative official in the Theban region and this is where the map (text 18) says the blocks of bekhen-stone were taken.
The enormous expenditures of the Pharaohs and the priesthood were met principally by taxes on the land, payable usually in the form of grain crops.
A broad, winding crossway wadi connects the two routes, from which an alternative route is indicated and labeled, also leading to the left.
In the same central section of the map a round-topped stela is also indicated in white, with a legend dating it to the reign of Sethos I of the 19th Dynasty. The surviving fragments give no indication of precise locations comparable to those found on the section depicting the gold mining region and its settlements.
The central area, between Bir Al-Hammamat and Bir Umm Fawakhir, was visited as a source of ornamental stone and gold, and it is rich in rock tables, recording quarrying expeditions and in archaeological evidence of ancient gold mining. It was, we are informed, deposited in a workshop beside the mortuary temple of Ramesses II (Ramesseum) on the west bank of the Nile of Thebes and subsequently taken, half-worked, to the Valley of the Kings in a regal year six. The scroll notes the locations of the mine and quarry, the gold and silver content of surrounding mountains and the destination of the roadways. According to the geologist Harrell, a€?In order for it to be a geological map, it must show distribution of different rock types.
The many map fragments were originally considered parts of three separate papyri that were designated as Papyrus or P.
The plentitude of fertile soils in the area provided for the growing of wheat, potatoes, and other vegetables.
Johnsville, adjacent to Plumas Eureka State Park, is still a small mountain community with one restaurant, The Iron Door and many historic looking buildings. People came from all around for these competitions and prize money sometimes was as much as $250, a vast sum in those days.
In essence, the town was deserted, all the other houses became vacant and abandoned, In 1959, Harvey West Sr., offered California Fruit Exchange $450,000 for the remaining property, which was 10,482 acres of timberland, town, farm and meadowland. It is almost certainly for Ramesses IVa€™s big expedition that the map was made, but what purpose it served is unclear. He is well known from his many other surviving works to be an individual with an unusual combination of scribal, cartographic and artistic skills as well as a a€?sense of geologya€™. For purposes of such taxation, the land was carefully measured and registered, and the boundaries marked.
Running vertically from the upper route is yet another road with hieratic text that gives its destination. The feature is presumably to be identified with one of the rock-cut stelae executed by that king, depicting Amun or another deity, preserved on the mountain face flanking the wadi.
Such a docket must have been written at Thebes, the papyrus obviously having been at some time in the possession of one of the scribes attached to the work gang responsible for constructing and decorating the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings.
Surveying rarely resulted in graphic maps, and in this respect ancient Egypt is very similar to medieval Europe until well into the 14th and 15th centuries. The mapmaker has tried to show how the two main east-west roads lie in valleys that are linked by a road that curves through a mountain pass. Secondarily, it should indicate the location of geological features like mountains and valleys. A British company, calling themselves Sierra Buttes Mining Company entered the picture and consolidated all of the mines on Eureka Peak.
Royalty, emperors, presidents, prime ministers, movie stars and artists from many countries grace the guest list. It could not have been a road map showing the way to the quarry because it only covers a small area with the 75 km between Wadi Hammamat and the Nile Valley excluded. These attributes are especially well displayed on another of his papyri in Turina€™s Egyptian Museum.
Jottings on the back of the papyrus include a reference to the statute of Ramesses IV of the 20th Dynasty, suggesting that year six should refer to the reign of that king. In both regards the scroll qualifies and reminds us of modern geological mapping.a€? The English surveyor William Smith is credited with initiating modern geologic mapmaking in 1815.
Most of these fragments were eventually recombined to form a single map about 280 cm long by 41 cm wide (Figure 2).
But silver nitrate is a silver salt and is caustic, and therefore burns tissue, much like iodine.These early, unstable and crudely made silver solutions were sometimes injected directly into the body, taken orally or applied topically.
Bringing in new technology of the day this mine improved profits and continued through mining cycles until the turn of the 20th century. It was called a€?dopea€?, a closely guarded concoction of pine tar, herbal additives and so many variations that remain a mystery to this day. Most likely, it was drawn as a visual record of the expedition to be viewed by either Ramesses IV or Ramessenakhte, the High Priest of Amun in Thebes, who organized the expedition for the king. Centuries later, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes (#112) made use of these early Egyptian measurements in his treatises.
On either side of the main roads the map outlines saw-tooth mountain ranges in an early attempt at rendering topographical detail.
Remarkably, there were no significant side effects.Silver in the Colloidal FormThe comeback of silver in medicine began in the 1970a€™s when the late Carl Moyer, chairman of Washington Universitya€™s Department of Surgery, received a grant to develop better treatments for burn victims. Another mining venture, the Jamison Mine started in 1897 and continued to prosper until 1917.
The downhill combatants used only their grit, determination and a single wooden pole to balance, steer and eventually stop with. The nature of the country, the houses, buildings and entrances to galleries are also illustrated. Little by little, these mines diminished with boom and bust times when by 1943 mining essentially halted. It has Amennakhtea€™s distinctive handwriting labeling the parts of the tomb and giving their dimensions, and on the back is his last will and testament. By then $25 million was extracted and 65 miles of tunnels were carved out of the hills of Eureka Peak. With paved highways spreading throughout the west, the accessibility factor once a hindrance was fast becoming an asset. The plan also includes elements of geology, such as a drawing of the kinga€™s sarcophagus in the central burial chamber painted to resemble the pink granite of Aswan from which it was carved, and the location of the tomb under a mountain of well-layered, inclined strata, which is an accurate depiction of the situation in the Valley of Kings. Moyer and other surgeons to find an antiseptic strong enough, yet safe to use over large areas of the body. The early 1960a€™s saw great advancement in highways, freeways and ownership by average people of automobiles. So, Harvey West and sons formed the Graeagle Land and Water Company to manage their properties. It was described as a catalyst that disables the enzymes microorganisms depend on to a€?breathea€?.
An antibiotic kills perhaps half-dozen different disease organisms, but silver kills hundreds.
Traditional antibiotics continue to lose their ability to kill certain strains of bacteria. To date, nearly every disease causing organism known has become resistant to at least one antibiotic, and several are immune to more than one.
Pharmaceutical antibiotics looked like miracles because in the beginning there were no antibiotic-resistant strains of disease organisms.
So naturally, colloidal silver disappeared into the memory hole.But as there are more and more resistant strains to antibiotics, colloidal silver is reappearing. There is no doubt about the anti-bacterial and anti-microbial properties of colloidal silver.The only caveat is that the overuse of certain types of protein-bound silver compounds cause a gray discoloration of the skin called argyria. Most colloidal silver preparations do not have this risk because they are prepared as a homeopathic substance rather than an antibiotic with, of course, the same medicinal effect.Colloidal Silver and Antibiotics: What Does Each Do?
By Ben W Taylor A In a world where medicine has reached a high position, treating diseases has become a matter of choosing the method and the right medication, as compared to ancient lacks of medical treatment. The 20th century has registered a successful medical development, which reached its highest peak with the appearance of the pharmaceutical industry.
Along with this medical procedure wave came the wide use of antibiotics, which could stop infections and which, for a period of time, dethroned the long used colloidal silver.
Colloidal silver, representing the suspension of silver nanoparticles in distilled water, functions as a booster and to increase the strength of the immune system of the human body and has managed to keep its recognized values up to this day.But, despite the mentioned dethronement of colloidal silver by antibiotics, advanced medical research has proven that antibiotics have certain shortcomings that favor colloidal silver in medical purposes and that its benefits are not to be neglected.
Firstly, it is very important to know that antibiotics, when taken in larger quantities, can lead to side effects. For instance, taking a triple dose of penicillin to stop a cold might result into somnolence and bad concentratingColloidal silver, even taken in large doses, cannot harm the body, because the human organism extracts from the amount of silver molecules entering the blood system only the needed quantity.
The rest of silver, depending on the metabolism, is either eliminated by the lymph system and kidneys, or is stockpiled and used for prevention causes. Moreover, the silver effect over heart (which is metal-sensitive) is much diminished by the distilled water, making it, this way, impossible for the human organism to develop any allergy whatsoever.What is more, the advantage of colloidal silver is that its use does not require a long-term treatment, as compared to antibiotics, which must be administered for at least one week.
This can be explained by the fact that the silver particles act on cell microorganisms from the first dose and destroy them on the spot.
The silver molecule attaches to the enzyme and basically suffocates it, impeding this way the virus to expand or to wrap itself with a firewall - a thing which antibiotics sometimes fail to do.Colloidal Silver - The Importance To Your Body By Ben W Taylor A The supplement colloidal silver refers to a one hundred percent natural substance that is made of the smallest silver particles that are suspended in the ionized water due to the small level of electricity of these particles.What can colloidal silver do for the functions of the human body? The colloidal silver that appears in water is said to be among the most useful and most efficient types of natural medicine. The power of the colloidal silver consists in its antibiotic power - colloidal silver fights against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other micro-organisms that harm the human body. Colloidal silver is the only natural antibiotic that actually has a real effect in the process of fight against damaging biological factors.The colloidal silver is not only used as part of a treatment, but it also ensures the prevention of the diseases that are caused by the viruses and by the bacteria existent in the environment. What the colloidal silver does for the body consists in supplying of the organism with the necessary substances that are meant to vitalize it, to make it stronger and more resistant to the external destroying factors.It is a well-known fact in the medical field that while an artificial medicine destroys up to six microbes, colloidal silver prevents some diseases that are caused by a wide range of microbes, without leaving any traces, without causing any negative effects on the body (due to the fact that it is eliminated rapidly).But how does the silver reach our body on a natural way? All the minerals that the soil produces reach into the body through the vegetables and the fruits that one eats. But these plants contain silver only if they have been grown naturally, without the interference of such substances as azotes. As long as we eat plants that have not been grown in natural soil (and sadly, this is a fact in today's context), our bodies will not be supplied with the appropriate vitamins that only the truly natural plants can offer.A How Does Liquid Colloidal Silver Actually Work?
Shanks A Along with colloidal gold, colloidal silver is one of the hottest products on the market today when it comes to alternative medicine and homeopathic remedies.
While this is not a new form of healing for those who believe in natural minerals, it is easy to see why so many people are astounded by the incredible results to be had by simply adding such a wonderful natural supplement to their diet.Certainly, you will be able to understand this solution better once you learn more about how it is made as well as how it works within the body.
Silver colloidal is a solution that is made up of millions of silver molecules that are suspended in a liquid. The liquid most commonly used in colloidal silver that can be found on the market is distilled water. Not only can individuals use colloidal silver as a nutritional supplement, but it can also be taken as a very effective antibiotic. Colloidal silver can assume the role of an antibiotic simply because it has the ability to work against enzymes within the body that promote the growth of various bacteria, viruses or fungi. When the silver is able to enter the body and eliminate the oxygen source, these bacterial or viral cells will die within a short period of time. This natural solution is well known to help boost the immune system while promoting the healthy production of cells within the body. Viruses and bacteria are stopped dead in their tracks and unable to multiple once colloidal silver is regularly introduced into the body. There are even studies being conducted today that are hoping to show that the natural mineral supplement of colloidal silver can actually work to restore and replenish tissue that has been damaged in the past.Today, there are all sorts of homeopathic patients who look to the addition of silver colloidal to their daily routine so that they can knock out various infections including those that attack the ears, throat and sinuses.
If you are hoping to boost your immune system, thus strengthening your body's ability to fight various diseases, then a quality colloidal silver supplement could be just the thing that you need.
However, it is important that you find a pure colloidal solution that is not simply labeled he as such to be sure that you are getting the right product for your money spent.When you are shopping around for a colloidal silver to boost your immune system, be sure that you are looking at products that are 100% true silver colloid. Unfortunately, some of the products on the market today are labeled as a genuine silver colloid yet they are saturated with fillers and additives.
Such additions to the silver solution will do nothing except lower the effectiveness of the natural healing and boosting properties. A high density of silver particles will be able to remain in suspension in the liquid carrier all on their own, making it unnecessary of proteins or any other additives.Take the time to talk with your physician or a trusted homeopathic professional before taking colloidal silver or any other colloidal supplement. While natural in nature and non-toxic to the body, there is always a chance that you have an underlying allergy to metals.
Working with a professional will help you to determine whether or not this is a supplement that is right for you.
Additionally, you will be able to make sure that you are taking the proper colloidal silver dosage for your particular needs and body weight.A  A A Copyright 2013 True Silver.




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