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Skyscrapers, as we know them today, have only been possible for around 200 years.  Large buildings are nothing new – the Egyptian pyramids, the Leaning Tower of Pisa and the Tower of Babel are all amazing, tall structures that show how creative mankind can be and how, throughout history, we have been able to fight against the forces of nature and physics. When American architects attempted to build tall structures in the late 19th century, they soon discovered that the masonry of the day simply wasn’t strong enough to support buildings that were more than seven stories tall.  That all changed when Henry Bessemer came up with a technique for mass-producing steel which could be used to support bigger structures.
The man credited with “inventing” the idea of skyscrapers (if not the actual name), is George Fuller.  In 1889, he built the Tacoma Building, which was the first building ever to use steel cages to support the weight of the building, instead of making the outside walls load-bearing. These fires highlighted the difficulty of responding to fires in taller structures, evacuating densely populated buildings, and ensuring that buildings were relatively fireproof and likely to remain structurally sound even after being damaged. Both Australia and the UK introduced height limits and fire restrictions during the early part of the skyscraper boom.  The United States soon followed, introducing strict building codes to ensure that both tall structures and general office buildings were safe for their occupants.
Even with the new building regulations, architects still pushed the envelope, building taller and more unusual structures and experimenting with new structural systems. This article was written by Crispin Jones on behalf of Tennant Rubber, retailers of rubber gaskets and neoprene strips. Here for your consideration is an educational map of New York City in 1700's; A Plan of the city of New York. New York City museums cover a broad spectrum of cultures and humanities, from history to visual arts to life sciences. Informally known as The Met, the Metropolitan Museum of Art sits on the east edge of Central Park, in an area known as Manhattan’s Museum Mile. Known as the most influential modern arts establishment in the world, the Museum of Modern Art, also called MoMA, has been unmatched in the expanse of its modern and contemporary art, from 2D art to architecture and sculpture to film and illustrated books. Among the largest and most well known museum of its type is the American Museum of Natural History, situated on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, across the street from Central Park. In addition to the aforementioned museums, New York offers a plethora of notable establishments that beckon visitors to enjoy a comprehensive vacation in the city, including Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty, both must-see sites, and museums like Madame Tussauds, a novelty wax museum with famed wax impressions of well known people.
New York Daily News Winter Storm Janus hits NYC: Blizzards & snowfalls in New York City history Winter in New York City Whether they're facing flurries of snowflakes or all-out blizzards, New Yorkers are all too familiar with old man winter! The ancient Egyptians were able to build tall pyramids because they made the bases of the pyramids so broad, and the tips of the buildings were narrower, allowing the weight to spread out across the base.
A fire in the Asch building in Manhattan in 1911 claimed 146 lives.  In 1945, a plane crashed into the Empire State building, causing 14 deaths and more than one million dollar’s worth of structural damage. As skyscrapers became more common in other parts of the world, new challenges were discovered and architects had to learn how to cope with high winds, earthquakes, and other difficult conditions.  Modern trussed tubes and x-bracing designs, such as those seen in the Citigroup Center, are lighter and more efficient than the designs of the first half of the 20th century. Spread out over the city and suburbs, such as Brooklyn and Queens, hundreds of establishments offer a variety of opportunities to cultivate knowledge and understanding.
Extending a quarter of a mile, this art museum unfolds over more than 2 million square feet, and it is home to a vast selection of artwork from all over the world, as well as books and other material relevant to the study and history of art. When it initially opened in 1929, MoMA was the first American museum devoted to modern art, as well as the first in the city to display European modern art.
Consisting of 25 buildings, interconnected and housing 46 exhibition halls, labs, and a distinguished and celebrated library, the museum collection is displayed in cycles as it is composed of over 32 million artifacts.


Its 2006 expense budget of over $50 billion makes it far and away the largest local government in the United States. While visiting every one of the New York City museums extends beyond practical or even feasible, visiting a few, perhaps one in each discipline, is essential to a comprehensive New York vacation experience. The Met is sectioned into nineteen divisions, covering arts from all over the world, arms and armor, libraries, musical instruments, photographs, roof gardens, modern art, and special exhibits. Additionally, this is one of the New York City museums that employs a vast number of scientific personnel and sponsors field expeditions around the globe, numbering into the hundreds each year. Today, the Guggenheim Museum remains one of the most unique and celebrated New York City museums.
While the city appeared under enormous fiscal, political and social stress from the late 1960's to the late 1990's, in the 21st century it has emerged as one of the safest large cities in the United States. In addition to the main building in Manhattan, the Metropolitan Museum of Art has a division located at The Cloisters, which was originally established by John D. New York is a thriving center of media and finance, and a racially and ethnically diverse place where in the 2000 census 40% of its residents reported that they were born in other nations.
The city's infrastructure, while aging has also been the object of a multi-billion dollar renewal effort. Each year the city's capital budget is about $5 billion, and additional billions are spent by state authorities and the Port Authority to renew the city's water, education and transportation infrastructure. Over 1.2 billion gallons of water are drawn daily from reservoirs that are over 100 miles from the city. Over 1.1 million children attend public elementary, middle and high schools and over 200,000 students attend the colleges of the city's public university. New York City has over twice as many college students as any other city in the United States. Central Park, Riverside Park and Prospect Park are collectively visited 20,000,000 times a year. Writing in the New Yorker, David Owen observed that:"Most Americans, including most New Yorkers, think of New York City as an ecological nightmare, a wasteland of concrete and garbage and diesel fumes and traffic jams, but in comparison with the rest of America it's a model of environmental responsibility. By the most significant measures, New York is the greenest community in the United States, and one of the greenest cities in the world.
The most devastating damage humans have done to the environment has arisen from the heedless burning of fossil fuels, a category in which New Yorkers are practically prehistoric. The average Manhattanite consumes gasoline at a rate that the country as a whole hasn't matched since the mid-nineteen-twenties, when the most widely owned car in the United States was the Ford Model T. Eighty-two per cent of Manhattan residents travel to work by public transit, by bicycle, or on foot. That's ten times the rate for Americans in general, and eight times the rate for residents of Los Angeles County.
111.)However, while New York may consume relatively less fossil fuels than other American cities and may do a good job in providing clean water, it does a poor job of reducing, recycling and disposing of its waste.


EPA 2002).New York City's 8 million residents and millions of visitors generate over 25,000 tons of municipal solid waste per day. With plans for new incinerators delayed by the Depression and World War II, the city struggled to meet its waste disposal needs. Initially, the Staten Island dump was only to be used for three years — the time it would take to build a large incinerator in every borough. By the 1960s, one-third of the city's trash was burned in over 17,000 apartment building incinerators and 22 municipal incinerators.
Old landfills and incinerators were gradually shut down, with the last municipal incinerator closed in 1992. By the late 1990s, all the city's residential waste ended up at Freshkills—which became one of the tallest human made structures on earth. After Freshkills closed, the city's annual bill for collecting and disposing residential trash jumped by nearly 50 percent, from about $658 million to well over $1 billion today.These days New York's waste from those ubiquitous white garbage collection trucks is dumped onto the floor of waste transfer stations that are typically located in poor neighborhoods, and then loaded onto large trucks for shipment out of New York City. Mayor Bloomberg announced a plan to develop waterfront garbage transfer stations in each borough that would compact refuse and ship it by barge for disposal. In mid-2006, these transfer stations were finally approved by the city's government, but had still not been built.The current system of waste export leaves the city vulnerable over the long run, as both restrictions on waste disposal and its costs are likely to escalate. Landfill space continues to diminish in the Eastern United States, while political pressure from dump site communities builds increases. This may lead Congress and the Courts to allow states to restrict the interstate flow of municipal waste—giving New York fewer places to toss its garbage.Why do New Yorkers create so much garbage?
The use of large amounts of packaging material, and the relatively minimal level of recycling are reflections of the community's collective values.
Let's face it, garbage is physically unpleasant and reminds some of us of our great wealth in the face of poverty. This propagates the fantasy that those green plastic mounds of garbage bags on the street are magically transported to some mythical solid waste heaven.New York's elected leaders know that waste is a no- win issue. As long as the cost increases of exporting waste are gradual, it is unlikely that enough political noise will be generated to induce a sitting mayor to rethink waste export.
While incineration pollutes the air, there is no question that it is less polluting than transporting waste in diesel-fueled trucks to leaking landfills. Nevertheless, New York City's public does not trust experts or government to tell the truth on this issue, and the not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) syndrome dominates New York's waste politics.
Science has a "solution" to this problem, but politics makes utilizing new technology unachievable.References Department of Sanitation, City of New York. Cities.Earth Engineering Center, Columbia University (2002) "Energy Recovery from NYC Solid Wastes"Earth Institute and the Urban Habitat Project, Columbia University.



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