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admin 26.01.2014

Couplers have been in continual use in trains from the early 19th century to contemporary times. The link-and-pin construction was inexpensive to manufacture, making it the predominant coupler in use until the 1870s. The link-and-pin was also slow and inefficient to operate, requiring a worker to stand between the cars and effect every coupling and uncoupling. After testing and comparing the performance of many coupler designs, in 1888 the Master Car Builders Association received a partial waiver of patent rights over the Janney-style coupler. Early methods of stopping trains included reversing the locomotive engine and the use of wheel braking systems that were limited to the locomotive and its tender. By the late 1880s, passenger trains were running as fast as fifty and sixty miles per hour.
Various patents for brake improvements featured apparatuses for linking the brakes between the cars and employed different methods for reducing slack in the brake line. A steam brake patented in 1853 was recognized by later generations of engineers as a hazard from the past. Contemporary freight trains employ air brakes that use compressed air to keep a car's brakes disengaged. The efforts of the Master Car Builders Association to standardize brakes, couplers, and car design, and the Safety Appliance Act of 1893, brought U.S.
The loop was anchored in place by an iron pin dropped through a socket in the top of the drawbar.

Because of its high cost, the Miller Platform was used on passenger trains, while freight trains continued to use the link-and-pin couplers. The switchman, also called "brakeman," who worked in the yard with the link-and-pin coupler had a dangerous job. He whittled a wooden model of his "knuckle" coupler and commissioned a draftsman to make a drawing of it for his patent application. During the 1860s, railway brakes were manually-operated by the brakeman, who applied or released them by turning a handwheel that was positioned at the end of the car. Rail lines, once local and isolated, had become interconnected so that freight cars could carry their goods across the country by being hitched to a succession of different trains with compatible coupling and braking systems.
These innovations made it possible for trains to become longer and to carry more cargo, as heavier trains require more stopping power. Even a few chain brakes were designed to engage in cases like this, the tension in the chain functioning to keep a brake lever disengaged. Used on locomotives and their tenders, they had dual disadvantages: steam lost pressure as it cooled and the hoses carrying the steam would freeze up and clog with ice in cold climates.
Couplers hold the cars together, from the first tug of the engine, as its force overcomes the inertia of each car, to the end of the train. With a few subsequent revisions, Janney's coupler, which resembles two hands with fingertips hooked together, solved more than the safety problem.
The most successful of the early continuous brakes used a chain link running through the length of the train that connected to a single control.

The Act mandated that all rail lines conducting interstate commerce must use cars that coupled and uncoupled without manual assistance of a worker standing between cars. A coupler requires extraordinary strength and flexibility to maintain its hold over hills and dips, around curves, and over rough track. The Janney coupler automatically engaged without the need for a man to stand between the cars. He had difficulty persuading railroad officials that air could stop a train, but the efficiency of his system convinced detractors, and, by 1880, the Westinghouse automatic air brake had been installed on 2,211 locomotives and 7,224 cars in the United States.
The Act also required that the trains employ power braking systems that could control the speed of the train without a brakeman to do so manually. It held train cars without slack, enabling smoother acceleration and more efficiency around curves, but with enough play to secure the train over hills.
The effect of the changes was marked by the dramatic reduction of injury and death to brakemen.

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  • Elya, 26.01.2014 at 14:35:43
    Does not reflect the complete range of items carried in our coupler mates.
  • Dagestanec, 26.01.2014 at 10:33:21
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  • Aylin_05, 26.01.2014 at 18:44:58
    Layout with track on two cup can teach the.
  • FENERBAHCE, 26.01.2014 at 20:44:39
    2000 double-deckers rivaled single manage club organization, and (most importantly) attachment to other track sections.
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