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The Sorcerer was a bitter hermit in his mansion until he found Pandora's Box, the Greek legendary artifact that contains 100 evils. The '''New York City Fire Department''', officially the '''Fire Department of the City of New York''' ('''FDNY'''), is a department of the government of New York City+ that provides fire protection+, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services+ to the five boroughs+ of New York City+. The New York City Fire Department is the largest municipal fire department+ in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department+.
The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center+ in Downtown+ Brooklyn+, and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island+. Like most fire departments of major cities in the United States, the New York City Fire Department is organized in a paramilitary+ fashion, and in many cases echos the structure of the police department. Operationally and geographically, the department is nominally organized into five Borough Commands for the five traditional Boroughs of New York City+. The FDNY faces highly multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. The FDNY also responses to many other incidents such as auto accidents, auto extrications, gas emergencies, entrapments, construction accidents, high-angle rescues, trench rescues, confined space incidents, explosions, transit incidents, unstable buildings or collapses, hazardous material incidents and many more. Ten volunteer fire companies remain in New York City and respond to calls in their neighborhood, in addition to FDNY units. The Staten Island volunteer companies are dispatched by the Staten Island Communications Office and operate on the FDNY Staten Island frequency. The nine Volunteer Fire Departments supplement the FDNY, however they have sometimes proven essential, for example during storms when flooding conditions prevented FDNY Companies from reaching alarms or promptly or at all. The origins of the New York City Fire Department go back to 1648 when the first fire ordinance was adopted in what was then the Dutch settlement+ of New Amsterdam+. Hooks, ladders and buckets were financed through the collection of fines for dirty chimneys, and a fire watch was established, consisting of eight wardens which were drawn from the male population.
In 1865, the volunteer fire department was abolished by a state act which created the ''Metropolitan Fire District'' and the ''Metropolitan Fire Department'' (''MFD''). Initially, the paid fire service only covered present day Manhattan+, until the act of 1865 which united Brooklyn+ with Manhattan to form the Metropolitan District. On January 1, 1898 the different areas of New York were consolidated, which ushered the Fire Department into a new era.
The unification of the Fire Department, which took place in 1898, would pave the way for many changes.
In 1984 and 1989, the comedy films ''Ghostbusters+'' and ''Ghostbusters II+'' used the Manhattan Ladder Company 8 building for the externals of the Ghostbusters' office building. On September 11, 2001+, American Airlines Flight 11+ and United Airlines Flight 175+ were hijacked by terrorists affiliated with Al Qaeda+ and flown into the World Trade Center+'s North and South Towers, respectively, causing massive damage to both towers during impact, and starting fires that caused the weakened 110-story skyscrapers to collapse. FDNY fire companies and EMS crews were deployed to the World Trade Center minutes after Flight 11 struck the north tower.
Many firefighters arrived at the World Trade Center without meeting at the command centers. Meanwhile, average response times to fires elsewhere in the city that day only rose by one minute, to 5.5 minutes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, attacks the Fire Department has rebuilt itself and continues to serve the people of New York. At the beginning of the 21st century, there are 11,400 uniformed fire officers and firefighters under the command of the Chief of Department.
The FDNY derives its name from the Tweed Charter+ which created the ''Fire Department of the City of New York''. Together with ambulances run by certain participating hospitals (locally known as voluntaries+, not to be confused with volunteers) and private companies, it is known as the ''FDNY EMS Command'', which is the largest pre-hospital care provider in the world, responding to over 1.5 million calls each year.
A citywide Incident Management System plan released by the Office of the Mayor on May 14, 2004 set forth several "core competencies" which determine which agency has the authority to direct operations. An initial call to an FDNY Communications Dispatch Office is taken by the ''Alarm Receipt Dispatcher'' (ARD) who speaks with the caller in order to determine the nature of the emergency.
When the Decision Dispatcher has made a decision as to what units will actually be assigned to the incident, unless the supervisor intervenes, he or she pushes the "release" button and the alarm is routed to the assigned companies, both in their respective firehouses and to the individual mobile data terminal+s (MDT) of each company's apparatus when it is in the field, depending on where the Starfire computer shows them to be situated. The entire process from initial notification until a unit is dispatched can take up to two (2) minutes, depending on the complexity of the call, the information provided by the caller(s) and the degree of other alarm activity in the office.
Any communications dispatch office in the city can take a fire or emergency call by telephone for any borough and upon completion of information taking, the incident will automatically be routed by the Starfire computer to the Decision Dispatcher (DD) for the borough in which the incident is reported. Fire Dispatch has a minimum staffing (Staffing Level 1) which consist of 1 Chief Dispatcher who supervises 5 Tour Supervising Dispatchers (1 in each Borough). When a member of the public dials 911, he or she is connected to a police department operator who assigns the call to where it needs to go based on the information provided. Fire alarm dispatchers handle comparatively few medical calls made directly to them, since the vast majority of such incidents are routed straight to the FDNY's EMS communications office by the NYPD 9-1-1 operators. Each address in the city is assigned a box number, based on the closest street, special building or highway box. Critical Information Dispatch System (CIDS, pronounced by the dispatcher as "Sids") information is transmitted to units in the firehouse and en route.
This information is printed on the fire ticket and can be read by the dispatcher if requested. The New York City Fire Department is made up of fire companies, similar to military companies of men and women. There are currently six different types of fire companies in the New York Fire Department which all operate distinct types of apparatus: 198 Engine Companies, 143 Ladder (or Truck) Companies, 5 Rescue Companies, 7 Squad Companies, 3 Marine (or Fireboat+) Companies, and the Hazardous Materials (Haz-Mat) Company. Each type of fire company utilizes a certain type of fire apparatus, colloquially known as "rigs". FDNY Engine Companies+ are tasked with securing a water supply from a fire hydrant, then extinguishing a fire. FDNY Ladder Companies+ (also known as Truck Companies) are tasked with search and rescue, forcible entry, and ventilation at the scene of a fire. FDNY Rescue Companies are composed of the elite, highly and specially trained, most experienced members of the New York Fire Department. FDNY Squad Companies are also composed of specially trained firefighters of the New York Fire Department. The FDNY Hazardous Materials (Haz-Mat) Company, Haz-Mat 1 (quartered in Queens), responds to all major city-wide hazardous materials incidents, building collapses, contamination-related incidents, terrorism-related disasters, major emergencies, and a variety of other incidents in which their services may be needed. Most of the Engine Companies in FDNY's fleet are Seagrave Commander II's and Seagrave Marauder II's and include 500 gallon water tanks and either 1,000 or 2,000 gallon per minute pumps.
FDNY battalion and division chiefs as well as EMS supervisors operate with GMC pick-up trucks with caps and roll out trays in the bed made by Odyssey Specialty Vehicles.
The ambulances used by FDNY EMS are usually manufactured by Horton Ambulance, and the modules are generally mounted on Ford F-350+ light truck chassis. The department is also building a fleet of 14 smaller, class II fireboats, with ten 33-foot Rapid Response Fire, three 31-foot medical response and one 33-foot SCUBA+ boats expected to have been delivered by January 2013. The Department's lieutenants, captains, battalion chiefs, deputy chiefs, medical officers and supervising fire marshals are represented by the Uniformed Fire Officers Association+ (UFOA), regular firefighters and fire marshals are represented by the Uniformed Firefighters Association+ (UFA), and Fire Alarm Dispatchers, Supervising Fire Alarm Dispatchers, and Chief Fire Alarm Dispatchers are represented by the —all three of which are locals of the International Association of Fire Fighters+. The New York City Fire Department has also appeared in numerous films and television shows. Using ancient incantations the Sorcerer commands those evils to do his bidding and his will is to destroy the Human Torch! The FDNY employs approximately 10,200 uniformed firefighters and over 3,600 uniformed EMTs+ and paramedic+s. There are Three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units.
The department's executive staff is divided into two areas that include a civilian Fire Commissioner+ who serves as the head of the department and a Chief of Department+ who serves as the operational leader. Within those five Borough Commands exists nine firefighting Divisions, each headed by a Deputy Division Chief. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures+, there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, the New York City Subway+ system, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires. Broad Channel and West Hamilton Beach have teleprinters in parallel with the FDNY fire companies that also serve their area.
Peter Stuyvesant+, within one year of his arrival, appointed four fire wardens to wooden chimneys of thatched-roofed wooden houses, charging a penalty to owners whose chimneys were improperly swept.
An organization known as the ''prowlers'' but given the nickname ''the rattle watch'' patrolled the streets with buckets, ladders and hooks from nine in the evening until dawn looking for fires.


The first New York fire brigade+ entered service in 1731 equipped with two hand-drawn pumpers which had been transported from London, England. A year later, on December 16, 1737, the colony's General Assembly created the Volunteer Fire Department of the City of New York, appointing 30 men who would remain on call in exchange for exemption from jury and militia duty. This effectively gave control of the fire departments in the cities of New York and Brooklyn to the Governor who appointed his Board of Commissioners. The same year the fire department consisted of 13 Chief Officers and 552 Company Officers and firemen. All the fire forces in the various sections were brought under the unified command of the first Commissioner in the history of the Fire Department.
Chief officers set up a command center in the lobby as first arriving units entered the tower and firefighters began climbing the stairs. Problems with radio communication caused commanders to lose contact with many of the firefighters who went into the towers; those firefighters were unable to hear evacuation orders. Many of the surviving firefighters continued to work alternating 24-hour shifts as part of the rescue and recovery effort+. During the Northeast Blackout of 2003+, FDNY was called on to rescue hundreds of people from stranded elevators in approximately 800 Manhattan high-rise office and apartment buildings.
The New York City Fire Department also includes 2800 Emergency Medical Technician+s, Paramedic+s and Supervisor+s assigned to Department's EMS Command, and 1200 civilian employees. During the Civil War New York's Irish and Italian firefighters were the backbone of the 11th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment+ (New York Fire Zouaves), a highly decorated unit. The ARD enters the information by keyboard into the Starfire computer system, which gives a recommended fire department resource response based on the information provided. If a dispatch office is so busy that its incoming telephone alarm lines are all busy or not answered within 30 seconds, the call is automatically transferred to another borough dispatch office. A telephone alarm is an alarm in which a civilian uses a telephone to dial one of three types of numbers: The first is 9-1-1+, which is answered by New York City Police Department+ (NYPD) operators. However, a medical call that requires the assistance of "first-responder"-trained fire units will have said request routed electronically to the appropriate fire alarm central office for the assignment of the proper personnel and apparatus. The term "box" refers to the Fire Alarm Boxes, which at one time lined street corners and in front of certain buildings.
It is information that is collected on a building during inspections and by public input, which would have an impact on fire-fighting operations. This information is also read automatically when a signal 10–75 (working fire) or higher signal is given or when the supervising dispatcher deems it is important for the units to have it before arrival at an incident. This is a signal that is given by a Chief which indicates that at least 3 Engines and 2 Ladder Companies are (or will be) operating at a scene of a confirmed emergency. Each fire company operates a single type of Fire apparatus+ and has four shifts of firefighters and company officers. A Rescue Company is tasked with responding to and dealing with specialized fire and rescue incidents that are beyond the scope and duties of a standard Engine or Ladder Company.
Squad Companies were initially established by the FDNY to serve as "manpower companies" to supplement the manpower and operations of Engine and Ladder Companies. The FDNY's three Marine Companies operate large fireboats and smaller, secondary rescue boats to respond to various marine-related emergencies.
Like the Rescue and Squad Companies of the FDNY, members of Haz-Mat Company 1 are experienced and specially trained to deal with hazardous situations. Beginning in the late 1970s, Mack+ and American LaFrance+ made most of the pumpers+ and ladder trucks in the FDNY fleet. The 2,000 gpm pumps are primarily located in the high-rise districts+ and are considered high pressure pumpers. Ladder length varies and often depends on the geographic area to which the unit is assigned. Harvey+'', is notable as having returned to active service as Marine 2 on September 11, 2001, and providing firefighting services for 80 hours following the attack. Once on the fire scene, the vehicle then takes on the role of a Command Vehicle, utilizing its radios and MDT equipment. Once on the fire scene, the vehicle then takes on the role of a Command Vehicle, utilizing its radios and MDT+ equipment. Its main responsibility is to provide communication support to the on scene Incident Commander. In addition, specialized equipment such as extrication tools and a six-person Avon boat is also carried. Along with regular firefighting equipment, it carries its own water, as well as rakes, shovels, and backpack extinguishers. An Emergency Medical Service supervisor oversees ambulances within his or her assigned area.
The Logistical Support Unit carries a surplus of certain medical supplies used at MCIs, this unit is also responsible for going to retrieve spinal immobilization equipment from area hospitals. The first four fire wardens were Martin Krieger, Thomas Hall, Adrian Wyser, and George Woolsey.
Leather shoe buckets, 250 in all, were manufactured by local Dutch shoemakers in 1658, and these ''bucket brigades'' are regarded as the beginning of the New York Fire Department.
There was never any effective incorporation of the fire departments of the two cities during this period.
The officers and firemen worked a continuous tour of duty, with three hours a day off for meals and one day off a month, and were paid salaries according to their rank or grade.
This same year Richmond+ (now Staten Island+) became a part of the City of New York, but the volunteer units there remained in place until they were gradually replaced by paid units in 1915, 1928, 1932 and 1937 when only two volunteer units remained, Oceanic Hook and Ladder Vol Engine and Richmond Fire. On March 25, 1911 a fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Company+ killed 146 workers, most of whom were young female immigrants. Giuliani merged the emergency medical services of the NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation into the FDNY.
A mobile command center was also set up outside on Vesey Street, but was destroyed when the towers collapsed. There was practically no communication with the New York City Police Department, which had helicopters at the scene. Firefighters and EMS personnel came from hundreds of miles around New York City, including numerous career and volunteer units in Upstate New York, Long Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Florida and even Michigan. The entire fire department was held over from the day tour to almost double the total force to 3,401 firefighters to handle the many fires which resulted, reportedly from people using candles for light. A select group of 39 EMS units (18 BLS and 21 ALS) are known as Hazardous Material Tactical Units (Haz-Tac Ambulances) whose members are trained to the level of Hazardous Materials Technician which allows them to provide emergency medical care and decontamination+ in a hazardous environment, in addition to their normal 911 duties. 11 Metrotech Center houses the Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Staten Island Communications Dispatch Offices. This information is automatically sent to the ''Decision Dispatcher'' (DD) and the "Tour Supervising Dispatcher" (TSD). One minute after the alarm is released, it will appear on the computer screen of the radio dispatcher (Radio), who will announce the alarm and the response two times and ask for acknowledgment from any companies assigned who have not done so by radio, voice alarm or MDT. If an Emergency Reporting System (ERS) street fire alarm box is not answered with 60 seconds, usually because all of the alarm receipt consoles are in use, the computer automatically dispatches an engine company to the location of the physical street fire alarm box.
The minimum staffing may be increased based on many variables such as an inoridnary increase in volume of incidents, a catastrophic event, in preparation of a storm and during large events. If a fire company is available, in quarters, it will immediately respond to the incident after advising the dispatchers of the same via telephone, voice alarm or radio. This requires the assignment of an additional Engine Company, A "FAST" (Firefighter Assist and Search Team) Company, an additional Battalion Chief, A Squad Company, A Rescue Company and A "RAC" (Recuperation and Care Unit". A Ladder Company carries various forcible entry, ventilation, and rescue tools to deal with an assortment of fires and emergencies, including motor vehicle accidents. Today, Squad Companies can function as either Engine or Ladder Companies at the scene of a fire, but are also equipped with similar equipment and specialized tools as the Rescue Company. The Haz-Mat Company operates a Haz-Mat Truck, similar to a Rescue Truck, which carries a variety of equipment to deal with hazardous situations.
In the late 1980s, Mack made only chassis and not apparatus bodies, so Ward+ was used for truck bodies. With the loss of apparatus which occurred as a result of the September 11 attacks+, FDNY began to use engines made by other companies including Ferrara+, KME and E-One+. Those in the older sections of the city often use tiller trucks to allow for greater maneuverability.


In 2010, a new contract was issued for five new rescue trucks, using a chassis and stainless steel cab custom-designed to FDNY specifications.
A twin, 140-foot, vessel, ''Fire Fighter II'', replaced ''Fire Fighter+'', dedicated in 1938, as Marine 9. The unit responds to specialty assignments to oversee the medical management at special assignments. 82+", "20,000 Alarms", and "The Last Men Out: Life on the Edge at Rescue 2 Firehouse" are three of the most famous pieces of FDNY literature.
The Bronx and Queens offices are in separate buildings, and plans are in the works to consolidate them into a single building to be constructed in the future.
Each Battalion consists of three to eight firehouses+ and consists of approximately 180–200 firefighters and officers. These were the first fire engines+ to be used in the American colonies, and all able-bodied citizens were required to respond to a fire alarm and to participate in the extinguishing under the supervision of the Aldermen+.
It wasn't until the Greater City of New York was consolidated in 1898 that the two were combined under one common organization or organizational structure. 1865 also saw the first adoption of regulations, although they were fairly strict and straitlaced. In 1976 a third volunteer fire company, Metro Fire Association Volunteer Fire Company was given a charter to operate within Staten Island and with an old 1954 Ward LaFrance Fire Apparatus began to respond to emergencies in Staten Island. Later the same year the fire college was formed to train new fire fighters, and in 1912 the Bureau of Fire Prevention was created.
But the 5 Satellite Units of the system, together with the Maxi-Water Unit (known as Satellite 6 since 1999) are still actively used as of 2007 for multiple alarm fires and certain other incidents. Of these 39, eleven are also Rescue Paramedic Ambulances whose crews are additionally trained for: Confined space rescue, Trench Rescue, Crush Injuries, and Building Collapse Rescues.
The Bronx and Queens Dispatch Offices are housed in individual buildings in their respective boroughs.
The radio dispatcher has a special keyboard called the Status Entry Panel (SEP), which is used to update the status of units based on information received by radio. The second involves dialing "0" which routes the call to a telephone company operator, who then transfers the call to the fire alarm dispatchers in the proper borough dispatch office. Even if the physical fire alarm box is no longer at a specific address or street corner, the address or street corner is still assigned that fire alarm box's number. In particular, members of a Squad Company are highly trained in mitigating hazardous materials (Haz-Mat) incidents, supplementing the FDNY's single Haz-Mat Company. The FDNY is making the move from a fixed cab to a "Split-Tilt" cab, so the Seagrave Marauder II Pumper will fill the FDNY's new order for 69 new pumpers. Before Seagrave was the predominant builder, Mack CF's built with Baker tower ladders were popular.
As of January 2012, the new Ferrara Rescues 1–4 are in service, while the new Rescue 5 was, until it was involved in an incident and was taken out of service for repair. The two new boats cost $60 million, funded by a grant from the Department of Homeland Security+, and represented the city's first major investment in new fireboats in 50 years. The unit responds to speciality assignments to oversee the medical management at special assignments and the overall operation of the Haz Tac Battalion.
The change met with a mixed reaction from the citizens, and some of the eliminated volunteers became bitter and resentful, which resulted in both political battles and street fights.
Following several large fires in 1866 which resulted in excessive fire losses and a rise in insurance rates, the fire department was reorganized under the command of General Alexander Shaler+, and with military discipline+ the paid department reached its full potential which resulted in a general reduction in fire losses.
The FDNY deployed 121 Engine Companies, 62 Truck Companies, 5 Rescue Companies, 6 Squad Companies, along with many other units to the site, with more than 1,000 firefighters, EMTs and paramedics on the scene when the towers collapsed.
The Rescue Medics operate with additional exclusive protocols and specialized medical equipment.
However, plans are being made to consolidate the Bronx and Queens Offices into a single building to be constructed in the near future.
The third is a special seven-digit telephone number which is published in each borough for the specific purpose of reporting fires.
Box numbers can be duplicated in different boroughs, which is why they are always identified by borough name or numerical prefix on the computer (66 for Bronx and Manhattan, 77 for Brooklyn, 88 for Staten Island and 99 for Queens). The FDNY is currently one of the last, large fire departments in the country using "10-Codes" as opposed to "plain English" to communicate information by radio. Squad Companies also operate a small step van as a second piece of apparatus in response to Haz-Mat incidents.
1 also operates a smaller Rescue Truck which carries extra equipment not carried on the company's main piece of apparatus.
Mack left the fire apparatus business in the early 1990s and FDNY turned to Seagrave+ to develop its next generation of fire truck. The $2.4 million ''Bravest,'' commissioned on May 26, 2011, is smaller than the other two Class I boats, at 65 feet, but is able to operate in shallower waters, including those near the city's airports.
The executive staff includes several civilian fire commissioners who are responsible for the many different bureaus within the department, along with the Chief of Department, the Chief of Fire Operations, the Chief of EMS+, the Chief Fire Marshal, and other staff chiefs.
Each fire company is led by a captain, who commands three lieutenants and nine to twenty firefighters. The insurance companies in the city, however, finally won the battle and had the volunteers replaced with paid professionals. Other technical advances included the introduction of high pressure water systems, the creation of a Marine fleet, adoption of vastly improved working conditions and the utilization of improved radio communications.
This number is a direct contact to a particular borough's fire department communications dispatch office. If there is also a street address given to the dispatchers, the responding apparatus will get this information in the firehouse, over the air, and via their mobile data terminals in the rigs, in addition to the Box number. The Haz-Mat Company is supplemented by the Squad Companies primarily, the Rescue Companies, and a handful of Engine Companies whose members are certified Haz-Mat Technicians.
FDNY's very specific specifications meant that few apparatus manufacturers could compete with Seagrave for the contract. Tiller ladders, rear mount ladders and mid-mount tower ladders are the types of trucks used. Other specialty units, including hazardous material+ units, collapse trucks, and reserve rescues are made by American LaFrance, Pierce, E-One, Freightliner, and Ferrara (HAZMAT 1).
Staff chiefs include the seven citywide tour commanders, the Chief of Safety, the Chief of Fire Prevention, and the Chief of Training. Southwestern Westchester County+ (which would later become the western Bronx+) was annexed by New York in 1874 and the volunteers there were phased out and replaced by the paid department. Feehan+, Chief of Department Peter Ganci+ Department Chaplain Mychal Judge+, Battalion Chief Orio Palmer+ and Fire Marshal Ronald Bucca+. At present there are about 16,000 physical fire alarm street boxes in New York City, with many additional special building boxes and highway boxes, as well as "dummy boxes" used for special response assignments.
These Engine Companies, like the Squad Companies, also operate smaller step vans that carry Haz-Mat equipment. In 2010, The FDNY chose Ferrara+ over Pierce+, and E-One+ for a new contract that issued for 10–100' rear-mount ladder trucks, using a chassis and stainless steel cab custom-designed to FDNY specifications.
Various body types include standard heavy rescue bodies, step van+s, busses and smaller units built on GMC and Ford pick up truck bodies. All of the volunteer's apparatus, including their fire houses, were seized by the state who made use of them to form the new organization and form the basis of the current FDNY. In addition there are two airport crash boxes, one in the LaGuardia Tower, (Queens Box 37), and one in the JFK Tower, (Queens Box 269), which can only be activated by the personnel in these towers. When either box is sounded it brings an automatic second alarm (2–2) response of equipment, along with various special units. As a result, a new Board of Fire Commissioners was created and the original name of the ''Fire Department City of New York'' (''FDNY'') was reinstated.




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