New york subway climate change,woodland ca post office hours,brio trains uk jobs,boston new york bus schedule - Downloads 2016

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People travel halfway around the world to see the Colosseum, the pyramids in Egypt or the Great Wall of China. Some vacant buildings, abandoned factories and disused train stations have a different kind of allure, making you imagine what took place inside the now-crumbling walls. Commonly called Gunkanjima, or Battleship Island in English, Hashima is s small island in the Nagasaki area that once had a thriving coal mining industry. Kolmanskop, an abandoned desert town in southern Namibia, was once a thriving diamond mining hub. Ruined by Hurricane Katrina, this once-popular amusement park remains in a state of disrepair today. The Maunsell Forts were built in the estuaries of two of England’s largest rivers, the Thames and Mersey. Located in metro Atlanta, the Sope Creek Paper Mill was once a thriving factory powered by the waters of the adjacent creek. This website is the digital version of the 2014 National Climate Assessment, produced in collaboration with the U.S.
The National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. A team of more than 300 experts guided by a 60-member Federal Advisory Committee produced the report, which was extensively reviewed by the public and experts, including federal agencies and a panel of the National Academy of Sciences. Sea level rise, storm surge, and extreme weather events affect the reliability and capacity of U.S. Besides being affected by climate changes, transportation systems also contribute to changes in the climate through emissions. Weather events influence the daily and seasonal operation of transport systems.56,55,54 Transportation systems are already experiencing costly climate change related impacts. Climate trends affect the design of transport infrastructure, which is expensive and designed for long life (typically 50 to 100 years).
Climate change will affect transportation systems directly, through infrastructure damage, and indirectly, through changes in trade flows, agriculture, energy use, and settlement patterns.
Shifts in demographic trends, land-use patterns, and advances in transportation technology over the next few decades will have profound impacts on how the nation’s transportation system functions, its design, and its spatial extent.
Disruptions to transportation system capacity and reliability can be partially offset by adaptations.
There will be challenges in adapting transportation systems to climate related changes, particularly when factoring in projected growth in the transportation sector. The impacts from sea level rise and storm surge, extreme weather events, higher temperatures and heat waves, precipitation changes, Arctic warming, and other climatic conditions are affecting the reliability and capacity of the U.S. Key Message Process: In developing key messages, the chapter author team engaged, via teleconference, in multiple technical discussions from January through May 2012 as they reviewed numerous peer reviewed publications. Climate impacts in the form of sea level rise, changing frequency of extreme weather events, heat waves, precipitation changes, Arctic warming, and other climatic conditions are documented in Ch.
Future impacts of sea level rise and other climatic effects on transportation systems in the Gulf Coast were examined by CCSP 2008.5 The impacts of climate change on New York State, including its transportation system, were undertaken by Rosenzweig et al.
In addition, the key message and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in “Climate Impacts and U.S. Specific estimates of climate change impacts on transportation are acutely sensitive to regional projections of climate change and, in particular, to the scale, timing, and type of predicted precipitation. Impacts of climate on transportation system operations, including safety and congestion, both on road systems and in aviation, have been little studied to date.
Future characteristics of society, such as land-use patterns, demographics, and the use of information technology to alter transportation patterns, and possible changes to the very nature of future transportation systems themselves all create uncertainty in evaluating climate impacts on the nation’s transportation networks.
Confidence is high that transportation systems will be affected by climate change, given current climate projections, particularly regarding sea level rise and extreme weather events. Climate models project that extreme heat and heat waves will become more intense, longer lasting, and more frequent (Ch.
The impact on transportation systems not designed for such extreme temperatures would be severe. Construction crews may have to operate on altered time schedules to avoid the heat of the day, with greater safety risks for workers.17 The construction season may lengthen in many localities. Arctic warming is also projected to allow the seasonal opening of the Northwest Passage to freight shipment.10 Global climate projections to 2100 show extensive open water areas during the summer around the Arctic basin. A recent study, which examined potential climate damage to Alaskan public infrastructure using results from three different climate models,22 considered 253 airports, 853 bridges, 131 harbors, 819 miles of railroad, 4,576 miles of paved road, and 5,000 miles of unpaved road that could be affected by climate change. Sea level rise, coupled with storm surge, will continue to increase the risk of major coastal impacts on transportation infrastructure, including both temporary and permanent flooding of airports, ports and harbors, roads, rail lines, tunnels, and bridges.
The prospective impact of sea level rise and storm surge on transportation systems is illustrated by the impact of recent hurricanes on U.S. As noted above, new estimates of global sea level rise have overtaken most of the existing literature on transportation and sea level rise in the United States. New global sea level rise estimates will enable the development of new regional estimates, as well as revision of regional coastal erosion and flood modeling. Generally speaking, modeling of sea level rise impacts using existing USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) data has well-understood limitations. Accurate understanding of transportation impacts is specific to particular infrastructure elements, so detailed inventories of local and regional infrastructure must be combined with detailed and accurate elevation data and the best available predictions of local sea level rise and storm surge. Improved modeling is needed on the interactions among sea level rise, storm surge, tidal movement, and wave action to get a better understanding of the dynamics of the phenomena. The authors have high confidence sea levels are rising and storm surge on top of these higher sea levels pose risks to coastal transportation infrastructure. The transportation impacts of rising global sea level, which is expected to continue to rise by an additional 1 to 4 feet by 2100 (see also Ch. Thirteen of the nation’s 47 largest airports have at least one runway with an elevation within the reach of moderate to high storm surge. More frequent disruptions and damage to roads, tracks, runways, and navigation channels are projected in coastal areas beyond the Gulf Coast. Extreme weather events currently disrupt transportation networks in all areas of the country; projections indicate that such disruptions will increase. The key message and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in “Climate Impacts and U.S. In the Northeast, the Chesapeake region is likely to experience particularly severe local sea level rise due to geologic subsidence,7 and increased precipitation generally (see Ch. The Southeast is subject to the interacting effects of sea level rise, increased precipitation, and other extreme events. Much of the economy of the Northwest is built around electricity and irrigation from a network of dams.
Recent data clearly show – and climate models further substantiate – an increase in the intensity of precipitation events throughout much of the U.S. There is a need for a better definition of the magnitude of increased storm intensity so that accurate return frequency curves can be established. New regional climate model data from CMIP5 will have a significant impact on regional impact assessments. Climate and impact data desired by transportation planners may be different from the projections generated by regional climate models.
Regional scale transportation impacts are often determined by flood risk and by water flows in rivers and streams.
Similarly, an ice storm would be an extreme event for a transportation planner, but the frequency of ice storms has not yet been derived from climate models.
There are uncertainties associated with the correlation between a warming climate and increased hurricane intensity.

In regions likely to see decreased precipitation, especially those areas subject to drought, stronger correlations to fire threat and lowered water levels in major waterways are needed as projections of climate models.
Planning tools and models can present a step-by-step process for connecting the risk of impact with specific planning strategies such as assessing the vulnerability of existing and proposed infrastructure and then identifying key adaptation practices to address the risk. Given the evidence base and remaining uncertainties, confidence is high that extreme weather events will affect transportation in all areas of the country. Changes in precipitation patterns, particularly more extreme precipitation events and drought, will affect transportation systems across the country. Inland waterways may well experience greater floods, with high flow velocities that are unsafe for navigation and that cause channels to shut down intermittently. The frequency of the strongest hurricanes (Category 4 and 5) in the Atlantic is expected to increase (see Ch. The impacts of this extraordinary storm on one of the nation’s most important transportation nodes were felt across the country. In assessing consequences, the intensity of system use, as well as the existence or lack of alternative routes, must be taken into account. New York CityA is poised to bear the brunt of climate change's effects a€” from rising seas to shifting temperatures a€” over the next five decades, and signs of the coming scenario are already beginning to appear across the state.
As oceans get warmer and northern sea ice begins to melt, sea levels will rise, increasing the frequency of floods. Sizable chunks of lower Manhattan and the majority of waterfront property in Brooklyn and the Rockaways a€” a total of up to 250 miles of coastline a€” will flood; much of it will be completely destroyed. After Hurricane Sandy struck, the MTA was able to rescue the subway from the brunt of the damage. But flood waters from the next storm could overwhelm the same subway stations flooded during Sandy (all five tunnels between lower Manhattan and Brooklyn and the Steinway Tube between Midtown and Queens flooded), despite the MTA's planning efforts.
In warmer waters, local populations of salmonA (which, when made into lox, graces every good New Yorker's Sunday bagel and schmear) will migrate north. None of the plants or animals native to these 16 million acres of gorgeous spruce-fir forests will survive in a climate just five degrees warmer.
A recent study in the journal PLOS One found that the number of coffee-growing regions in Africa (where a mix of the right temperature, altitude, and soil moisture allow the plant to be grown in bulk) could be reduced by somewhere between 65% and 100% in the next 7 decades. The GCCA represents an unprecedented alliance of more than 400 nonprofit organizations from around the world.
GCCA partner organizations can access media resources, tool kits, open source campaign assets, archive newsletters, and more. You can identify with what you are seeing and guess what it was like before it was abandoned. As coal was replaced as a power source in Japan, the island’s mines were closed and the people who lived there left because there were no other opportunities. After the first Kolmanskop miners became wealthy thanks to their discoveries, there was a kind of diamond rush, with German fortune-seekers building a European-style village complete with a ballroom, school, medical facilities and even a ice factory. Erected in the 1830s, it was a steam-powered sugar mill with an attached sawmill, a high-tech facility for its era. It took a long time to complete this building, with the mission’s monks selling land to local ranchers to fund the construction. There have been several proposals for reusing or renovating the facility, but as of this writing, the park sits vacant and Six Flags is still in court trying to get compensation for repairs from its insurers. However, new developments in the city brought about localized climate change in the 19th century, making it too hot and humid for the grains and for the mill’s employees. The mill was damaged during the Civil War by Union soldiers who suspected that it was being used to print money for the Confederate States of America.
Many inland states – for example, Vermont, Tennessee, Iowa, and Missouri – have experienced severe precipitation events, hail, and flooding during the past three years, damaging roads, bridges, and rail systems and the vehicles that use them. If, for instance, corn cultivation shifts northward in response to rising temperatures, U.S. As transportation officials shape the future transportation system to address new demands, future climate conditions should be considered as part of the planning and decision-making process.
Transportation systems as networks may use alternative routes around damaged elements or shift traffic to undamaged modes.
Technical input reports (21) on a wide range of topics were also received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input.
New (CMIP5-based) regional climate projections will therefore affect most existing specific estimates of climate change impacts on transportation. These societal changes will probably occur gradually, however, allowing the transportation systems to adapt.
Alaska has experienced a 3°F rise in average temperatures since 1949,20 double the rest of the country. Retreat of Arctic sea ice has been observed in all seasons over the past five decades, with the most prominent retreat in summer.10 This has allowed a limited number of freighters, cruise ships, and smaller vessels to traverse the Northwest Passage for several years.
Frozen permafrost is a suitable base for transportation infrastructure such as roads and airfields.
Such smaller scale estimates are important because transportation and other infrastructure impacts must necessarily be studied in a local context. Therefore, national assessments of sea level rise must be built on detailed local and regional assessments. Sea level rise will pose a threat to low-lying infrastructure, such as the airports shown here. The Southeast includes Virginia, so it shares the threat of regional sea level rise in the Chesapeake. 2: Our Changing Climate, Key Message 5) may induce changes in the economy and society that will affect the transportation systems that serve this region.
The performance of this system may be affected by changing precipitation patterns, with potential consequences for agriculture and industry, and, consequently for transportation systems.
Flooding is, of course, linked to precipitation, but the linkage between precipitation and hydrology is very complex.
More generally, improved methods of deriving the frequency of infrastructure-affecting weather events from regional climate models may be helpful in assessing climate impacts on transportation systems. In addition to removing the floodwaters, all electrical signaling and power systems (the third rails) had to be cleaned, inspected, and repaired. On a positive note, the vulnerability analyses prepared by the metropolitan New York authorities and referenced above provided a framework for efforts to control the damage and restore service more rapidly. Table 5.1 is an illustrative application of a risk matrix adapted from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
Many of these areas are also home to some of the citya€™s fastest-growing neighborhoods, like Long Island City, Queens, and Boerum Hill, Brooklyn. In their 2014 hazard mitigation plan, New York City planners writeA thatA "long-term coastal erosion is 100% probable" for Coney Island, Brooklyn, the Rockaways, Queens, and South Shore, Staten Island.
In just a few weeks of intense pumping, drying, and reconstruction, several flooded stations were up and running again. But most of that java comes from places around the globe where warming temperatures and altered weather patterns are killing the precious crop.
Our shared mission is to mobilize civil society and galvanize public support to ensure a safe climate future for people and nature, to promote the low-carbon transition of our economies, and to accelerate the adaptation efforts in communities already affected by climate change. Hashima was densely populated and the high-rise residential buildings still stand today, giving visitors a real glimpse of what life was like in Japan in the 20th century.
During the early decades of the 20th century, the mines became depleted and the town was finally abandoned in the 1950s.
However, local Native Americans from the Seminole tribe, in conflict with Florida’s settlers at that time, destroyed the mill after it was in operation for only a short time.

Today, Tumacacori is part of a national historic park, so the buildings are easily accessible and well-preserved. Despite the chance of being cited for trespassing, so-called urban explorers wander through the disused rides, vacant food counters, and people-free pedestrian areas. Despite being decommissioned in the 1950s, the towers still stand, looking like the set of a post-apocalyptic movie or a sci-fi television show.
It has never reopened, though parts are still used by UN personnel on an extended peacekeeping mission on the island. However, decreasing demand and more-modern manufacturing practices finally caused the closure of the Sope Creek Mill in the early 1900s. Essential products and services like energy, food, manufacturing, and trade all depend in interrelated ways on the reliable functioning of these transportation components. Over the coming decades, all regions and modes of transportation will be affected by increasing temperatures, more extreme weather events, and changes in precipitation. The author team’s review included a foundational Technical Input Report for the National Climate Assessment, “Climate Impacts and U.S. Weather impacts on aviation operations are discussed in Kulesa 20039 and numerous other sources.
Transportation planning in the face of uncertainties about regional-scale climate impacts presents particular challenges.
Adaptation can significantly ameliorate impacts on the transportation sector; however, evaluation of adaptation costs and strategies for the transportation sector is at a relatively early stage. In rapidly warming Alaska, however, as permafrost thaws into mud, road shoulders slump, highway cuts slide, and runways sink. In addition, research on impacts of sea level rise and storm surge on transportation assets in particular regions of the United States demonstrate the potential for major coastal impacts (for example, CCSP 2008, Rosenzweig et al. When sea level rise is coupled with intense storms, the resulting storm surges will be greater, extend farther inland, and cause more extensive damage. The presence of large populations with associated transportation systems in coastal areas increases the potential impacts of sea level rise, storm surge, and precipitation-induced flooding. In the Southwest, rail and highway systems may be exposed to increased heat damage from the higher temperatures.
Precipitation, as projected by climate models, is often difficult to convert into predictions of future flooding, which is what infrastructure designers need. Storm drainage systems for highways, tunnels, airports, and city streets could prove inadequate, resulting in localized flooding.
As hurricanes approach landfall, they create storm surge, which carries water farther inland. The damages from Sandy are indicative of what powerful tropical storms and higher sea levels could bring on a more frequent basis in the future and were very much in line with vulnerability assessments conducted over the past four years.37,38,39,40 All tunnels and most bridges leading into New York City were closed during the storm. Noteworthy are the efforts of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority to protect vital electrical systems and restore subway service to much of New York within four days. The resultant direct costs to the community and indirect costs to the economy will undoubtedly rise into the tens of billions of dollars (See also Ch.
A combination of coffee rust, a fungal infection that attacks the leaves of the coffee plant, and invasive species like the coffee berry borer are slowly destroying coffee plantations across the globe. The island was only recently opened to the public, and there is a campaign to have it registered as a world heritage site.
The plaques and intricate design elements bring to mind the architectural grandeur of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This abandoned mission is a great example of the authentic architecture that once defined the area that is now the American Southwest.
Today, tourists can take a series of stone walkways down into the valley to get an up-close look at the mills, which were built in the 17th century. The planes and terminal areas have deteriorated over time, but still offer a glimpse into the bygone era of aviation. The now-crumbling walls and doorways still stand, drawing locals and out-of-state visitors. Transportation.”8 Other published literature and professional judgment were also considered as the chapter key messages were developed. By changing the frequency of these weather conditions, climate change will inevitably affect the reliability and capacity of U.S. Relative sea level rise will be greater along some coasts (such as Louisiana, Texas, and parts of the Chesapeake Bay), and this will have significant effects on transportation infrastructure, even without the coupling with storms, due to regional land subsidence (land sinking or settling) (Ch.
Bridge piers are subject to scour as runoff increases stream and river flows, potentially weakening bridge foundations. On the other hand, less ice formation on navigable waterways has the potential to increase seasonal windows for passage of navigation. The resulting flooding, wind damage, and bridge destruction disrupts virtually all transportation systems in the affected area. Storm tides of up to 14 feet41,42 flooded the Queens Midtown, Holland, and Carey (Brooklyn Battery) tunnels, which remained closed for at least one week (two weeks for the Carey Tunnel) while floodwaters were being pumped out and power restored. Thanks to the arid climate, some of the buildings are still in good shape, though desert winds have blown sand into many of them, creating strange indoor “dunes” that cover rooms and block still-intact doorways. Abandoned since 1945, the City Hall Station is the site of infrequent tours led by guides from New York’s Transit Museum.
Some visitors simply look at the mills from the roadway above the valley, with many bringing along binoculars to get a closer look. There are even faded posters with advertisements that give the terminal a “frozen in time” feel. Some people combine a visit to the ruins with a hike or bike through the surrounding network of trails. Retreating ice reduces this protection, eroding the shoreline and endangering coastal villages. For example, many federally maintained navigation channels have deteriorated in recent years to dimensions less than those authorized, in part due to floods and storms, which resulted in reduced levels of service that affect navigation safety and reliability.27 Channels that are not well maintained and have less sedimentation storage volume will thus be more vulnerable to significant, abrupt losses in navigation service levels. Many of the nation’s military installations are in areas that are vulnerable to extreme weather events, such as naval bases located in hurricane-prone zones.
The town lies only a few miles inland from the charming colonial-era port town of Luderitz. However, people who stay on the Lexington Avenue line after it passes through downtown Manhattan can see the station outside the windows as the train makes the loop that turns it back in the uptown direction. Parts of Nicosia actually bear the scars of the fighting that took place there during the conflict that eventually led to the airport’s permanent closure.
This view is supported by multiple studies of the impacts of weather and climate change on particular transportation systems or particular regions. Thawing permafrost is causing pavement, runway, rail, and pipeline displacements, creating problems for operation and maintenance, and requiring reconstruction of key facilities. Note that most existing literature on storm surge and sea level rise impacts on transportation systems is based on a global sea level rise of less than one meter (about 3 feet).
Additional channel storage capacity that may be created by sea level rise will also increase water depths and increase sedimentation in some channels. With a nearby campground and easy road access, the New Smyrna Beach Mill is one of the most accessible ruins on our list.

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