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admin 03.05.2016

In the 1970s, New York City's Metropolitan Transit Authority did a huge transportation overhaul. But one eagle-eyed Reddit user spotted an old map from the 1970s that shows what NY's subway system could have looked like, had the MTA gone with a different plan.
There's also a K line, a U line that runs through Brooklyn all the way up to the Bronx, as well as a bizarre O line that seems to do a loop de loop at 14th street.
A complicated journey: Super Bowl XLVIII will take place at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey - seven and a half miles from Manhattan.
The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. The cost of building a public park or offering any kind of public good is deemed justifiable if it is used often and provides some form of social benefit. Equal Accessibility significantly increases the potential for a park’s use and consequently increases the intangible benefits that the public good can offer its citizens. Non-excludability was an issue addressed by Central Park’s designer in 1873, Frederick Law Olmsted. Olmsted’s design for Central Park, although effective in meeting the criteria for promoting a diverse range of users, is only the first step in guaranteeing equal accessibility in the park. The Conservancy’s role in creating a welcoming atmosphere in Central Park is evidenced when observing how people use the park. In addition to attracting people by incorporating a range of diverse features in the park, strong imageability is important because it allows users to experience better orientation within a space, which facilitates and encourages better use and participation in the space[8]. Despite all the measures already discussed, a park can only attract people so long as it is located at an accessible distance. A key assumption here however, is that Manhattan’s population remains stagnant throughout the day. As one can see, the intricate MTA subway system network seemingly gravitates towards Manhattan, and Central Park. It is important to note that ensuring equal accessibility to a park in all ways and forms is the only way to assure a park’s success. Buses, subways, and stations were updated and modernized, bringing the city's subway system closer to what we have today.
The M train starts and stops in Brooklyn and isn't affiliated with the B, D, or F, and there are more midtown cross trains, including the Q, X, and E. But really, it's seven and a half miles away from Manhattan at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey - across the Hudson River and reachable only by those who can navigate a confusing rat's nest of highways and train lines.A To help the 400,000 tourists expected to descend on New York and New Jersey in just two months, New York's Metropolitan Transit Authority and New Jersey Transit have teamed up to produce a special Super Bowl transit map. Curiously, the map bears a striking resemblance to a 1972 subway diagram that Vegnelli was pushing to be adopted instead of the MTA's ubiquitous current map.
It is an impressive and confusing list of transportation options - most of which accept their own unique tickets and passes for riders. A public good, by definition, is a non-rival and non-excludable good, meaning that one person’s use does not deny or reduce someone else the use of that good, and that it is difficult to exclude someone from using the good. A park’s size and location, imageability, and range of features are all factors that affect accessibility.
By collecting our own data, we noted how many people used the park, at what time of day, and how they used it.
There are a number of routes to get around including the drives, bridle paths, hiking trails, and paved pathways. The edges represent the partitions in Central Park West, 5th avenue, 59th street and Central Park North.


This table does not take into account commuters into the city and the changes in population during the day, and during the night when commuters return home from work.
Even though it is not the biggest borough, nor the most inhabited one, it is the center of business and it is safe to assume more jobs are concentrated in this borough than in the Queens, Brooklyn, The Bronx or Staten Island. If the Central Park Conservancy ceases to operate or exist, important facets of the park’s accessibility will diminish. A typical Super Bowl fan will have to catch a train at Penn Station in Manhattan and transfer to the Meadowlands Line at Secaucus Junction in New Jersey.
If a park does not cater to a diverse range of users, then the park fails to equally integrate citizens and will suffer lower numbers of use.
His goal was to make the experience of nature available to ordinary, working people living in modern, industrial cities, “The larger a town becomes simply because of its advantages for commercial purposes, the greater will be the convenience available to those who live in and near” [3]. Central Park, even with Olmsted’s design, was not a pleasant place to be prior to the mid 1980’s with the creation of the Central Park Conservancy. Some well-known districts of the park are The Great Lawn, the Ramble, Strawberry Fields, and the Mall. Due to our city’s heavily-densed population and area, it is impossible for the park to be close to everyone. Therefore, with a higher concentration of people coming within proximity to Central Park, accessibility increases most during the day for people.
Likewise if Central Park had been located in an area of New York City where many trains or other forms of public transportation were not available, the number of visitors would drop. However, between New York and New Jersey, there are no fewer than eight different kinds of relevant rail lines operated by four different entities.The Port Authority operates the PATH Train which runs between Hoboken and Jersey City and Manhattan. Allowing a large number of people into the park does not reduce the amount of park available to consumers, but eventually, additional visitors do reduce the benefit to other users. If a park is small and poorly located in the city, only those who live nearby the park will use it and once again the number of visitors will dwindle. With this logic, Olmsted envisioned Central Park’s role in the lives of New Yorkers as a benefit that all should enjoy, “We come to the question, what accommodations for recreation can we provide which shall be so agreeable and so accessible as to be efficiently attractive to the great body of citizens…and for the time being, to strongly counteract to the special enervating conditions of the town”[4]. Up until the 1980’s, Central Park was filthy, a place for the homeless, and a common scene for crime and drug use.
Furthermore, Every entrance to Central Park can be considered a node. There are 18 entrances in all.
However, the park can be strategically located so that different people have an equal opportunity of at least getting to the park if they choose, without complication or time consuming traveling. Due to the park’s strategic location in the middle of the borough of Manhattan, most trains pass through, around, or nearby Central Park. Central Park is currently the most visited park in New York City and the 2nd most visited attraction in the world (Times Square being number 1).
NJ Transit has introduced a 'Super Pass' that will be valid from the Monday before the Super Bowl until the Monday that will give riders unlimited access to all NJ Transit buses, trains and light rail for $50 - in an attempt to stem some of the confusion.
Parks can become crowded or their design may not suite the interests of certain groups of people.
Imageability, or the quality in a physical surrounding which gives it a high probability of evoking a strong image in any give observer, also factors into accessibility, since the park should be designed in such a way that promotes a strong presence both inside and out.
TheGreensward Plan, The title of the park’s design plan, postulated what individuals from all social or economic backgrounds would do there: admire the artistically composed scenery, enjoy the spectacle of the crowd on the promenade, and engage in the wholesome exercise of driving, riding, walking, skating, and competitive sports.
Despite a rainy forecast, we observed a fairly numerous amount of activities in the park, ranging from organized sports play by children around the ages of 8-10 on grassy terrain, men and women reading on benches throughout the park, people walking in groups along the paths of the park and photography by tourists in landmark areas.


The Park is also filled with public art landmarks such as Alice in Wonderland, Balto, Cleopatra’s Needle as well as a number of fountains.
Although Central Park is located relatively at the center of Manhattan, the borough is not the largest nor does it contain the largest amount of New Yorkers.
These train stops serve as nodes as well where most concentrations of people have the ability to reach the park. A park with this much success clearly defines equal accessibility in a manner few other parks can. For a park to be deemed successful, it must meet the standards of public goods as best it can. They are responsible for the park’s rules, regulations, law enforcement, management, activities, events, and in some cases the biodiversity of the park. Some areas of the park were more concentrated than others, but even in the areas with few people we could see a diverse range of uses of the park, such as filming and eating. These landmarks allow for people to be aware of their location without the need of addresses, using instead the relative distance between landmarks. It is important to note that other factors such as a large budget and a general appeal greatly affect a park’s success, however, having outlined the strongly defined goal of equal accessibility in turn is what allows those resources to be used in the best possible manner.
By addressing non-rival and non-excludable use, a park is essentially dealing with the institution of equal accessibility, first envisioned by Frederick Law Olmsted. The Conservancy today works daily to clean up the park, maintain security and remove graffiti [6]. Other areas, such as the spot with the Alice in Wonderland sculpture attracted attention and had a higher concentration of people taking pictures, eating and talking. If a park is accessible to people regardless of their socioeconomic or geographic backgrounds and if it is large enough to cater to a diverse form of interests then the park has achieved equal accessibility. The enforced rules and regulations in the park are for the purpose of guaranteeing everyone’s satisfaction by allowing diverse activities within different sections of the park.
Human activities such as running, reading were most often found in regions of the park with high traffic passing through. A park with equal accessibility, not just in terms of physical access, but in social use, is successful because it follows the criteria for a public good, which ultimately serves a social benefit. For example, the area of the Central Park Conservancy Garden is to quite 24 hours a day, while other parts of the park are reserved for organized sports play or playgrounds for children. Paths roads and walkways were where we found most of these activities. The variety in social uses that we observed demonstrates the Conservancy’s success in maintaining a high level of accessibility in the park. Central park is model of success, a public park that satisfies a diverse range of users, has a strategic location for optimal accessibility, and has strong imageability that enhances the user’s experience in the park in order to feel welcome. Driving is not permitted through the park after 7:00 pm and during special events in the park [7]. The many duties of the conservancy allow for greater accessibility to all, by creating safety, cleanliness, and an atmosphere that all can enjoy.



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