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The subway map is the key to understanding this most complex subway in the world, which has 26 separate lines and 468 stations.
In short, a better-designed subway map will make our subway system more open and accessible. To understand the challenge of visually communicating New York's subway one must understand New York's unique geography and its street system, both of which have an impact on the mapping. Because New York City's subway generally follows its gridded street routes, there is a strong psychological link between the subway and the aboveground topography that is not found in a city like London. The Kick Map is a "hybrid" concept that resolves the 50-year debate between the exclusive use of either a diagrammatic or topographic mapping of the New York City Subway. The Kick Map's hybrid concept doesn't allow the strict dogma of either type to get in the way of the map's primary function: to display the whole system and its relation to the city as clearly as possible. The Kick Map employs "route bends" in a subway line's route to signal to the user important aboveground road changes. Similarly in the Bronx, when the #4 train jumps from River Avenue to Jerome, this is clearly and simply shown.
And the same holds true for the L line in Brooklyn as it travels along the major thoroughfares of Metropolitan Avenue to Bushwick Avenue and on to Harrison Street. Unlike the Vignelli map - where the positions of the stations and lines are distorted for pure graphic harmony - the Kick Map, while stylized for clarity, has stations that are "location accurate" i.e.
The Kick Map also presents a comprehensive grid of major streets and avenues that intersect with all the station stops to help orient the rider to the stop and the streets above. In short, the Kick Map empowers the map user to better understand the relation of a subway stop to the geography above it. The hybrid concept irons out the "kinks" of any single street as it would in a diagram map.
Unlike the current MTA map, a single road's "wiggles" are straightened out as, for example, with Queens Blvd or the Grand Concourse. The diagrammatic form allows for visual simplicity and a significant reduction in size as the biggest form of the Kick Map is only about two-thirds the size of the current one. The smallest versions still have complete transfer information and when folded can easily fit into a wallet. While there are separate lines for each of the trains, they remain true to the existing MTA signage colors - for example the 1, 2, & 3 lines are all red; the A, C, & E lines all blue, and so on. Each station shows at a glance what train stops there and whether the train stops there all the time, stops only at peak hours, or stops only at off-peak hours. Each station shows the reader whether they have the ability to cross over to go in the opposite direction for free.
Relevant station stops show wheelchair access and connections to commuter rail lines (PATH, Metro North, LIRR). Bus information is shown for highly trafficked destinations that are not served directly by the subway (the Javits Center, Riis Park, Orchard Beach, and LaGuardia Airport) to further discourage automobile use.
In summary, the user-friendly Kick Map has been designed to encourage subway ridership, for both New Yorkers and visitors, and thereby to reduce automobile traffic, congestion, and pollution - not to mention confusion - in our great city.
The cost of building a public park or offering any kind of public good is deemed justifiable if it is used often and provides some form of social benefit.
Equal Accessibility significantly increases the potential for a park’s use and consequently increases the intangible benefits that the public good can offer its citizens. Non-excludability was an issue addressed by Central Park’s designer in 1873, Frederick Law Olmsted. Olmsted’s design for Central Park, although effective in meeting the criteria for promoting a diverse range of users, is only the first step in guaranteeing equal accessibility in the park. The Conservancy’s role in creating a welcoming atmosphere in Central Park is evidenced when observing how people use the park.
In addition to attracting people by incorporating a range of diverse features in the park, strong imageability is important because it allows users to experience better orientation within a space, which facilitates and encourages better use and participation in the space[8]. Despite all the measures already discussed, a park can only attract people so long as it is located at an accessible distance. A key assumption here however, is that Manhattan’s population remains stagnant throughout the day.
As one can see, the intricate MTA subway system network seemingly gravitates towards Manhattan, and Central Park.
It is important to note that ensuring equal accessibility to a park in all ways and forms is the only way to assure a park’s success. With repair work finally finished, all four subway tracks on New York City's Manhattan Bridge were being utilized yesterday for the first time in a couple decades. The New York Daily News reports that New York City Transit "has been alerting riders for months with new maps in stations and subway trains, brochures, conductor announcements," as well as with service updates posted on the Web site of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). According to The New York Times, subway ridership in the city has increased by a third since 1986, but existing routes and schedules were not in sync with existing commuting patterns and desires.
To connect, read Foxit's Blog and Debenu's Blog, follow Foxit Software on Twitter, or join the Foxit Software's LinkedIn group. The New York City Metropolitan Transit Association has just released an overhauled subway map.
Check out the Gear Live Tools that let you integrate Gear Live into your site and add Google features. The Streetwise NYC Subway map  is one of the greatest maps you can own for navigating around Manhattan.
The reverse side of the NYC subway map has a color coded bus map featuring major Manhattan bus routes.


Created with clarity and ease of use, it allows riders to navigate this vast system easily and without uncertainty. A well-designed map not only welcomes and empowers novices to use the subway but also encourages additional use for regular "home-to-work-only" commuters to use the subway for recreational destinations where they might otherwise take a car.
There are four significant and conflicting aspects that make the New York City subway impossible to successfully map with just a diagrammatic or just a topographic format. Any location - take 42nd Street and 7th Avenue as an example - places you in the grid, which makes it easy to judge distance and location. Both map types have inherent strengths and weaknesses in their attempts to translate the maze of this complex system.
It is designed with a combination of both diagrammatic and topographic features, thus enhancing the strengths and eliminating most of the weaknesses of both types. For example, when the #6 train "jumps" across from Park Avenue to Lexington Avenue as it travels north, this is shown as a bend on the Kick Map as it would be in a topographic map. This is an important feature for there are 87 stations - 56 in Manhattan alone - that do not allow free access to cross over. A public good, by definition, is a non-rival and non-excludable good, meaning that one person’s use does not deny or reduce someone else the use of that good, and that it is difficult to exclude someone from using the good. A park’s size and location, imageability, and range of features are all factors that affect accessibility. By collecting our own data, we noted how many people used the park, at what time of day, and how they used it.
There are a number of routes to get around including the drives, bridle paths, hiking trails, and paved pathways. The edges represent the partitions in Central Park West, 5th avenue, 59th street and Central Park North. This table does not take into account commuters into the city and the changes in population during the day, and during the night when commuters return home from work.
Even though it is not the biggest borough, nor the most inhabited one, it is the center of business and it is safe to assume more jobs are concentrated in this borough than in the Queens, Brooklyn, The Bronx or Staten Island. If the Central Park Conservancy ceases to operate or exist, important facets of the park’s accessibility will diminish.
That meant route and scheduling changes for seven subway lines, potentially impacting the commutes for 600,000 daily riders, according to news reports. Scanner hardware can produce color scans with high-quality from small MFP scanners up to high-end production scanners. Planet PDF, Debenu Quick PDF Library - Foxit PDF SDK and Debenu PDF SDK are all © 2016 Foxit Software and Debenu Pty Ltd . Changes include more surface area for Manhattan, better colors to represent water and parks, and a bit of a shadow around the subway lines. With the purchase of this map for a $1.95 you will be equipped to travel the length and breadth of Manhattan with the confidence of a native New Yorker. Straphanger is the nickname for a standing subway or bus passenger who grips a hanging strap (nowadays an overhead triangular bar) for support. For this reason the design of the subway map can directly influence ridership numbers and can indirectly have an effect on New York's traffic congestion and pollution.
Used alone, each makes the subway system very hard to understand for a surprising number of people. One premise of the Kick "hybrid" map is that while most of the time a straight line is the easiest line to understand, there are important exceptions.
Instead of having to read words to know when this "jump" occurs (as in the Vignelli map) the "route bend" itself communicates the change quicker and more accurately. With all the non-subway information that the current MTA map does show - like the location of all the heliports in the city - it doesn't offer this simple but important piece of subway information indicating what station stop to get off to turn around in case you miss your stop. If a park does not cater to a diverse range of users, then the park fails to equally integrate citizens and will suffer lower numbers of use. His goal was to make the experience of nature available to ordinary, working people living in modern, industrial cities, “The larger a town becomes simply because of its advantages for commercial purposes, the greater will be the convenience available to those who live in and near” [3].
Central Park, even with Olmsted’s design, was not a pleasant place to be prior to the mid 1980’s with the creation of the Central Park Conservancy. Some well-known districts of the park are The Great Lawn, the Ramble, Strawberry Fields, and the Mall.
Due to our city’s heavily-densed population and area, it is impossible for the park to be close to everyone. Therefore, with a higher concentration of people coming within proximity to Central Park, accessibility increases most during the day for people. Likewise if Central Park had been located in an area of New York City where many trains or other forms of public transportation were not available, the number of visitors would drop. NewYork101 brings you the best things to do in New York, general advice articles and information on moving to this great city. This tip from author Ted Padova demonstrates how to add stamps with the Stamp Tool along with related comments.
Staten Island has also been made smaller, since over there they only really have one subway line that goes back and forth. Gear Live graphics, logos, designs, page headers, button icons, videos, articles, blogs, forums, scripts and other service names are the trademarks of Gear Live Inc.
Some stations in the Bronx like Yankee Stadium and in Brooklyn like Brooklyn Borough Hall are also listed. Allowing a large number of people into the park does not reduce the amount of park available to consumers, but eventually, additional visitors do reduce the benefit to other users.


If a park is small and poorly located in the city, only those who live nearby the park will use it and once again the number of visitors will dwindle.
With this logic, Olmsted envisioned Central Park’s role in the lives of New Yorkers as a benefit that all should enjoy, “We come to the question, what accommodations for recreation can we provide which shall be so agreeable and so accessible as to be efficiently attractive to the great body of citizens…and for the time being, to strongly counteract to the special enervating conditions of the town”[4].
Up until the 1980’s, Central Park was filthy, a place for the homeless, and a common scene for crime and drug use. Furthermore, Every entrance to Central Park can be considered a node. There are 18 entrances in all. However, the park can be strategically located so that different people have an equal opportunity of at least getting to the park if they choose, without complication or time consuming traveling. Due to the park’s strategic location in the middle of the borough of Manhattan, most trains pass through, around, or nearby Central Park.
Central Park is currently the most visited park in New York City and the 2nd most visited attraction in the world (Times Square being number 1). The tights don’t seem that convenient for the person wearing them, unless you’re really good at reading upside down, but they’ll make you REALLY popular with random lost tourists. It’s been 12 years since the last time that the NYC MTA made a major revision to the subway map. All of Manhattan's underground stations and subway lines are drawn to fit on a 8 by 4“ laminated card, scored to fold into a credit card size pocket map for easy discreet use. There is no other product made in the world that is as useful, stylish and inexpensive as the Streetwise NYC Subway Bus map. Parks can become crowded or their design may not suite the interests of certain groups of people. Imageability, or the quality in a physical surrounding which gives it a high probability of evoking a strong image in any give observer, also factors into accessibility, since the park should be designed in such a way that promotes a strong presence both inside and out. TheGreensward Plan, The title of the park’s design plan, postulated what individuals from all social or economic backgrounds would do there: admire the artistically composed scenery, enjoy the spectacle of the crowd on the promenade, and engage in the wholesome exercise of driving, riding, walking, skating, and competitive sports. Despite a rainy forecast, we observed a fairly numerous amount of activities in the park, ranging from organized sports play by children around the ages of 8-10 on grassy terrain, men and women reading on benches throughout the park, people walking in groups along the paths of the park and photography by tourists in landmark areas. The Park is also filled with public art landmarks such as Alice in Wonderland, Balto, Cleopatra’s Needle as well as a number of fountains. Although Central Park is located relatively at the center of Manhattan, the borough is not the largest nor does it contain the largest amount of New Yorkers. These train stops serve as nodes as well where most concentrations of people have the ability to reach the park. A park with this much success clearly defines equal accessibility in a manner few other parks can. Due to its sheer size, it can be tricky to get from one place to another without consulting a map first. For a park to be deemed successful, it must meet the standards of public goods as best it can.
They are responsible for the park’s rules, regulations, law enforcement, management, activities, events, and in some cases the biodiversity of the park.
Some areas of the park were more concentrated than others, but even in the areas with few people we could see a diverse range of uses of the park, such as filming and eating. These landmarks allow for people to be aware of their location without the need of addresses, using instead the relative distance between landmarks. It is important to note that other factors such as a large budget and a general appeal greatly affect a park’s success, however, having outlined the strongly defined goal of equal accessibility in turn is what allows those resources to be used in the best possible manner.
Because of this, we have put together a handy NYC Subway map that you can save, print out or access on your mobile phone. By addressing non-rival and non-excludable use, a park is essentially dealing with the institution of equal accessibility, first envisioned by Frederick Law Olmsted. The Conservancy today works daily to clean up the park, maintain security and remove graffiti [6].
Other areas, such as the spot with the Alice in Wonderland sculpture attracted attention and had a higher concentration of people taking pictures, eating and talking.
If a park is accessible to people regardless of their socioeconomic or geographic backgrounds and if it is large enough to cater to a diverse form of interests then the park has achieved equal accessibility. The enforced rules and regulations in the park are for the purpose of guaranteeing everyone’s satisfaction by allowing diverse activities within different sections of the park.
Human activities such as running, reading were most often found in regions of the park with high traffic passing through.
A park with equal accessibility, not just in terms of physical access, but in social use, is successful because it follows the criteria for a public good, which ultimately serves a social benefit. For example, the area of the Central Park Conservancy Garden is to quite 24 hours a day, while other parts of the park are reserved for organized sports play or playgrounds for children.
Paths roads and walkways were where we found most of these activities. The variety in social uses that we observed demonstrates the Conservancy’s success in maintaining a high level of accessibility in the park.
Central park is model of success, a public park that satisfies a diverse range of users, has a strategic location for optimal accessibility, and has strong imageability that enhances the user’s experience in the park in order to feel welcome. Driving is not permitted through the park after 7:00 pm and during special events in the park [7]. The many duties of the conservancy allow for greater accessibility to all, by creating safety, cleanliness, and an atmosphere that all can enjoy.



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