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Since the first spray paint tags appeared in Philadelphia and NYC in the 1970s, graffiti has spread all around the world. Eventually, writers weren’t satisfied with just writing their names and moved on to creating entire pieces on the cars.
At the height of train graffiti, whole cars were sometimes painted – end-to-end and top-to-bottom, including windows. Walk along the streets of any major city, and many small towns, and you’ll see no shortage of graff. Along with the politically-inclined graffiti, purely artistic graffiti seems to be growing. Seeing this, many business owners and even communities have invited graffiti artists and muralists to have their way with public spaces. Two of the most famous graffiti-covered walls are the former Berlin Wall and the Israeli West Bank barrier wall.
Another well-known but slightly less controversial graffiti wall is the John Lennon wall in Prague.
Even the ancient walls of Pompeii, preserved in volcanic ash for over 2000 years, were covered in graffiti.
The cost of building a public park or offering any kind of public good is deemed justifiable if it is used often and provides some form of social benefit. Equal Accessibility significantly increases the potential for a park’s use and consequently increases the intangible benefits that the public good can offer its citizens. Non-excludability was an issue addressed by Central Park’s designer in 1873, Frederick Law Olmsted. Olmsted’s design for Central Park, although effective in meeting the criteria for promoting a diverse range of users, is only the first step in guaranteeing equal accessibility in the park. The Conservancy’s role in creating a welcoming atmosphere in Central Park is evidenced when observing how people use the park. In addition to attracting people by incorporating a range of diverse features in the park, strong imageability is important because it allows users to experience better orientation within a space, which facilitates and encourages better use and participation in the space[8]. Despite all the measures already discussed, a park can only attract people so long as it is located at an accessible distance. A key assumption here however, is that Manhattan’s population remains stagnant throughout the day. As one can see, the intricate MTA subway system network seemingly gravitates towards Manhattan, and Central Park.
It is important to note that ensuring equal accessibility to a park in all ways and forms is the only way to assure a park’s success. Mike NudelmanAn artist's rendering of human-size bedbugs riding on a train.Just as New Yorkers started to breathe easy again on the subways, bedbugs have been reported on yet another N train, according to CBS New York. Bedbugs were also sighted on other trains this past weekend, including the N, Q, and 6, according to the New York Daily News, citing unnamed sources.
And one rider reported seeing bedbugs on a 7 train earlier this month, but the Metropolitan Transportation Authority inspected and found no evidence of the critters.
The first reported sighting happened at the beginning of August when four N-line trains were taken out of service to be fumigated.
In previous instances, the bugs were found in the seat cushions in the cabs used by conductors. The MTA has fumigated trains in which bedbugs have been found as well as crew locker rooms in Astoria and Coney Island.
New York City's bedbug problems aren't limited to the subway a€” the pests were also found in PIMCO's office at 1633 Broadway.
In 1966 New York Central converted a Rail Diesel Car in to a jet powered train by adding a pair of General Electric J47-19 turbojet engines..
From simple tags to complex pieces, some form of graffiti is present in just about every city on the planet. End-to-ends (pieces covering the train car from one end to the other) flourished, and the graffiti became more complex and stylized.
The Metropolitan Transit Authority’s anti-graffiti budget increased greatly, and trains became much more heavily guarded. Freight trains can often be spied rolling through towns with tags by writers from far away. Painting on subway cars is highly dangerous and has resulted in many deaths, yet many writers continue to risk their lives to score sweet spots on the cars. It’s an almost primal expression, being at once immediate, subversive and long-lasting. People who had something to say scrawled it on a wall, and everyone who passed by that particular spot would see it.
Walls of buildings in urban settings are often plagued by taggers, whether those walls contain a business or a home. Though the Berlin wall fell 20 years ago, it remains one of the most memorable graffiti sites in the world. It sits near the west end of the Charles Bridge and has been there for nearly 30 years, since shortly after Lennon’s death.

Most of us have seen different styles of graffiti, but how often do we really pay attention to the composition? A public good, by definition, is a non-rival and non-excludable good, meaning that one person’s use does not deny or reduce someone else the use of that good, and that it is difficult to exclude someone from using the good. A park’s size and location, imageability, and range of features are all factors that affect accessibility. By collecting our own data, we noted how many people used the park, at what time of day, and how they used it. There are a number of routes to get around including the drives, bridle paths, hiking trails, and paved pathways. The edges represent the partitions in Central Park West, 5th avenue, 59th street and Central Park North. This table does not take into account commuters into the city and the changes in population during the day, and during the night when commuters return home from work. Even though it is not the biggest borough, nor the most inhabited one, it is the center of business and it is safe to assume more jobs are concentrated in this borough than in the Queens, Brooklyn, The Bronx or Staten Island. If the Central Park Conservancy ceases to operate or exist, important facets of the park’s accessibility will diminish.
I grew up at the tail end of the cold war that Ronald Reagan, all praise his name, helped bring to an end while I was still in high school.. They made their way all over the city, providing maximum exposure and a kind of communication channel.
Train yards were (and are) dangerous places for people who aren’t supposed to be there, so the bigger and more elaborate the piece, the more cred a writer earned.
In many cities, passenger trains aren’t allowed to roll out of the station with graffiti on them, but freight trains are another story. In New York, as in some other cities, tagging subway trains is all but extinct thanks to better enforcement and sharp enforcement. Unfortunately, most tags and illegal graffiti don’t do a lot to beautify the dim underground tunnels.
It would be hard to find someone who didn’t see simple tags as mere vandalism, but the more complicated pieces walk a fine line. For a while, graffiti moved away from the political side and centered mainly on marking territory or getting a name up as much as possible. Such was the case with the above Banksy piece in Bristol; the town was asked whether the piece should be destroyed, and the majority voted to keep it where it was. It is covered in Beatles lyrics, messages to the fallen musician, and various other scrawlings and pictures. If a park does not cater to a diverse range of users, then the park fails to equally integrate citizens and will suffer lower numbers of use.
His goal was to make the experience of nature available to ordinary, working people living in modern, industrial cities, “The larger a town becomes simply because of its advantages for commercial purposes, the greater will be the convenience available to those who live in and near” [3]. Central Park, even with Olmsted’s design, was not a pleasant place to be prior to the mid 1980’s with the creation of the Central Park Conservancy.
Some well-known districts of the park are The Great Lawn, the Ramble, Strawberry Fields, and the Mall. Due to our city’s heavily-densed population and area, it is impossible for the park to be close to everyone. Therefore, with a higher concentration of people coming within proximity to Central Park, accessibility increases most during the day for people. Likewise if Central Park had been located in an area of New York City where many trains or other forms of public transportation were not available, the number of visitors would drop. Graffiti writers got to see the work of writers in other boroughs and keep up on what they were doing. Occasionally, graffiti writers are even invited to decorate trains, legally, presumably because the image of graffiti on trains has become so iconic. Tagging tunnels is a little safer, but will still result in arrest on sight in many places. Then, of course, there were those writers who wanted to accomplish something beautiful and memorable. If well-placed and well-publicized, a piece by a well-known graffiti artist can actually bring tourists to the area.
Since it was made difficult in many cities to tag trains, walls have become the primary targets. The controversy surrounding this wall came from the fact that Lennon’s music (and all western pop and rock music) was banned in Communist Czechoslovakia. Allowing a large number of people into the park does not reduce the amount of park available to consumers, but eventually, additional visitors do reduce the benefit to other users.
If a park is small and poorly located in the city, only those who live nearby the park will use it and once again the number of visitors will dwindle.
With this logic, Olmsted envisioned Central Park’s role in the lives of New Yorkers as a benefit that all should enjoy, “We come to the question, what accommodations for recreation can we provide which shall be so agreeable and so accessible as to be efficiently attractive to the great body of citizens…and for the time being, to strongly counteract to the special enervating conditions of the town”[4]. Up until the 1980’s, Central Park was filthy, a place for the homeless, and a common scene for crime and drug use.

Furthermore, Every entrance to Central Park can be considered a node. There are 18 entrances in all.
However, the park can be strategically located so that different people have an equal opportunity of at least getting to the park if they choose, without complication or time consuming traveling. Due to the park’s strategic location in the middle of the borough of Manhattan, most trains pass through, around, or nearby Central Park. Central Park is currently the most visited park in New York City and the 2nd most visited attraction in the world (Times Square being number 1).
At the same time, trains collected tags wherever they went, creating a unique kind of mobile yearbook.. Banksy is the perfect example; there are books and even tours that examine his most famous works. But since many walls are exposed and well-lit, they often pose more of a risk for the graffiti artist. When Communism collapsed non-violently in Czechoslovakia, the wall remained as a testament to free speech.
Parks can become crowded or their design may not suite the interests of certain groups of people. Imageability, or the quality in a physical surrounding which gives it a high probability of evoking a strong image in any give observer, also factors into accessibility, since the park should be designed in such a way that promotes a strong presence both inside and out.
TheGreensward Plan, The title of the park’s design plan, postulated what individuals from all social or economic backgrounds would do there: admire the artistically composed scenery, enjoy the spectacle of the crowd on the promenade, and engage in the wholesome exercise of driving, riding, walking, skating, and competitive sports.
Despite a rainy forecast, we observed a fairly numerous amount of activities in the park, ranging from organized sports play by children around the ages of 8-10 on grassy terrain, men and women reading on benches throughout the park, people walking in groups along the paths of the park and photography by tourists in landmark areas. The Park is also filled with public art landmarks such as Alice in Wonderland, Balto, Cleopatra’s Needle as well as a number of fountains.
Although Central Park is located relatively at the center of Manhattan, the borough is not the largest nor does it contain the largest amount of New Yorkers. These train stops serve as nodes as well where most concentrations of people have the ability to reach the park. A park with this much success clearly defines equal accessibility in a manner few other parks can. People travel to see a Banksy piece in person and pump their tourism money into that location. For a park to be deemed successful, it must meet the standards of public goods as best it can. They are responsible for the park’s rules, regulations, law enforcement, management, activities, events, and in some cases the biodiversity of the park.
Some areas of the park were more concentrated than others, but even in the areas with few people we could see a diverse range of uses of the park, such as filming and eating. These landmarks allow for people to be aware of their location without the need of addresses, using instead the relative distance between landmarks. It is important to note that other factors such as a large budget and a general appeal greatly affect a park’s success, however, having outlined the strongly defined goal of equal accessibility in turn is what allows those resources to be used in the best possible manner.
By addressing non-rival and non-excludable use, a park is essentially dealing with the institution of equal accessibility, first envisioned by Frederick Law Olmsted.
The Conservancy today works daily to clean up the park, maintain security and remove graffiti [6]. Other areas, such as the spot with the Alice in Wonderland sculpture attracted attention and had a higher concentration of people taking pictures, eating and talking. If a park is accessible to people regardless of their socioeconomic or geographic backgrounds and if it is large enough to cater to a diverse form of interests then the park has achieved equal accessibility. The enforced rules and regulations in the park are for the purpose of guaranteeing everyone’s satisfaction by allowing diverse activities within different sections of the park. Human activities such as running, reading were most often found in regions of the park with high traffic passing through. A park with equal accessibility, not just in terms of physical access, but in social use, is successful because it follows the criteria for a public good, which ultimately serves a social benefit. For example, the area of the Central Park Conservancy Garden is to quite 24 hours a day, while other parts of the park are reserved for organized sports play or playgrounds for children.
Paths roads and walkways were where we found most of these activities. The variety in social uses that we observed demonstrates the Conservancy’s success in maintaining a high level of accessibility in the park. Central park is model of success, a public park that satisfies a diverse range of users, has a strategic location for optimal accessibility, and has strong imageability that enhances the user’s experience in the park in order to feel welcome.
Driving is not permitted through the park after 7:00 pm and during special events in the park [7]. The many duties of the conservancy allow for greater accessibility to all, by creating safety, cleanliness, and an atmosphere that all can enjoy.

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