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PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. The Constitution was a reaction against the limitations of the Articles of Confederation and the democratic experiments begun by the Revolution and the Declaration of Independence.
Newspapers played up Shaysa€™s Rebellion, an armed insurrection by debt-ridden farmers to prevent county courts from foreclosing mortgages on their farms.See Leonard A.
The Continental Congress voted unanimously to raise an army to put down Shaysa€™s Rebellion but could not coax the states to provide the necessary funds. Leaders who supported national government portrayed Shaysa€™s Rebellion as a vivid symbol of state governments running wild and proof of the inability of the Articles of Confederation to protect financial interests. The Constitutional ConventionThe gathering of delegates from twelve of the thirteen states who met in Philadelphia from June to September of 1787; originally authorized by the Continental Congress to consider amendments to the Articles of Confederation, they ultimately drafted the Constitution that replaced it. The unassuming and slight James Madison made an unusual teammate for the dashing, aristocratic ex-soldier Alexander Hamilton and the august diplomat John Jay. Madison drafted the first working proposal for a Constitution and took copious notes at the convention. Once the Constitution was drafted, Madison helped write and publish a series of articles in a New York newspaper.
In the early twentieth century, historian Charles Beard asserted that the Constitution was a€?an economic document for economic ends,a€? pushed by investors and industrialists who would profit more from a national economic and political system than from one favoring small-scale agricultural interests.Charles A.
Madison was concerned with threats to order and stability from what he called factionsJames Madisona€™s term for groups that pursue their self-interest or individual preferences above the public good., groups pursuing their self-interest above the public good. Delegates to the Constitutional Convention first gathered on May 25, 1787, in what is now called Independence Hall in Philadelphia. Deliberations took place in secret, as delegates did not want the press and the public to know the details of what they were considering (Note 2.16 "Comparing Content").
In 1787, the powers of the press were identified in ways we recognize in the twenty-first century.
The membership of the Constitutional Convention was so smalla€”never more than fifty on a given daya€”that they could proceed largely in a€?a committee of the whole.a€? This size enabled them to continue their discussions in private at their preferred boardinghouses and tavernsa€”and to keep a tight lid on public discussion. The delegates immediately discarded the Continental Congressa€™s mandate that they recommend amendments to the Articles of Confederation.
This crucial decision was followed by disagreement about exactly how to create a national government. Large states versus small statesThe terms a€?large statea€? and a€?small statea€? are misleading. The powers and structures of the Constitution resulted from a series of compromises designed to bridge these three divides. The most threatening split in the convention emerged initially between large and small states. Cosmopolitan, centrally located states, provided strong initial support for the Virginia Plan against scattered opposition from border states. Only three states voted for the New Jersey Plan, but the Virginia Plana€™s vulnerability was exposed. This Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise)The solution worked out by delegates from Connecticut to create a bicameral legislature, with one chamber (the Senate) representing states, and the other (the House of Representatives) representing the people in districts of equal population size. Aaron Magrudera€™s comic strip The Boondocks ran this installment during the 2004 presidential campaign. As the convention considered the national governmenta€™s powers, an alliance of delegates from New England and the Deep South emerged to defend local control and their statesa€™ economic self-interest. The delegates did not confront slavery head on (indeed, the word a€?slaverya€? is not directly mentioned in the Constitution).
By now, the Constitutional Convention could not break down, because the document had something for everybody. To break the logjam on the presidency, the convention created the Electoral CollegeThe body of electors chosen by states to select the president and vice president of the United States.
The Constitutional Convention began with a principled consensus on establishing a stronger national government; it ended with bargaining, compromise, and deal making.
The signing of the Constitution by the delegates on September 17, 1787, was just the beginning. The elections to the ratifying conventions revealed that opponents of the Constitution tended to come from rural inland areas (not from cities and especially not from ports, where merchants held sway).
Opponents also feared that the strength of the proposed national government posed a threat to individual freedoms. By asking conventions to ratify the Constitution, the Federalists evaded resistance from state legislatures. Anti-Federalists did not decry the process by which the Constitution was drafted and ratified. Today the most famous part of this newspaper campaign is the series of essays (referred to earlier) written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, and published in New York newspapers under the collective pseudonym a€?Publius.a€? The authors used their skills at legal argumentation to make the strongest case they could for the document that emerged from the Constitutional Convention.
Newspapers instead played on public sentiment, notably the adulation of George Washington, presiding officer of the convention, and his support of the Constitution.On the most commonly reprinted articles, see William H.
Not all states were eager to ratify the Constitution, especially since it did not specify what the federal government could not do and did not include a Bill of Rights. We have shown that the Constitution was a political document, drafted for political purposes, by skillful politicians who deployed shrewd media strategies.
The popularity of wallpapers during this period can be attributed to the medieval tradition of hanging tapestries in the rooms for keeping them warm and bright. Nowadays, people look for high definition wallpapers that will bring their home screens to life. The logo of Dell Alienware, featuring a wide eyed alien head, is quite famous among video game enthusiasts. They can try out different wallpapers available on the internet, such as sports wallpapers, natural wallpapers and dark wallpapers. Like most other popular animated feature films, Epic has become a highly searched for subject for desktop and laptop wallpapers.


High cakes are often an essential part of any celebration, be it a wedding, a birthday, an anniversary or even a graduation party. At the end, you will have a beautiful cake which is sure to bring a smile on everyonea€™s face. In fact, regularly changing the wallpaper of your desktop or laptop home screen helps to make the computer more attractive and fun so that you can work for longer periods of time. Cross tattoos are among the most popular religious tattoos with various types of the cross symbol used for designing unique tattoos. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Millions of dollars in paper money issued by state governments to fund the Revolutionary War lost their value after the war.Gordon S. Ordinary Americans, who were experiencing a relatively prosperous time, were less concerned and did not see a need to eliminate the Articles. They were well-educated property owners, many of them wealthy, who came mainly from prosperous seaboard cities, including Boston and New York.
Exalted figures and brilliant intellects sat among nonentities, drunkards, and nincompoops. But despite these contrasts and some political divides, they merged their voices in the Federalist papers, published in New York newspapers under the pseudonym a€?Publius.a€? Soon after the ratification of the Constitution, The Federalist was widely republished in book format. These Federalist papers defend the political system the Constitutional Convention had crafted. Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1913). Paper money, debt relief, and Shaysa€™s Rebellion concerned those committed to existing economic and social orders. Their goal was to devise a constitutionA system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribe the structure and functions of the government., a system of fundamental laws and principles outlining the nature and functions of the government. Newspapers hardly mentioned the convention at all, and when they did, it was in vague references praising the high caliber of the delegates.See John K.
One day the presiding officer, George Washington, noticed that an inattentive delegate had dropped his notes on the floor when leaving the hall. Washington was concerned that news about the political process might produce rumors, confusion, worry, and public opposition to worthwhile policies. They agreed to draft a new Constitution from scratch in order to create a national government superior to and independent of the states.
The Virginia PlanJames Madisona€™s initial working draft at the Constitutional Convention, containing strong national powers, a popularly elected bicameral legislature, and a weak executive elected by the legislature., drafted by Madison, foresaw a strong national government that could veto any state laws it deemed contrary to the national interest. But Madison could not hold this coalition behind both a strong national government and a legislature allocated by population. The New Jersey PlanThe alternative to the Virginia Plan, offered by William Paterson of New Jersey, with reduced national powers and a single legislative body representing the states. The convention became preoccupied by how the new government would be empowered to deal with slavery. Showing a depressed black man talking about the three-fifths clause, it powerfully illustrates the Constitutiona€™s long-lasting affront to African Americans, almost all of whom were enslaved and thus, for the purpose of the census (and of representation in Congress and the Electoral College), would be counted as three-fifths of a person. Southerners sought to maintain slavery, while New Englanders wanted national tariffs to protect their commerce. As a result, the issue of slavery would overshadow much of federal politics until its bloody resolution in the Civil War of the 1860s. Small states liked the security of a national government and their equal representation in the Senate. The debate focused on how many people would be president, the power of the office, the term of the office, how presidents would be elected, and whether they could serve multiple terms.
State delegations voted for their political and economic self-interests, and often worked out deals enabling everyone to have something to take home to constituents.
The Constitution would go into effect only after being approved by specially elected ratifying conventions in nine states.
In most states, property qualifications for voting had broadened from landholding to taxpaying, thereby including most white men, many of whom benefited from the public policies of the states. The advocates of the national political system, benefiting from the secrecy of the Constitutional Convention, were well prepared to take the initiative.
Federalists campaigned to elect sympathetic ratifiers and hoped that successive victories, publicized in the press, would build momentum toward winning ratification by all thirteen states.
A famous woodcut at the start of the Revolution was of a serpent cut into thirteen sections with the admonition a€?Join or Die.a€? Federalists provided a new twist on this theme. Instead, they participated in the ratification process, hoping to organize a new convention to remedy the Constitutiona€™s flaws. Massachusetts narrowly voted in favor of ratification, with the provision that the first Congress take up recommendations for amending the Constitution. This is where the HD wallpapers come in, as they are especially designed for widescreen desktops and laptops. But, these interpretations did not prevent black from inspiring creativity in artists to produce amazing works of art based on darkness. It has become so popular that people even look for desktop and laptop wallpapers featuring the Alienware symbol. The epic wallpapers feature the principal characters from the movie with different varieties including important scenes from Epic as har vokse review well as the movie posters.
The popularity of the character has grown immensely over the past years with Hello Kitty becoming a common theme for birthday parties and cakes.
Space is one of the most popular subjects for laptop and meratol review desktop wallpapers. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (55 MB) or just this chapter (4 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). Wood, a€?Interests and Disinterestedness in the Making of a Constitution,a€? in Beyond Confederation: Origins of the Constitution and American National Identity, ed. Led by Captain Daniel Shays, it began in 1786, culminated with a march on the federal arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts, and wound down in 1787. Dougherty, Collective Action under the Articles of Confederation (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001), chap. Instead, however, the Articles would be replaced by a new, far more powerful national government.
Most had served in the Continental Congress and were sensitive to the problems faced by the United States.
The conventiona€™s driving force and chief strategist was a young, bookish politician from Virginia named James Madison. Scholars now regard it as the fullest explication of the logic underlying the Constitution.
Research has not upheld Bearda€™s stark division of reaction to the Constitution into well-off supporters and poor, democratic adversaries. They sought to replace democracy with a republic, in which officials would be chosen to act on the peoplea€™s behalf.
His worst nightmare was of a faction becoming a political majority, trampling on the rights of its helpless opponents, and quickly enacting its program.
Washington broke his usual silence and rebuked the unknown infractor: a€?I am sorry to find that some one Member of this Body, has been so neglectful of the secrets of the convention as to drop in the State House a copy of their proceedings, which by accident was picked up and delivered to me this morning.
In August 1787, he wrote to his counterpart in London, John Adams, that there was no news from the convention: a€?I am sorry they began their deliberations by so abominable a precedent as that of tying up the tongues of their members.
But as Jefferson recognized, the news can also lead to productive public debate, dialogue, and deliberation. The small states all shared economic vulnerability and an inability to grow, usually because they were boxed in by other states on their western edge, which made it impossible to hope for westward expansion. Delegates from the small states of New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland liked a strong national government, but they feared being overpowered. Borrowing the Virginia Plana€™s idea of a bicameral legislature, they proposed that one chamber, the House of Representatives, be made up of representatives from districts of equal population, while in the Senate each state would be equally represented with two senators. Thus the configuration of todaya€™s Congress emerged not so much from principled deliberations between the Constitutiona€™s founders as from the necessity for compromise between competing state interests. They struck a deal that resulted in New England delegates voting to require the return of fugitive slaves and to prevent Congress from regulating the slave trade until 1808. Some complex matters, such as the structures of the executive and judicial branches, were left up to the new congress. They thought that the national governmenta€™s powers, the complex system of government, lengthy terms of office, and often indirect elections in the new Constitution distanced government from the people unacceptably. A few delegates to the Constitutional Convention, notably George Mason of Virginia and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, had refused to sign the document in the absence of a Bill of Rights. They called themselves not nationalists but FederalistsThe name adopted by those favoring the ratification of the Constitution..


They kept track of the ratification by an edifice of columns, elevated one by one as each state ratified. Anti-Federalist arguments were rarely printed and even less often copied by other newspapers.William H. Anti-Federalist printers often moved to other cities, went out of business, or began reprinting Federalist articles. However, they were rarely reprinted outside New York and were a minor part of the ratification campaign. Through savvy compromises, they resolved cross-cutting divisions and achieved agreement on such difficult issues as slavery and electing the executive.
But with the invention of manually operated presses, the process of wallpaper-production became quite expensive, thereby making them unaffordable for common people. These wallpapers where to buy clearpores facial system can feature mountain and ocean images, high definition trees and flowers, black and white pictures and abstract patterns. Dark wallpapers are often sought after for their dramatic effect that makes the home screen really stand out. Most of does phen375 work easy way to lose weight these wallpapers are quite simple, featuring just the bright colored logo against a dark background, creating beautiful neon effects. Nike wallpapers are perfect for the days they feel motivated proactol and charged up as the small Nike logo featured in these wallpapers give the home screen a strikingly exciting look. The brilliant and colorful wallpapers are sure to brighten up the home screen, preventing you from getting bored of working long hours on the computer. Monster high cakes are commonly ordered for celebrations like birthdays and similar parties. Small girls love birthday cakes and cupcakes themed on the cute cat eye secretions in cats with her red bow. There are numerous cool cross tattoo designs to choose from with Natox numerous websites offering beautiful patterns for these tattoos. Few delegates had political careers in the states, and so they were free to break with existing presumptions about how government should be organized in America. He successfully pressured revered figures to attend the convention, such as George Washington, the commanding officer of the victorious American revolutionaries, and Benjamin Franklin, a man at the twilight of a remarkable career as printer, scientist, inventor, postmaster, philosopher, and diplomat. Many local, well-to-do patriarchs opposed the Constitution; many small merchants wanted a national government. He favored a large republic, which, he believed, would discourage a factiona€™s rise to power. Nothing can justify this example but the innocence of their intentions, & ignorance of the value of public discussions. The people would elect the lower house, which would in turn select the members of the upper house; the two chambers together would then elect the executive and judiciary. Delegates from populous Massachusetts and three fast-growing Southern states joined the two largest states, Virginia and Pennsylvania, to support legislative districts based on population, but they disliked the Virginia Plana€™s sweeping powers for the national government.
The plan had a federal executive, elected by the legislature, to enforce statesa€™ compliance with national law, and a federal judiciary to settle disputes among the states and between the states and the national government. Southerners worried that the North would threaten the practice of slavery, which, although legal in all states, was a central part only of Southern economies.
Northern delegates, convinced that the largest slave-holding states would never have a majority in the Senate, gave in. Pennsylvania and Virginiaa€”the two most populous, centrally located statesa€”foresaw a national government that would extend the reach of their commerce and influence. As one scholar writes, the Constitution is a€?a patch-work sewn together under the pressure of both time and events by a group of extremely talenteda€¦politicians.a€?John P. Opponents to the Constitution were saddled with the name of Anti-FederalistsThe name applied to those who opposed ratification of the Constitution., though they were actually the champions of a federation of independent states. In obtaining ratification of the Constitution, they adroitly outmaneuvered or placated their opponents. Wallpapers became available to the common working class people once more when their mass production began due to the industrial revolution. These wallpapers ProShapeRX mainly fascinate those who love dark colors and gothic themes rather than bright and flowery pictures.
The wallpapers often feature the Nike company slogan a€?just do ita€? to make the wallpapers even more attractive. These cakes are available with a wide Capsiplex range of toppings, based on various themes, such as Dracula high cakes and skullette monster high cakes. The national government had few tools to carry out its assigned task of foreign policy.A synopsis is Jack N. Madison expected that in a republic, the number of locally oriented interests would increase and diversify, which would make it harder for any one of them to dominate. The structure of power created by the Constitution in Philadelphia resulted from a deeply political process.Political scientists have revealed the degree to which the Constitutional Convention and the ratification conventions can be understood to be the result of manipulation of parliamentary rules, strategic voting, shifting coalitions, and the a€?agenda-settinga€? and a€?framinga€? use of mass communication.
Any national law would become a€?the supreme law of the respective States.a€? The New Jersey Plan preserved the core of the Articles of Confederationa€”equal representation of states in a unicameral (single-chamber) legislature.
Small states got more electoral votes than warranted by population, as the number of electors is equal to the total of representatives and senators.
When an Anti-Federalist paper in Philadelphia halted publication, Federalists exulted, a€?There cannot be a greater proof that the body of the people are federal, that the antifederal editors and printers fail of support.a€?More specifically, see Robert A. The most widely disseminated story concerned his return trip from Philadelphia to Virginia.
Madison was elected to the first Congress and proposed a Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
The eighteenth-century press was crucial to the Constitutiona€™s success by keeping its proceedings secret and supporting ratification. The vp-rx pills characteristic patterned wallpapers used during the Victorian Era are referred to as Victorian wallpapers.
Dark wallpapers come in a wide range of variety featuring dark forests, turbulent ocean, dark cities and gothic pictures of the moon.
Although the name may suggest otherwise, these cakes can be decorated to suit girly parties. Following is a collection of some of the coolest a€?earth from spacea€™ wallpapers for you to choose from.
He claimed that political systems were created to maintain libertya€”including the liberty to accumulate wealth. Minority factions could pass legislation by forming temporary majorities, Madison reasoned, but these diverse majorities would not be able to agree on a single project long enough to be oppressive. If the Electoral College did not produce a majority result, the president would be chosen by the popularly elected House, but with one vote per state delegation.The quoted phrase comes from John P. Riker, a€?The Strategy of Ratificationa€? in The Federalist Papers and the New Institutionalism, ed. Most newspapers, especially those whose stories were reprinted by others, were based in port cities, if only because arriving ships provided good sources of news. Only after the Congress had approved the Bill of Rights did North Carolina and Rhode Island ratify the Constitution. Unlike earlier times when wallpapers were hung from the ceiling, the Victorian wallpapers were pasted to walls.
Cute monster skullette high cakes and cakes featuring little girls in gothic costumes along with monster skullette are quite popular. They appealed to state governments, where they faced resistance and even brief armed rebellions.
Such locales were dominated by merchants who favored a national system to facilitate trade and commerce. The tale implied that divine intervention had ensured Washingtona€™s leadership by a€?the providential preservation of the valuable life of this great and good man, on his way home from the Convention.a€?John P. The Victorian patterns are still popular with the wallpapers becoming popular all over the world. There are countless ways to decorate a monster high cake so that it fits the theme of your party. With all sides mollified, the convention agreed that the office of president would be held by one person who could run for multiple terms. Newspapers were less common in rural interior locations where Anti-Federalist support was greatest.
At present, a number of interior decoration companies offer different styles and designs of Victorian wallpapers you can choose from. Constitution and the Making of the American State (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).
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