Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography.
The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air. The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy).
X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity.
In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem. X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines. In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose.
To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest. A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators. The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens. Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images. Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised. Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue.
Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels. An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s. The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them.
For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging. Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier. I am 24 years old and I can tell you, without a shadow of a doubt, that I don't want to have children. When I get on my own health insurance I want to get my tubes tied, and until then, I will take every possible precaution to avoid getting pregnant.

I don't think it's selfish to respect what I want my body to do in this one life that I have.
Having a child is such a massive physical, emotional and financial commitment -- the likes of which are not taken seriously enough by many adults. Originally posted on Literally, Darling an online magazine by and for twenty-something women, which features the personal, provocative, awkward, pop-filled and pressing issues of our gender and generation. Without Gloria Steinem's passionate zest for change and equality, women would not be where we are today.
To celebrate the feminist author, activist and all-around awe-inducing goddess on her 80th birthday, we've compiled some of her best quotes and lessons from over the years. This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines. The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube. A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area. The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen.
In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate.
We live in the 21st century, so why is a woman who opts to stay child-free for life still given the stink-eye?
My wish to remain child-free is not limited to those of the biological variety, but also excludes adoption.
My body is made for running, swimming, reading, biking, loving, sleeping and more -- but it will not be used to bear children. I choose not to allocate my body and my financial, emotional and physical resources to that particular avenue. The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines. These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels. Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images. In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated.
After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface. Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory. The stink-eye is typically followed up by a condescending comment that "you'll change your mind," and "baby fever" that makes me want to b*ttch-slap the commenter. I don't want to have children biologically because I have a host of mental illnesses running amok in my gene pool, and I shudder to think of those passed onto any child.

I believe in bodily autonomy, and any partner I'm with will have to respect that, or they can take a hike.
Some people, like myself, would probably make decent parents, but just because I could be a parent doesn't mean I should, or ever will.
We just have other areas, outside of what is socially acceptable, that we pour ourselves into. The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel. In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g. For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels. This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event".
I wouldn't wish the pain and struggles of my mental illness journey on anyone I cared about. If I accidentally get pregnant (which the IUD I have makes highly unlikely), then I will get an abortion. The latest estimate of the cost of raising a child until they are 18 years old is $245,340, much less the costs that continue to play out for the rest of the parents' lives.
I have various passions I give my love and time too -- such as my career, friends and man-friend. When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film. I have places I want to travel to, people I want to see and adventures I want to have, and a child and the accompanying financial burden would put a swift halt to those life plans. The risks associated with the entire gamut of bearing and raising a child are too great to me, and so I choose not to embark on that journey. I prefer animals over people nine times out of 10, and thus my pets are my children -- I often fondly refer to them as my "fur-babies." The only reason I want to have a bigger living space and more money is so that I can rescue more animals from being euthanized or abused. Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history. The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource. Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology. Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not.

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