Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. Fortunately, however, the ban doesn't go into effect until August 30, which means now is the perfect time to get some luminary to cast a spell on your +2 personality cloak or get some voodoo dolls for your annoying co-workers. Update: Photographers Mark Williams and Sara Hirakawa have responded to Willis' post in a statement to People. The belief in and the practise of magic has been present since the earliest human cultures and continues to have an important religious and medicinal role in many cultures today. The concept of witchcraft as harmful is often treated as a cultural ideology providing a scapegoat for human misfortune.
The term witch doctor, a common translation for the South African Zulu word inyanga, has been misconstrued to mean "a healer who uses witchcraft" rather than its original meaning of "one who diagnoses and cures maladies caused by witches". In Southern African traditions, there are three classifications of somebody who uses magic. Much of what witchcraft represents in Africa has been susceptible to misunderstandings and confusion, thanks in no small part to a tendency among western scholars since the time of the now largely discredited Margaret Murray to approach the subject through a comparative lens vis-a-vis European witchcraft. In some Central African areas, malicious magic users are believed by locals to be the source of terminal illness such as AIDS and cancer. As of 2006, between 25,000 and 50,000 children in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, had been accused of witchcraft and thrown out of their homes.
In April 2008, in Kinshasa, the police arrested 14 suspected victims (of penis snatching) and sorcerers accused of using black magic or witchcraft to steal (make disappear) or shrink men's penises to extort cash for cure, amid a wave of panic. It was reported on May 21, 2008 that in Kenya, a mob had burnt to death at least 11 people accused of witchcraft.
In the Nigerian states of Akwa Ibom and Cross River about 15,000 children branded as witches and most of them end up abandoned and abused on the streets.
Among the Mende (of Sierra Leone), trial and conviction for witchcraft has a beneficial effect for those convicted. In Nigeria, several Pentecostal pastors have mixed their evangelical brand of Christianity with African beliefs in witchcraft to benefit from the lucrative witch finding and exorcism business—which in the past was the exclusive domain of the so-called witch doctor or traditional healers.
In Malawi it is also common practice to accuse children of witchcraft and many children have been abandoned, abused and even killed as a result. Director Reeves featured many scenes of intense onscreen torture and violence that were considered unusually sadistic at the time. The film has gradually developed a large cult following, partially attributable to Reeves's 1969 death from a drug overdose at the age of 25, only nine months after Witchfinder's release. While some reviewers have praised the film for its ostensible "historical accuracy", others have strongly questioned its adherence to historical fact. A witch-hunt is a search for witches or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic, or mass hysteria. The last executions of people convicted as witches in Europe took place in the 18th century. Witch-hunts were seen across early modern Europe, but the most significant area of witch-hunting in modern Europe is often considered to be central and southern Germany. In Salem Village in the winter months of 1692, Betty Parris, age 9, and her cousin Abigail Williams, age 11, the daughter and niece, respectively, of Reverend Parris, began to have fits described as "beyond the power of Epileptic Fits or natural disease to effect" by John Hale, minister in nearby Beverly. The girls screamed, threw things about the room, uttered strange sounds, crawled under furniture, and contorted themselves into peculiar positions, according to the eyewitness account of Rev. The first three people accused and arrested for allegedly afflicting Betty Parris, Abigail Williams, 12-year-old Ann Putnam, Jr., and Elizabeth Hubbard were Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne and Tituba. Tituba, as a slave of a different ethnicity than the Puritans, was a target for accusations. All of these outcast women fit the description of the "usual suspects" for witchcraft accusations, and nobody defended them.
When Sarah Cloyce (Nurse's sister) and Elizabeth (Bassett) Proctor were arrested in April, they were brought before John Hathorne and Jonathan Corwin, not only in their capacity as local magistrates, but as members of the Governor's Council, at a meeting in Salem Town.
Within a week, Giles Corey (Martha's husband, and a covenanted church member in Salem Town), Abigail Hobbs, Bridget Bishop, Mary Warren (a servant in the Proctor household and sometime accuser herself) and Deliverance Hobbs (stepmother of Abigail Hobbs) were arrested and examined.
In May, accusations continued to pour in, but some of those named began to evade apprehension. Warrants were issued for 36 more people, with examinations continuing to take place in Salem Village: Sarah Dustin (daughter of Lydia Dustin), Ann Sears, Bethiah Carter Sr.
The Court of Oyer and Terminer convened in Salem Town on June 2, 1692, with William Stoughton, the new Lieutenant Governor, as Chief Magistrate, Thomas Newton as the Crown's Attorney prosecuting the cases, and Stephen Sewall as clerk.
More people were accused, arrested and examined, but now in Salem Town, by former local magistrates John Hathorne, Jonathan Corwin and Bartholomew Gedney who had become judges of the Court of Oyer and Terminer. June 30 through early July, grand juries endorsed indictments against Sarah Good, Elizabeth Howe, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Proctor, John Proctor, Martha Carrier, Sarah Wilds and Dorcas Hoar.
Mid-July, the constable in Andover invited the afflicted girls from Salem Village to visit with his wife to try to determine who was causing her afflictions.
In January 1693, the new Superior Court of Judicature, Court of Assize and General Gaol Delivery convened in Salem, Essex County, again headed by William Stoughton, as Chief Justice, with Anthony Checkley continuing as the Attorney General, and Jonathan Elatson as Clerk of the Court. Current scholarly estimates of the number of people executed for witchcraft vary between about 40,000 and 100,000. Some authors claim that millions of witches were killed in Europe, while modern scholarly estimates place the total number of executions for witchcraft in the 300-year period of European witch-hunts far lower. The last executions for witchcraft in England had taken place in 1682, when Temperance Lloyd, Mary Trembles, and Susanna Edwards were executed at Exeter. Anna Goldi was executed in Glarus, Switzerland, in 1782, and Barbara Zdunk in Prussia in 1811. Europe, but in both cases, the official verdict did not mention witchcraft, as this had ceased to be recognized as a criminal offense. In modern terminology 'witch-hunt' has acquired usage referring to the act of seeking and persecuting any perceived enemy, particularly when the search is conducted using extreme measures and with little regard to actual guilt or innocence. Use of the term was popularized in the United States in the context of the McCarthyist search for communists during the Cold War, which was discredited partly through being compared to the Salem witch trials. Wiccan Spells Manifest Mind Reading Ability Skills by Mercari Witchcraft Spells added to cart.
Just when we were about to bind Nancy, we found out that our spells, potions, and love charms are no longer welcome on the world marketplace that is eBay. This was particularily the case in Early Modern Europe where witchcraft came to be seen as part of a vast diabolical conspiracy of individuals in league with the Devil undermining Christianity, eventually leading to large-scale witch-hunts, especially in Protestant Europe. The thakathi is usually improperly translated into English as "witch", and is a spiteful person who operates in secret to harm others.
Okeja argues that witchcraft in Africa today plays a very different social role than in Europe of the past—or present—and should be understood through an African rather than post-colonial Western lens. In such cases, various methods are used to rid the person from the bewitching spirit, occasionally physical and psychological abuse.
These children have been subjected to often-violent abuse during exorcisms, sometimes supervised by self-styled religious pastors. Because of this, there exist six witch camps in the country where women suspected of being witches can flee for safety. Arrests were made in an effort to avoid bloodshed seen in Ghana a decade ago, when 12 alleged penis snatchers were beaten to death by mobs. In Tanzania in 2008, President Kikwete publicly condemned witchdoctors for killing albinos for their body parts, which are thought to bring good luck.
In Gambia, about 1,000 people accused of being witches were locked in detention centers in March 2009 and forced to drink a dangerous hallucinogenic potion, human rights organization Amnesty International said. These pastors have been involved in the torturing and even killing of children accused of witchcraft.


As in other African countries both African traditional healers and their Christian counterparts are trying to make a living out of exorcising children and are actively involved in pointing out children as witches. The film was retitled The Conqueror Worm in the United States in an attempt to link it with Roger Corman's earlier series of Edgar Allan Poe-related films starring Price—although this movie has nothing to do with any of Poe's stories, and only briefly alludes to his poem.
Upon its theatrical release throughout the spring and summer of 1968, the movie's gruesome content was met with disgust by several film critics in the UK, despite having been extensively censored by the British Board of Film Censors. Matthew Hopkins (Vincent Price), an opportunist and witchhunter, takes advantage of the breakdown in social order to impose a reign of terror on East Anglia. After surviving a brief skirmish and killing his first enemy soldier (and thus saving the life of his Captain), he rides home to Brandeston, Suffolk, to visit his lover Sara (Hilary Dwyer). Marshall, on a patrol to locate the King, learns they are there and quickly rides to the village with a group of his soldier friends. While Hopkins and his assistant John Stearne really did torture, try and hang John Lowes, the vicar of Brandeston, Gaskill notes that other than those basic facts the film's narrative is "almost completely fictitious." In the movie, the fictional character of Richard Marshall pursues Hopkins relentlessly to death, but in reality the "gentry, magistrates and clergy, who undermined his work in print and at law" were in pursuit of Hopkins throughout his (brief) murderous career, as he was never legally sanctioned to perform his witch hunting duties.
In the Kingdom of Great Britain, witchcraft ceased to be an act punishable by law with the Witchcraft Act of 1735. There were trials in the 15th and early 16th centuries, but then the witch scare went into decline, before becoming a major issue again and peaking in the 17th century.
Germany was a late starter in terms of the numbers of trials, compared to other regions of Europe. Christian IV of Denmark, in particular, encouraged this practice, and hundreds of people were convicted of witchcraft and burnt. In 1645, 46 years before the Salem witch trials, Springfield, Massachusetts experienced America's first accusations of witchcraft when husband and wife, Hugh and Mary Parsons, accused each other of witchcraft. Magic was not considered to be wrong because it failed, but because it worked effectively for the wrong reasons.
She was accused of witchcraft because the puritans believed that Osborne had her own self-interests in mind following her remarriage to an indentured servant. She was accused of attracting young girls like Abigail Williams and Betty Parris with enchanting stories from Malleus Maleficarum. These women were brought before the local magistrates on the complaint of witchcraft and interrogated for several days, starting on March 1, 1692, then sent to jail. Present for the examination were Deputy Governor Thomas Danforth, and Assistants Samuel Sewall, Samuel Appleton, James Russell and Isaac Addington. Abigail Hobbs, Mary Warren and Deliverance Hobbs all confessed and began naming additional people as accomplices. Multiple warrants were issued before John Willard and Elizabeth Colson were apprehended, but George Jacobs Jr. It is very certain that the Devils have sometimes represented the Shapes of persons not only innocent, but also very virtuous.
Bridget Bishop's case was the first brought to the grand jury, who endorsed all the indictments against her. Only Sarah Good, Elizabeth Howe, Susannah Martin and Sarah Wildes, along with Rebecca Nurse, went on to trial at this time, where they were found guilty, and all five were executed by hanging on July 19, 1692. Noyes turning him to the Bodies, said, what a sad thing it is to see Eight Firebrands of Hell hanging there." One of the convicted, Dorcas Hoar, was given a temporary reprieve, with the support of several ministers, to make a confession of being a witch. The first five cases tried in January 1693 were of the five people who had been indicted but not tried in September: Sarah Buckley, Margaret Jacobs, Rebecca Jacobs, Mary Whittredge and Job Tookey.
When Stoughton wrote the warrants for the execution of these women and the others remaining from the previous court, Governor Phips pardoned them, sparing their lives.
The total number of witch trials in Europe which are known to have ended in executions is around 12,000. 1520), Johannes Wier (1515–1588), Reginald Scot (1538–1599), Cornelius Loos (1546–1595), Anton Praetorius (1560–1613), Alonso Salazar y Frias (1564–1636), Friedrich Spee (1591–1635), and Balthasar Bekker (1634–1698).
William Monter estimates 35,000 deaths (see table below), historian Malcolm Gaskill 40,000–50,000.[34] About 75 to 80 percent of those were women. In 1711, Joseph Addison published an article in the highly respected The Spectator journal (No. Kate Nevin was hunted for 3 weeks and eventually suffered death by Faggot and Fire at Monzie in Perthshire, Scotland in 1715. The 1735 Act continued to be used until the 1940s to prosecute individuals such as spiritualists and Gypsies. In Germany the last death sentence was that of Anna Schwegelin in Kempten in 1775 (although not carried out). It is used whether or not it is sanctioned by the government, or merely occurs within the "court of public opinion".
For the rationale that, witchcraft is that the faith of the wildlife, it might does one abundant smart to directly come in the lap of nature to expertise its sense, to scan books from brooks and sermons in stones.
The sangoma is a diviner, somewhere on a par with a fortune teller, and is employed in detecting illness, predicting a person's future (or advising them on which path to take), or identifying the guilty party in a crime.
Children may be accused of being witches, for example a young niece may be blamed for the illness of a relative. Other pastors and Christian activist strongly oppose such accusations and try to rescue children from their unscrupulous colleagues. The witch camps, which exist solely in Ghana, are thought to house a total of around 1000 women. While it is easy for modern people to dismiss such reports, Uchenna Okeja argues that a belief system in which such magical practices are deemed possible offer many benefits to Africans who hold them.
Every year, hundreds of people in the Central African Republic are convicted of witchcraft. Various secular and Christian organizations are combining their efforts to address this problem.
Hopkins and his assistant, John Stearne (Robert Russell), visit village after village, brutally torturing confessions out of suspected witches. He has needles stuck into his back (in an attempt to locate the so-called "Devil's Mark"), and is about to be killed, when Sara stops Hopkins by offering him sexual favours in exchange for her uncle's safety.
After "marrying" Sara in a ceremony of his own devising and instructing her to flee to Lavenham, he rides off by himself. Hopkins, however, having earlier learned that Sara was in Lavenham, has set a trap to capture Marshall.
And Hopkins wasn't axed to death, he "withered away from consumption at his Essex home in 1647". The classical period of witchhunts in Europe and North America falls into the Early Modern period or about 1480 to 1750, spanning the upheavals of the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in an estimated 40,000 to 60,000 executions. What had previously been a belief that some people possessed supernatural abilities (which were sometimes used to protect the people) now became a sign of a pact between the people with supernatural abilities and the devil. Witch-hunts first appeared in large numbers in southern France and Switzerland during the 14th and 15th centuries. At America's first witch trial, Hugh was found innocent, while Mary was acquitted of witchcraft but sentenced to be hanged for the death of her child.
At her trial, Good was accused of rejecting the puritanical expectations of self-control and discipline when she chose to torment and “scorn [children] instead of leading them towards the path of salvation". The citizens of the town of Salem also found it distasteful when she attempted to control her son's inheritance from her previous marriage. These tales about sexual encounters with demons, swaying the minds of men, and fortune telling stimulated the imaginations of young girls and made Tituba an obvious target of accusations. Other accusations followed in March: Martha Corey, Dorothy Good and Rebecca Nurse in Salem Village, and Rachel Clinton in nearby Ipswich. Mary Eastey was released for a few days after her initial arrest because the accusers failed to confirm that it was she who had afflicted them, and then she was rearrested when the accusers reconsidered. Bishop was described as not living a puritan lifestyle for she wore black clothing and odd costumes which was against the puritan code.


August 19, 1692, Martha Carrier, George Jacobs Sr., George Burroughs, John Willard and John Proctor were executed. On September 19, 1692, Giles Corey refused to plead at arraignment, and was subjected to peine forte et dure, a form of torture in which the subject is pressed beneath an increasingly heavy load of stones, in an attempt to make him enter a plea. John Alden by proclamation, and heard charges against a servant girl, Mary Watkins, for falsely accusing her mistress of witchcraft.
117) criticizing the irrationality and social injustice in treating elderly and feeble women (dubbed Moll White) as witches. The term is used by Orwell to describe how, in the Spanish Civil War, political persecutions became a regular occurrence. As well as, watch the flight of birds through the fantastic sunrises and sunsets across the mountains and seas. Most of these cases of abuse go unreported since the members of the society that witness such abuse are too afraid of being accused of being accomplices.
The usual term for these children is enfants sorciers (child witches) or enfants dits sorciers (children accused of witchcraft). For example, the belief that a sorcerer has "stolen" a man's penis functions as an anxiety-reduction mechanism for men suffering from impotence while simultaneously providing an explanation that is consistent with African cultural beliefs rather than appealing to Western scientific notions that are tainted by the history of colonialism (at least for many Africans).
In the Meatu district of Tanzania, half of all murders are “witch-killings”., while particularly albinos are often murdered for their body parts on the advice of witch doctors in order to produce powerful amulets that are believed to protect against witchcraft and make the owner prosper in life. In 2005, the magazine Total Film named Witchfinder General the 15th greatest horror film of all time.
Lowes gives his permission to Marshall to marry Sara, telling him there is trouble coming to the village and he wants Sara far away before it arrives.
In the meantime, Hopkins and Stearne have become separated after a Roundhead patrol attempts to commandeer their horses.
Hopkins and Stearne frame Marshall and Sara as witches and take them to the castle to be interrogated. Contemporary witch-hunts have been reported from Sub-Saharan Africa, India and Papua New Guinea. To justify the killings, Protestant Christianity and its proxy secular institutions deemed witchcraft as being associated to wild Satanic ritual parties in which there was much naked dancing, and cannibalistic infanticide. In the North Berwick witch trials in Scotland, over 70 people were accused of witchcraft on account of bad weather when James VI of Scotland, who shared the Danish king's interest in witch trials, sailed to Denmark in 1590 to meet his betrothed Anne of Denmark.
Witches were often called for, along with religious ministers, to help the ill or to deliver a baby. A doctor, historically assumed to be William Griggs, could find no physical evidence of any ailment.
Martha Corey had voiced skepticism about the credibility of the girls' accusations, drawing attention to herself.
Until this point, all the proceedings were still only investigative, but on May 27, 1692, William Phips ordered the establishment of a Special Court of Oyer and Terminer for Suffolk, Essex and Middlesex counties to prosecute the cases of those in jail. When she was examined before her trial, Bishop was asked about her coat which had been awkwardly “cut or torn in two ways”.
Anthony Checkley was appointed by Governor Phips to replace Thomas Newton as the Crown's Attorney when Newton took an appointment in New Hampshire. In May, the Court convened in Ipswich, Essex County, held a variety of grand juries who dismissed charges against all but five people.
Two unnamed women were executed in Posnan, Poland, in 1793, in proceedings of dubious legitimacy.
The inyanga is often translated as "witch doctor" (though many Southern Africans resent this implication, as it perpetuates the mistaken belief that a "witch doctor" is in some sense a practitioner of malicious magic).
In 2002, USAID funded the production of two short films on the subject, made in Kinshasa by journalists Angela Nicoara and Mike Ormsby. The Ghanaian government has announced that it intends to close the camps and educate the population regarding the fact that witches do not exist.
Some pastors attempt to establish a reputation for spiritual power by "detecting" child witches, usually following a death or loss of a job within a family, or an accusation of financial fraud against the pastor. Marshall watches as needles are repeatedly jabbed into Sara's back, but he refuses to confess to witchcraft, instead vowing again to kill Hopkins.
It was also seen as heresy for going against the first of the ten commandments (You shall have no other gods before me) or as violating majesty, in this case referring to the divine majesty, not the worldly. The first major persecution in Europe, when witches were caught, tried, convicted, and burned in the imperial lordship of Wiesensteig in southwestern Germany, is recorded in 1563 in a pamphlet called "True and Horrifying Deeds of 63 Witches". About eighty people throughout England's Massachusetts Bay Colony were accused of practicing witchcraft, thirteen women and two men were executed in a witch-hunt that lasted throughout New England from 1645–1663. The charges against her and Rebecca Nurse deeply troubled the community because Martha Corey was a full covenanted member of the Church in Salem Village, as was Rebecca Nurse in the Church in Salem Town. The inyanga's job is to heal illness and injury and provide customers with magical items for everyday use.
In the course of "exorcisms", accused children may be starved, beaten, mutilated, set on fire, forced to consume acid or cement, or buried alive. When Hopkins returns and finds out what Stearne has done, Hopkins will have nothing further to do with the young woman. He breaks free from his bonds at the same time that his army compatriots approach their place of confinement. The term "witch-hunt" since the 1930s has also been in use as a metaphor to refer to moral panics in general (frantic persecution of perceived enemies).
When Lawson preached in the Salem Village meetinghouse, he was interrupted several times by outbursts of the afflicted.
Salem citizens would often engage in heated debates that would escalate into full fledged fighting, based solely on their opinion regarding this feud.
If such upstanding people could be witches, then anybody could be a witch, and church membership was no protection from accusation.
Of these three categories the thakatha is almost exclusively female, the sangoma is usually female, and the inyanga is almost exclusively male. While some church leaders and Christian activists have spoken out strongly against these abuses, many Nigerian churches are involved in the abuse, although church administrations deny knowledge of it. This usage is especially associated with the Second Red Scare of the 1950s, with the McCarthyist persecution of communists in the United States.
Dorothy Good, the daughter of Sarah Good, was only 4 years old, and when questioned by the magistrates her answers were construed as a confession, implicating her mother.
John Alden (son of John Alden and Priscilla Mullins of Plymouth Colony), William Proctor (son of John and Elizabeth Proctor), John Flood, Mary Toothaker (wife of Roger Toothaker and sister of Martha Carrier) and her daughter Margaret Toothaker, and Arthur Abbott. On June 3, the grand jury endorsed indictments against Rebecca Nurse and John Willard, but it is not clear why they did not go to trial immediately as well. I put my oath to that." At the end of his army leave, Marshall rides back to join his regiment, and chances upon Hopkins and Stearne on the path. In Ipswich, Rachel Clinton was arrested for witchcraft at the end of March on charges unrelated to the afflictions of the girls in Salem Village. When the Court of Oyer and Terminer convened at the end of May, this brought the total number of people in custody to 62. One of them puts the mutilated but still living Hopkins out of his misery by shooting him dead. You took him from me!" Sara, also apparently on the brink of insanity, screams uncontrollably over and over again.



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