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Francis Galicia: Is it possible to practice all by yourself with this technique???i»?Alex Jennings: What would be a good way to practice FH and BH chops by yourself?
Recently, I've been trying to organize some of the columns and articles I've written over the past ten years. For audiologists, the audiogram is such a basic dimension and so self-evident that its explanation, after the thousandth time, is often unconsciously truncated and simplified. Yet in spite of the recent advances made in diagnostic audiological evaluations, and they are truly impressive, the information and insights provided by the simple audiogram can still provide the most pertinent information to explain the behavioral implications of a hearing loss. This is a figure of an audiogram (with frequency in Hz along the top and Hearing Loss in decibels down the left side). In addition to their energy locations on the frequency axis, speech sounds also vary in intensity. Looking at the audiogram again, and relating it to the speech banana, it is apparent that a person with this hearing loss will hear more of the lower frequency speech sounds than the higher ones. I don't want to give the impression that the perception of vowels is unimportant on the contrary, it is and can be very important -- only that by not actually hearing some of the consonants, hearing-impaired people have to struggle to fill in the acoustical gaps they produce in the stream of speech. This is a figure of an audiogram (with Frequency in Hz along the top and Hearing Loss in decibels down the left side). What I have often found useful in explaining the need to understand the audiogram is commenting that it is possible for someone to be completely deaf and have completely normal hearing in the same ear at the same time.
There is another dimension of hearing loss that is sometimes also included on an audiogram and that is the discomfort threshold. The dilemma of the threshold of discomfort for hearing-impaired people is that it is often the same as that observed with normally hearing individuals (perhaps 90 dB or so across frequency). Finally, it is important for people to be familiar with the details of their audiogram so that they can track any changes with time. I've been folding one side of my table up and playing; however, when playing this way I have to over power my hit to get the ball to come back far enough to keep chopping and with doing this I know the ball would be flying over the opponents side. As I was looking through them, it became apparent that I've neglected to discuss what is perhaps most important hearing dimension of all, the simple audiogram. Perhaps the most important insight of all is an appreciation of how specific audiograms impact upon the perception of certain speech sounds. Frequency (or pitch) is depicted on the horizontal axis, from low frequencies on the left (250 Hz) to high frequencies on the right (8000 Hz). This is a general, but static, representation of the acoustical speech energy across frequency. In reality, however, conversational speech is a dynamic and time-varying event, with one speech sound (phoneme) following another in a rapid succession. Those individuals with superior linguistic skills would perform this task better than those with lesser skills. Somebody with this type of hearing loss actually hears better at 250 Hz than the one whose audiogram is shown in figure 1, but much worse at 1000 Hz and higher. Without a hearing aid (and even with one) this person needs to depend upon visual cues (speechreading) to supplement the information received through hearing.
Looking at this audiogram, we can state that this person has perfectly normal hearing in the left ear, but this is only true at 250 Hz and 500 Hz. In a room full of people with hearing loss, it is doubtful that any two would exhibit exactly the same audiogram for both their ears. While an audiogram can help explain much of the auditory behavior of a person, it does not explain it all. But because their threshold of hearing is elevated, but not their threshold of discomfort, this means that people with hearing loss generally have a reduced listening area (or narrow dynamic range). Any tips that would help?i»?Terry Curve: I was thinking of putting a long pimple sheet on my BH but should I put an inverted on my forehand if I want to be able to attack sometimes or is long pimples on both sides the way to go? For people who may not even have heard of a pure-tone audiometer before they stepped into the audiologist's office, this is a quite understandable.
Without including speech in the equation, it is simply not possible to intelligibly discuss the audiogram. For some specific purposes, it may be useful to test 125 Hz as well as some frequencies higher than 8000 Hz (for example, a progressive hearing loss above 8000 Hz can occur with certain type of ototoxic medications). Some speech sounds, such as vowels are predominately composed of low frequency energy, with less of their power in the higher frequencies. The specific acoustical composition of speech sounds is partially shaped by the preceding and following sounds in an utterance.

Looking at the speech banana, it is apparent that while a great deal of low frequency vowel energy will be perceived, practically no high frequency consonants would be. Some people, because of their superior ability to utilize some of the secondary cues in a speech signal referred to above, or their superior linguistic ability may do better than these comments would suggest. Or one could assert that he is completely deaf in the left ear, as again indeed he is (but only at 4000 Hz and higher).
There would be differences in degree of hearing loss at the different frequencies as well as divergences between the ears. We know that there are other dimensions to auditory experiences that cannot be explained by the audiogram.
How does Joo Se Hyuk arrange his rubbers?i»?Alexander Michaels: Is the chopping motion different when you use a regular rubber (say Mark V) or short pips or long pips? Even though just about everybody who receives a hearing aid has his or her hearing tested with a pure-tone audiometer, not everybody receives a comprehensive explanation of exactly what the results mean and what the implications are for them. To expect them to fully understand how the pattern of their hearing loss impacts upon their listening behavior is not very realistic.
This, after all, is the signal we are most interested in hearing (not to minimize the specific needs of certain groups of people for other types of sounds, such as musicians). The amount of hearing loss is shown on the vertical axis with the higher numbers indicating a greater degree of hearing loss. The intensity of all other speech sounds in the English language fall within these bounds (note, however, that this does not take into consideration inflected speech, which will move the entire speech banana up and down). These specific effects, such as the unique modifications in vowels made by different preceding and following consonants, are actually secondary cues that can be helpful for understanding speech.
Yes, but only with some difficulty and then only if the talker is close by and raises his or her voice slightly. Looking at the audiogram, we can understand somewhat why this should occur: they are not hearing the full range of high frequencies where many of the consonants have their predominant energy. An individual with this audiogram would have even more difficulty in understanding speech than the one whose audiogram is shown in figure 1. But there are limits to even the keenest brain and the most developed auditory integration ability; at some point, people do need to detect speech energy in order to understand a spoken message. While there is merit and often necessity to this practice, there is also the danger of oversimplification. In the right ear, the hearing loss at each of the three frequencies is the same, also resulting in an average of 40 dB.
People with bilaterally symmetrical hearing losses (that is, with similar hearing losses in both ears) may have quite different auditory experiences than people with bilaterally asymmetrical hearing losses. Still, the audiogram is a good place to begin when trying to understand someone's speech perception problems. Sounds delivered by the hearing aid below the threshold of hearing would not be audible; those exceeding the threshold of discomfort would not be tolerated (the hearing aid user would either turn the volume control down or simply remove the hearing aid).
It is a good idea for people to keep copies of all the audiometric tests administered to them so that comparisons can be made (and to be sure that they are dated correctly). And even for those that do, at a time when prospective hearing aid purchasers are being inundated with new information, anxious about the test results, and worried about the cost involved, much of this explanation will be forgotten or misconstrued the time several weeks have passed.
Indeed, the ability to take advantage of these cues may help explain why some people seem to understand speech much better than one would predict on the basis of their audiogram. There are, unfortunately, many people with audiograms similar to this who do not, for one reason or another, wear hearing aids. And we know from many years of research, that consonants contribute more to the understanding of speech than vowels. In truth, they may be hanging on to speech comprehension with their finger tips; any further distortion in the speech signal, such as someone talking rapidly or in a foreign accent, or in the presence of noise and reverberation, and they lose it. These people depend upon whatever low frequency energy they do receive for comprehending speech.
And this person is missing just too much of the speech signal to expect easy communication in any oral exchange.
Or perhaps someone's hearing loss is described by employing a single figure (derived usually from averaging the hearing losses at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, and 2000 Hz). But it should be apparent, just from a visual inspection, that these two ears would perceive speech quite differently. All it would take would to resolve this verbal conundrum would be an understanding of what the audiogram actually signifies (degree of hearing loss across frequency).

While most people exhibit a gradually sloping hearing loss across frequency (such as in figure 1), some people have audiograms that are very atypical.
Hearing losses greater than about 70 dB may produce qualitatively different effects than losses less than this.
In brief, the audiogram is perhaps the most important indictor of one's hearing function, the particulars of which everybody who has a hearing loss should be aware of. I know that I'm often bemused when I hear what some people recount to me what they think their audiologist told them about their audiogram and its implications.
Only the shaded area of the speech banana above the threshold curve is audible; portions below will not be perceived. Still, there are certain anchor locations for all speech sounds, as displayed on the speech banana, and these can offer valuable insights in understanding the effects of differing hearing losses. And this audiogram depicts only a gradual high frequency hearing loss; were this person's audiogram something like the one shown in figure 2, problems with speech perception would be even more severe.
The presence of noise and reverberation (not exactly an uncommon occurrence in our society!) would have a disproportionate effect on them, since it would mask the only speech energy they are able to receive. Quite clearly this example demonstrates that the shorthand description of a hearing loss with a number or a verbal label can be quite deceptive. This would include people with rising thresholds with frequency as well as those with perfectly normal hearing at the very low and high frequencies, but with moderately or severe hearing losses in the mid frequencies. In this instance, it would be more of a challenge to package sound within this more restricted dynamic range (this is where advanced technology can be very helpful, as in hearing aids with fast acting automatic gain control circuits).
After that point, people will usually begin to display some communication difficulties because of the elevated hearing thresholds. In spite of portrayals to the contrary on some charts, no speech sound can be pinpointed to a speech point on the audiogram; all of them spread their energy somewhat along some segment of the frequency spectrum.
For example people with an average 40 dB hearing loss are considered to have just a moderate hearing loss. The varieties are almost (but not quite) endless and many of these differences have behavioral implications.
A hearing loss may also involve central auditory pathways and these, too, may affect speech perception quite severely. You can do this by moving your bat downwards some more as you hit the ball or by making the angle of you bat more vertical as you hit it. The higher the number, the greater the impact of the hearing loss (referring only to the unaided condition).
But such a shorthand label does not reflect the pattern of a hearing loss, a pattern, as we have seen, that may lead to more insights into the behavioral implications of a hearing loss. Nevertheless, in spite of all these caveats, the audiogram is still the most fundamental auditory dimension of all.
Also you can make it harder for your opponent by getting more backspin on the ball which you can do by brushing the ball finer on your contact. The 100 dB point should not be confused with a 100% hearing loss, which is a total lack of hearing.
Hearing sensations do continue past this point, with some audiometers extending this vertical range to 120 dB. Good luck!Hani Bitar: I try this a lot, but every time i successfully do a chop, the ball bounces too high and the opponent smashes it way too strongly for me to return or chop again. If your opponent is using sidespin you aim in the opposite direction the ball is curving towards.
I assume the short pips give medium spin so i can put spin on my returns and put on some extra spin as opposed to long pips? Will I still be able to block and chop effectively with short pips?edwardhhsu: Nether, just chop it back. Maybe it is just them watching the ball closely?MikvasEye: Why do many players "nod" as they hit the ball when doing the backhand chop?

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