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The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the middle of the neck, located below the larynx (voice box) and above the clavicles (collarbones). The thyroid produces two hormones, triidodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which regulate how the body uses and stores energy. Thyroid nodules are very common; up to half of all people have at least one thyroid nodule, although most do not know about it. The medical history and physical exam are important parts of the evaluation for thyroid problems. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): In most cases, this is the single most useful test we do in our clinic to diagnose thyroid disease. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy can be performed in our clinic under a local anesthetic (numbing medicine).
Thyroid scan: For this test, a small amount of radioactive iodine is injected into the blood, and then an x-ray image of the thyroid is taken. Thyroid ultrasound: This exam helps to differentiate between different types of nodules of the thyroid gland. Thyroid surgery is used for patients who have a variety of thyroid conditions, including both cancerous and benign (non-cancerous) thyroid nodules, large thyroid glands (goiters), and overactive thyroid glands. Once you have decided to proceed with surgery, you will be scheduled for your pre-op evaluation. Once you are fully awake, you will be moved to a bed in a hospital room where you will be able to eat and drink as you wish.

A 42 year old woman noticed a growth in her neck that has been growing steadily for 3 months. Mixed left thyroid mass measuring 4.1 cm in diameter with cystic and solid components identified. Surgery must be bloodless & dry in order to facilitate good visualization of the tissues. It is carefully dissected out without injuring the recurrent laryngeal nerve, parathyroid glands, and blood vessels. The thyroid mass specimen measuring 4.5 cm in diameter is sent to the laboratory for microscopic analysis.
Thyroid nodules are round or oval-shaped areas within the thyroid that can be caused by a number of conditions, most of which are not serious. Thyroid function is controlled by a gland located just below the brain, known as the pituitary. When there is an excess of thyroid hormone in the blood, as in hyperthyroidism, the TSH is low.
You may feel mild discomfort as the anesthesia is injected, but you will not feel pain during the biopsy. Increased uptake of the radioactive material in the thyroid gland indicates hyperthyroidism, while decreased uptake is present in hypothyroidism. During the surgery (intra-operative), a quick analysis of the thyroid specimen would be inspected by a pathologist (a frozen section) at the operating theatre, while the patient is still asleep under anaesthesia.

Most of our patients having thyroid operations are hospitalized for about 24 hours and can be discharged on the morning following the operation. Vigorous sports, such as swimming, and activities that include heavy lifting should be delayed for at least ten days. Once you have recovered from the effects of thyroid surgery, you will usually be able to doing anything that you could do prior to surgery. The pituitary produces thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which stimulates the thyroid to produce T3 and T4. Reassuringly, about 95 percent of all thyroid nodules are caused by benign (non-cancerous) conditions.
Based on the frozen section, our consultant would determine whether the tumor is benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
The surgery usually takes 2-2? hours, after which time you will slowly wake up in the recovery room. There may be a surgical drain in the incision in your neck (which will be removed the morning after the surgery).

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