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Except through infected needles, hepatitis C can also be caught in direct contact with blood of an infected person. It is believed that hepatitis C cana€™t be transferred through coughing, shaking hands, sneezing, kissing, touching or swimming in public pools. You must especially care if you give or receive transfusion blood, because of the needle sterility. Standard hepatitis C treatment is long way of curing the disease and the drugs can have side effects. Because of decreased protein intake with vegetarian diet, overall liver function could be better.
Up to 40% of people with hepatitis C who have failed with medical treatment have tried alternative methods. Question: What kinds of treatment, surgery, or medication did you receive for your liver disease? Question: Please describe the complications of liver disease experienced by you, a relative, or friend. Chemically, electrolytes are substances that become ions in solution and acquire the capacity to conduct electricity. Love Your LiverPosted on 23 November 2013 by The Anti-Aging Guy • 0 CommentsYour liver and its health are critical to anti-aging. When you read through these lists, you’ll notice a theme common with best practices for anti-aging and longevity: Practice avoidance. Send Home Our method Usage examples Index Contact StatisticsWe do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site.
Cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease that is the result of damage to liver tissue with scarring of the liver (fibrosis - nodular regeneration) causing progressive decrease in liver function, excessive fluid in the abdomen (ascites), bleeding disorders (coagulopathy), increased pressure in the blood vessels (portal hypertension), and brain function disorders (hepatic encephalopathy).
The main damage in cirrhosis is triggered by scarring (fibrosis) that occurs from injuries due to alcohol, viruses, or other assaults. The spleen overproduces nitric oxide, a chemical that causes blood vessels in the spleen to widen (dilate). Bilirubin also builds up in the bloodstream, resulting in jaundice, a yellowish cast in the skin and eyes, as well as dark-colored urine. The liver processes all of the nutrients the body requires, including proteins, glucose, vitamins, and fats. One of the liver's major functions is to render harmless potentially toxic substances, including alcohol, ammonia, drugs, and harmful by-products of digestion.
The portal vein carries to the liver blood that has been circulating through the stomach, spleen, and intestine. Chronic alcoholism particularly endangers the liver by causing alcoholic liver disease (also called alcohol-induced liver disease). Chronic hepatitis, both hepatitis B and hepatitis C, is another primary cause of cirrhosis. The hepatitis virus can produce inflammation in liver cells, causing injury or destruction. Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may lead to jaundice, fever, and cirrhosis. Autoimmune hepatitis, like other autoimmune disorders, develops when a misdirected immune system attacks the body's own cells and organs.
Disorders that block or damage the bile ducts can cause bile to back up in the liver, leading to inflammation and cirrhosis. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) resembles alcoholic liver disease, but it occurs in people who do not drink a lot of alcohol. Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a parasite found in the Asia, Africa, and South America. Long-term or high-level exposure to certain chemicals and drugs, including arsenic, methotrexate, toxic doses of vitamin A, and certain types of prescription medication.
Jaundice is a condition produced when excess amounts of bilirubin circulating in the bloodstream dissolve in the subcutaneous fat (the layer of fat just beneath the skin), causing a yellowish appearance of the skin and the whites of the eyes. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a form of peritonitis (inflammation of the membrane that lines the abdomen), which is associated with ascites. Hepatorenal syndrome occurs if the kidneys drastically reduce their own blood flow in response to the altered blood flow in the liver.
One of the most serious consequences of portal hypertension is the development of varices, veins that enlarge to provide an alternative pathway for blood diverted from the liver.
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a life-threatening bacterial infection of the ascitic fluid. Early symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy include forgetfulness, unresponsiveness, and trouble concentrating. People with cirrhosis have an increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, a type of liver cancer.
Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by progressive loss of bone density, thinning of bone tissue, and increased vulnerability to fractures. If the abdomen is swollen, the doctor will check for ascites by tapping the flanks and listening for a dull thud and feeling the abdomen for a shifting wave of fluid.
The doctor will also check for signs of jaundice, muscle wasting, and (in male patients) breast enlargement. A patient’s medical history can reveal risk factors (such as alcoholism) that warrant screening for conditions such as hepatitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound are all imaging techniques that are useful in detecting and defining the complications of cirrhosis, such as ascites and hepatocellular carcinoma.
A biopsy involves a doctor inserting a biopsy fine needle, guided by ultrasound, to remove a small sample of liver tissue. This approach uses a needle inserted through the skin over the liver area to obtain a tissue sample from the liver. This approach uses a catheter (a thin tube) that is inserted in the jugular vein in the neck and threaded through the hepatic vein (which leads to the liver).
This procedure requires a small abdominal incision through which the doctor inserts a thin tube that contains small surgical instruments and a tiny camera to view the surface of the liver.
Some doctors recommend endoscopy for patients newly diagnosed with mild-to-moderate cirrhosis in order to screen for esophageal varices.
Patients with cirrhosis are susceptible to infections and bleeding, both of which can be life threatening. Weight reduction through diet and exercise, and diabetes and cholesterol management are the primary approaches to treating these diseases.
Large-volume paracentesis, (which involves using a thin needle to withdraw fluid from the abdomen), may be used for ascites refractory to medical treatment or when complications are present. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) uses a stent placed in veins in the middle of the liver to keep open a passage connecting the hepatic and portal veins.
Patients with ascites who have high white blood cell counts should receive intravenous antibiotic therapy (usually cefotaxime) or oral antibiotic therapy with ofloxacin.
Patients with medium-to-large varices that have not bled may also be treated with a surgical procedure called endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL).
Other types of therapies, (such as nitrate drugs, shunts, or sclerotherapy), are generally not recommended for primary prevention of variceal bleeding. The primary treatment for variceal hemorrhage is drug therapy with ocreotide (Sandostatin). If these treatments do not control the bleeding, or bleeding recurs, a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure is performed.
Another procedure, called balloon tamponade, may be used to temporarily control bleeding prior to the TIPS procedure. A scoring system called Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) is used to determine which patients are most in need of a donor liver.
Unfortunately, there are many more patients waiting for liver transplants than there are available organs. Transplantation surgery generally takes 4 - 12 hours to perform, and patients stay in the hospital for up to 3 weeks after the surgery. Patients who require transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis are those who develop major complications of portal hypertension and liver failure or who have poor quality of life and short survival without the procedure.
Berg CL, Gillespie BW, Merion RM, Brown RS Jr, Abecassis MM, Trotter JF, et al Improvement in survival associated with adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Acute hepatitis is when the liver inflammation is happening suddenly, and chronic hepatitis is when the inflammation is appearing many times. It can be transferred through sharing of razors, toothbrush and other personal hygiene items. But, it can still be stopped if we live a healthy way of living, fine nutrition, exercising, routine controls for early discovering, avoiding large alcohol quantities etc. To avoid all possible complications, a vaccination of hepatitis A and B is required in order to avoid further problems.

However, you can treat hepatitis C in an alternative way with herbal remedies such as ginseng, milk thistle, thymus extract and licorice root and with therapies like relaxation techniques, massage and chiropractic care.
Many of them report an immune system boost, better gastrointestinal function and less fatigue. Ben Wedro practices emergency medicine at Gundersen Clinic, a regional trauma center in La Crosse, Wisconsin. These processes are adversely affected by the inadequate lifestyle led by too many people these days. Alcohol, caffeine, trans fats, sugars (especially fructose), and synthetic chemicals (pesticides, medications, household cleaning products) overload the liver, preventing it from doing its job. BackgroundCirrhosis is an irreversible result of various disorders that damage liver cells over time. The scar tissue and other changes in liver cells gradually replace healthy liver tissue and act like small dams to alter the flow of blood and bile in and out of the liver.
Bile contains bilirubin, a yellow-green pigment produced from the breakdown of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying component in red blood cells. The liver is divided into two major lobes, a right and a smaller left, which are separated by tough, fibrous connective tissue. The bile ducts in the column corners collect bile draining from tiny canals around the liver cells.
Alcoholic liver disease includes fatty liver (build-up of fat cells in the liver), alcoholic hepatitis (inflammation of the liver caused by chronic drinking), and alcoholic cirrhosis. Chronic hepatitis C is a more common cause of cirrhosis in developed countries, while hepatitis B is a more common cause of cirrhosis worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia.
If the condition is severe enough, the cell damage becomes progressive, building a layer of scar tissue over the liver. The people most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs and health care workers or emergency workers who may be exposed to contaminated blood. People who have autoimmune hepatitis also often have other autoimmune conditions, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, scleroderma, inflammatory bowel disease, glomerulonephritis, and hemolytic anemia. In people with PBC, the immune system attacks and destroys cells in the liver’s bile ducts. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic disease that mostly affects men, usually around age 40.
Other inherited diseases that can cause cirrhosis include Wilson’s disease (which causes an accumulation of copper in the body), alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (a genetic disorder caused by defective production of a particular enzyme), and glycogen storage diseases (a group of disorders that cause abnormal amounts of glycogen to be stored in the liver). Patients with decompensated cirrhosis develop many serious and life-threatening symptoms and complications. This yellowish cast to the skin and eyes occurs because the liver cannot process bilirubin for elimination from the body. With the exception of normal newborn jaundice in the first week of life, all other jaundice indicates overload or damage to the liver, or inability to move bilirubin from the liver through the biliary tract to the gut. Possible ComplicationsA damaged liver affects almost every bodily process, including the functions of the digestive, hormonal, and circulatory systems. Impaired brain function occurs when the liver cannot detoxify harmful substances, and can lead to coma.
It is a life-threatening complication of late-stage liver disease that occurs in patients with ascites. The main symptoms include confusion and altered mental status, fever, chills, and abdominal pain. Hepatic encephalopathy is caused by a buildup in the blood of harmful intestinal toxins, particularly ammonia, which then accumulate in the brain.
Sudden changes in the patient's mental state, including agitation or confusion, may indicate an emergency condition. Hepatitis B and C, alcoholism, hemochromatosis, and primary biliary cirrhosis -- all causes of cirrhosis -- are some of the major risk factors for liver cancer. Patients with a history of alcoholism, hepatitis B or C, or certain other medical conditions are at high risk. The results of these tests along with the presence of specific complications (ascites and encephalopathy) are used for calculating the Child-Pugh Classification.
The PT test measures in seconds the time it takes for blood clots to form (the longer it takes the greater the risk for bleeding). One of the most important factors indicative of liver damage is bilirubin, a red-yellow pigment that is normally metabolized in the liver and then excreted in the bile. It also helps determine its cause, treatment possibilities, the extent of damage, and the long-term outlook. Various forms of needles are used, including those that use suction or those that cut out the tissue.
Low levels of protein in the fluid plus a low white blood cell count suggest that cirrhosis is the cause of the ascites. People with cirrhosis are typically malnourished and require increased calories and nutrients. Patients with cirrhosis should ask their doctors which vaccinations (such as hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, pneumococcal pneumonia) they need.
Before you take any medications, (including nonprescription pain relievers such as acetaminophen, aspirin, naproxen, and ibuprofen), ask your doctor if they are safe for you.
Certain types of herbal remedies (kava, chaparral, kombucha mushroom, mistletoe, pennyroyal, and some traditional Chinese herbs) can increase the risk for liver damage. Autoimmune hepatitis is treated with the corticosteroid prednisone and also sometimes immunosuppressants, such as azathioprine (Imuran).
Ursodeoxycholic acid (Actigall), also known as ursodiol or UDCA, is used for treating primary biliary cirrhosis but does not slow the progression. Investigators are also studying whether various drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes may help treat NAFLD and NASH. Hemachromatosis is treated with phlebotomy, a procedure that involves removing about a pint of blood once or twice a week until iron levels are normal.
This is a life-threatening condition in which kidney failure develops because of altered blood flow in the liver. The laxative lactulose, given as a syrup or enema, is used to empty the bowels and to help improve mental status. Primary prevention means treating the varices (swollen or distended veins) before they have bled. When varices located in the digestive tract begin to bleed (variceal hemorrhage), it is considered an emergency situation.
This drug is given for 3 - 5 days after the bleeding began to reduce the risk for rebleeding. Balloon tamponade is now performed only for bleeding that cannot be controlled by drugs or endoscopy. Patients who survive an episode of variceal bleeding need to be treated with drugs to prevent bleeding recurrence.
Liver TransplantationWhen cirrhosis progresses to end-stage liver disease, patients may be candidates for liver transplantation. Patients report improved quality of life and mental functioning after liver transplantation. A MELD score predicts 3-month survival based on laboratory tests of creatinine, bilirubin, and blood-clotting time. Most patients return to normal or near-normal activities 6 - 12 months following the transplant.
One of the primary problems with many hepatitis patients is recurrence of the virus after transplantation.
The outlook is also good for patients who have autoimmune hepatitis who require a transplant. Liver transplantation is generally not recommended for patients with active alcohol or drug abuse addictions.
Management and treatment of patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension: recommendations from the Department of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and the National Hepatitis C Program.
Prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in cirrhosis. Meta-analysis: Combination endoscopic and drug therapy to prevent variceal rebleeding in cirrhosis.
Lactulose improves cognitive functions and health-related quality of life inpatients with cirrhosis who have minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for refractory ascites: a meta-analysis of individual patient data.
A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. This infection can cause severe liver disease, called cirrhosis and appearance of liver cancer. His background includes undergraduate and medical studies at the University of Alberta, a Family Practice internship at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario and residency training in Emergency Medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.

He completed his Internal Medicine residency at the Postgraduate Institute of medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. Eventually, damage becomes so extensive that the normal structure of the liver is distorted and its function is impaired. These ducts eventually join to form the large common bile duct that leads from the liver to the gallbladder.
The veins supply the liver cells with blood containing the nutrients and toxins that the liver cells process. People with chronic hepatitis B who are co-infected with hepatitis D are especially at risk for cirrhosis. In advanced cases, as with alcoholic cirrhosis, the liver shrivels in size, a condition called postnecrotic or posthepatic cirrhosis. Some evidence suggests that insulin resistance (the primary problem in type 2 diabetes) is a major factor in development of a fatty liver. Decompensated cirrhosis increases the risk of serious and potentially life-threatening complications. Ascites is caused by a combination of portal hypertension (high pressure in the blood vessels of the liver) and low albumin levels. Symptoms include dark colored urine and a reduction in volume, yellowish skin, abdominal swelling, mental changes (such as delirium and confusion), jerking or coarse muscle movement, nausea, and vomiting. Encephalopathy can be triggered by many different conditions including internal bleeding, infection, constipation, and dehydration. Cirrhosis due to hepatitis C is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma, while cirrhosis due to hepatitis B is the leading cause of deaths related to liver cancer. Regular exercise and vitamin and mineral supplements may reduce and even reverse loss of bone density.
This is a staging system (A to C) that helps doctors determine the severity of cirrhosis and predict the development of future complications.
In patients with hepatitis, the liver cannot process bilirubin, and blood levels of this substance rise, sometimes causing jaundice. The National Cancer Institute recommends against it.) These imaging tests can also provide information on the extent of liver damage. For example, hepatitis C patients who show no significant liver scarring when biopsied may have a low risk for cirrhosis.
This approach should not be used in patients with bleeding problems, and it must be used with caution in patients with ascites or severe obesity. Treatment goals are to slow the progression of liver damage and reduce the risk of further complications. Although some herbs, such as milk thistle (silymarin) have been studied for possible beneficial effects on liver disease, there is no scientific evidence to show that they can help. Itching is usually controlled with cholesterol drugs such as cholestyramine (Questran) and colestipol (Colestid). In the procedure, a long needle is inserted into the jugular vein in the neck and passed down to the hepatic and portal veins. Varices that are present in the esophagus, stomach, or intestines are always at risk of bleeding. The first step is to immediately achieve normal blood clotting (hemostasis) in order to stop the current bleeding episode. It involves inserting a tube through the nose and down through the esophagus until it reaches the upper part of the stomach. Patients are prescribed either a combination of a nitrate drug [such as isosorbide (Ismo), which is used to treat angina] and a nonselective beta-blocker (propanolol or nadolol) or a beta-blocker alone.
Patients with liver cancer that has not spread beyond the liver are also candidates for transplant. Patients should seek medical centers that perform more than 50 transplants per year and produce better-than-average results. In living-donor transplantation, surgeons replace the patient’s diseased liver with a part of the liver taken from a donor. For the rest of their lives, patients need to take immunosuppressive medication to prevent rejection. The virus already caught can silently spread in the liver causing chronic liver inflammation. In cirrhosis, the normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue that cannot perform any liver function.Acute liver failure may or may not be reversible, meaning that on occasion, there is a treatable cause and the liver may be able to recover and resume its normal functions. It is located immediately below the diaphragm and occupies the entire upper right quadrant of the abdomen.
Bracing the corners of each lobule column are an artery and a vein that carry blood and a bile duct that drains bile. A central vein runs through each column and collects the processed blood from both sources.
It develops in 10 - 20% of heavy drinkers, usually after 10 - 15 years of heavy alcohol consumption.
The longer a patient has had chronic hepatitis, the greater the risk for eventually developing cirrhosis.
A diet high in fatty foods may also be a risk factor, as dietary fat accumulates in the liver. Varices pose a high risk for rupture and bleeding because they are thin-walled, twisted, and subject to high pressure. The tube contains tiny cameras to view the inside of the esophagus, where varices are most likely to develop. There are currently no drugs available to treat liver scarring, although researchers are investigating various antifibrotic drugs. It is best to eat fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible and to avoid eating processed foods. Antibiotics for infections in the bile ducts and drugs that quiet the immune system (prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, methotrexate) may also be used. TIPS is used for patients with ascites unresponsive to treatment and those who may require a liver transplant.
Nonselective beta-blockers drugs, which are commonly used to treat high blood pressure, may be given to prevent bleeding. A balloon at the tube's end is inflated and positioned tightly against the esophageal wall. Patients are also given several sessions of endoscopic variceal ligation over the course of several months. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Thata€™s why many people carrying this virus dona€™t even know they do, because there aren’t any signs of a possible infection.
People who drink heavily and who also have hepatitis C are at particular risk of developing cirrhosis. In general, TIPS should be a second-line option for ascites that does not respond to diuretics.
Studies suggest that the vasoconstrictor drug terlipressin, given in combination with albumin, may be helpful for treating hepatorenal syndrome.
Propanolol (Inderal) or nadolol (Corgard) are the standard beta-blockers used for variceal prevention. In endoscopic sclerotherapy, the endoscopic tube is inserted through the mouth and a sclerosant (a solution that toughens the tissue around the variceal blood vessels) is injected to stop the bleeding. The TIPS procedure may be recommended for patients who experience recurrent bleeding despite drug and endoscopic therapy. This procedure produces excellent results for patients, but there are some risks for the donor. In 2007, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved HepaGram B, an immune globulin, to prevent recurrence of hepatitis B after transplantation. Because bile can also travel directly from the liver to the intestines, patients who have had their gallbladders removed can still absorb fat normally. In the liver, alcohol converts to toxic chemicals that trigger inflammation and tissue injury, which lead to cirrhosis. Balloon tamponade poses a risk for serious complications, the most dangerous being rupture of the esophagus. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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