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Anatomy and Physiology is the single most important topic to master if you want to succeed in nursing school.
Tympanic Cavity: This is the name of the physical space that contains the all the structures of the middle ear. Round Window (not labeled in diagram): This nifty little hole is covered by a thin membrane that is similar to the ear drum, but it has a very different function.
Cranial Nerve VIII (aka the Vestibular and Cochlear Nerves, aka Vestibulocochlear Nerve, aka Acoustic Nerve): Do you remember your mnemonic for the 12 cranial nerves?
Bony Labrynth: A special name for the area within the temporal bone that is carved out specifically for the cochlea and semi-circular ducts to fit into. Auditory Tube (aka Eustachian Tube): This canal connects the ear to the nose and throat cavity. The device is inserted at an angle into the ear canal, transmitting sound before the ear drum. Our hearing mechanism collects, transforms and transmits these sound waves as messages to our brain and our brain then interprets the message. The message has to pass through 3 well-defined parts of the ear known as the Outer, Middle and Inner ear.
The outer ear serves as a sound collector, and directs sound vibrations down towards the eardrum.
The sound vibrations cause movement of the eardrum which is connected to a chain of 3 tiny bones (ossicles) which comprise the middle ear. Once received by the inner ear, an intricate system of hair cells create electro-chemical impulses which travel along the hearing nerve to the brain, where they a recognized as sounds.
Remember that transverse waves are always distinguished by particle motion being perpendicular to wave motion.
For a wave, the speed is the distance traveled by a given point on the wave (such as a crest) in a given interval of time. As a wave encounters the barrier between two media, some of the energy will be reflected and some will be transmitted from the old media into the new media.
Perhaps this misconception springs from the common example that teachers use to discuss the Doppler effect: a siren on a passing police car.
A sound wave is a longitudinal, mechanical wave; not a transverse electromagnetic wave.

2nd Specification: Recognize that waves transfer energy differently in different materials.
It is an observed change in pitch when either the sound source or the listener is in motion. It is the change in wavelength as sound waves enter a medium and are reflected at the boundary.
Imagine that you are standing on a corner when a fire truck with sirens screeching approaches you. The reason a fire truck’s siren sounds HIGHER in pitch as it approaches you is because the truck pushes the sound waves together so that the sound wavelengths in front of the truck get shorter. The reason a fire truck’s siren sounds LOWER in pitch as it passes by is because the truck pushes the sound waves together so that the sound wavelengths in front of the truck get shorter. 5th Item Specification: Understand the relationship between velocity, wavelength, and frequency.
6th Item Specification: Understand the difference between transverse waves and longitudinal waves. Student response indicates an understanding that frequency is a measure of the regularity of passing sound waves and directly relates to the pitch of the sound, where a greater frequency results in a higher pitch. The following is a list of intervention strategies and resources that will facilitate student understanding of this benchmark. The How Stuff works website has some excellent discussions about common items that demonstrate scientific principles about waves.
The Exploratorium Science Museum in San Francisco has several terrific activities for students to learn about science. The Michigan Tech Department of Geology has developed a tutorial for students on seismic waves.
I created Your Nursing Tutor in 2010 based on a desire to help you (yes, you!) get through nursing school without losing your mind. The walls of the ear canal produce wax or cerumen which is an important part of ear health.
The middle ear system is a`mechanical system which intensifies the energy of the sound waves to deliver them to the inner ear (cochlea). The backward and forward motion of a speaker or the clapping of your hands produces these sound waves.

The molecules, which are displaced from their equilibrium position always progress in the same direction as the starting place of the vibration. Students incorrectly believe that an object must vibrate only at its natural resonant frequency.
In regard to the Doppler effect, students incorrectly believe that the pitch is constantly changing as the object gets closer. In this case, the police car passes by an individual, and in fact, does get closer to the person hearing the siren. Student response also indicates sound is a mechanical wave, sound can only travel through a medium, and sound travels fastest through solids, then liquids, then gases. A student example might include bell ringer in a vacuum and observed lack of sound or a similar example. I believe in breaking through all the confusing technical jargon to get right to the point of what’s most important to remember. We need more great nurses out there, so I want you to achieve your dream of becoming one, too.
It serves to lubricate and protect the ear, minimize the entry of foreign bodies and insects into the ear, and has mild anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. In turn, the medium can be a solid, liquid, or gas, which is a collection of interacting particles.
A change in the properties of the medium will cause a change in the speed, or if the wave transfers from one medium to another.
The two figures below demonstrate why sounds can be heard at farther distances at nighttime, a phenomenon entirely due to refraction. It states the mathematical relationship between the speed (v) of a wave and its wavelength () and frequency (f).

Managing low frequency hearing loss 2014
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