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It’s happened to all of us – you walk past someone and you can hear every beat, riff and wail coming from their headphones. In the past, noise-induced hearing loss typically affected industrial workers because they experienced prolonged exposure to excessive levels of noise with limited or non-existent protective equipment.
There are now strict limits on occupational noise exposure and many medicolegal claims have been filed as a result of regulation. But the ubiquitous use of personal music players has radically increased our recreational noise exposure, and research suggests there may be some cause for concern.
The problem is not just limited to children and teenagers either; adults listen to loud music too. In Australia, hearing loss is a big public health issue, affecting one in six people and costing taxpayers over A$12 billion annually for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. Some smartphones and personal music players can reach up to 115 decibels (roughly equivalent to the sound of a chainsaw). When sounds enter our ear, they set in motion tiny frequency-specific hair cells within the cochlea, our hearing organ, which initiate neural impulses perceived by us as sounds.
Exposure to high levels of noise leads to excessive wear and tear on these hair cells, leading to their damage or destruction. The process is usually gradual and progressive; as our cochlea struggles to pick up sounds from the damaged frequencies we begin to notice poorer hearing. A number of US studies have shown the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss in teenagers is increasing. Even a slight hearing loss can negatively affect a child’s language development and academic achievement. Generally, 85 decibels and above is considered the level where noise exposure can cause permanent damage. Listening at this level for approximately eight hours is likely to result in permanent hearing loss.
At 115 decibels, it can take less than a minute before permanent damage is done to your hearing.
In Australia, a number of hearing education campaigns, such as Cheers for Ears are teaching children and young adults about the damaging effects of excessive noise exposure from their personal music players with some encouraging results. Hopefully, this will lead to more responsible behaviour and prevent future cases of noise-induced hearing loss in young adults.
There are no maximum volume limits for the manufacturers of personal music players in Australia. Since 2009, the European Union has provided guidance to limit both the output and usage time of these devices. It might also be worthwhile avoiding apps that automatically increase the volume when environmental noise increases. Losing your hearing at any age will have a huge impact on your life, so you should do what you can to preserve it. Chris Brennan-Jones receives funding from the Cochlear Foundation and has previously received funding from the Medical Research Council (UK) and Action on Hearing Loss. Robert Eikelboom is employed by the Ear Science Institute Australia, a not-for-profit research institution, which developed and implemented the Cheers for Ear programme, supported by funding from the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Receive the latest breaking news across sport, money, life and entertainment, delivered every weekday and Saturday. That scientists and health experts believe portable music players and the habit of listening to music wherever we go very detrimental to our health is not news. Though previous studies underlined that limited time on the earphones could significantly reduce hearing damage, new research demonstrates that as little as an hour is enough to do harm, especially if we play music at high volumes. Based on this, yes, one may conclude by saying that portable music devices are very harmful. On a hot August night in 1991, thousands of fans packed into Dublin's RDS Arena to see Dire Straits. This timeline was created for the Museum of The San Fernando ValIey and pulls from resources like Calisphere, the Library of Congress, CSUN, personal blogs and a diverse set of publications. Special thanks to Tiffany Do for her research and interest in creating the timeline, and Hillary Jenks and Alexis Moreno for their help in writing the entries. 50,000 a€“ 15,000 BC People of northeast Asia follow herds of caribou, bison & mammoth and migrate across the present day Bering Strait.
1542 Juan Cabrillo claims Southern California territory for the Spanish kingdom, beginning over three and half centuries of occupation. 1822A  Spanish rule in California becomes Mexican rule with the rise of the Republic of Mexico and the country's successful War for Independence from Spain. 1833 The Mexican government secularizes the missions, making them public property and allows for land to be distributed to Indian neophytes and Mexican soldiers as payment for service in the military.
1843 Manuel Micheltorena, governor of southern California, decrees the restoration of southern missions to church control. 1846 Governor Pio Pico sells most of the San Fernando Valley land to Eulogio de Celis before the Mexican War.
1846 - 1848 The Mexican American War results in California becoming part of the United States, along with more than half of former Mexican land. 1847 Agreement of peace (Cahuenga Capitulation) between Fremont and Pico gives Americans control of California in the war. 1849 The gold rush in Northern California draws people, and the Valley is cow country full of ranchos that feed them. 1850 California joins the United States; Los Angeles County (which includes the San Fernando Valley) initially comprises 4,340 square miles and the first United States Census measures its population at 3,530. 1851 Alexander Bell and David Alexander become the first American landowners in the Valley after Vicente de Osa sells Rancho Providencia. 1854 Rancho Ex-Mission de San Fernando falls into hands of Andres Pico who becomes known for his hospitality and entertainment.
1855 A new road allows lines of stages, trains of wagons and pack mules to travel to Kern River gold fields. 1860 Geronimo Lopez’s adobe home becomes known as the Lopez Station for housing the stagehouse for the Valley. 1880 San Fernando Farm Homestead Association officially distributes property to stockholders. 1887 A real estate boom partitions up the Valley, beginning with the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company, which buys land from the Los Angeles Farm and Milling Company.
1897 Squatters of the Land Settlers league attempt to squat in the San Fernando Valley under the belief that it is public land for settlement. 1907 Los Angeles approves a 23 million dollar bond issue for aqueduct construction from Owens Valley. In 1915, the city of Los Angeles annexes the San Fernando ValleyA  - a crucial development as this enables the Valley to gain access to the water coming from Owens Valley from the Los Angeles Aqueduct (completed two years earlier under the direction of William Mulholland). 1916 Due to the influx of water provided by the LA Aqueduct, Valley residents begin growing oranges. 1918 The Valley reports record crops including 55,000,000 pounds of beans, and a variety of fruits and vegetables including apricots, citrus, peaches, potatoes, and sugar beets.

1926 The town of Sherman Oaks and the street Sherman Way bear legacy to pioneer of the San Fernando Valley General Moses Hazeltine Sherman. 1931 Residents protest changing the name of Cahuenga to Highland because of the uniqueness of the name Cahuenga. 1941- May 29 Disney Studio animators strike Disney due to Walt Disney's inconsistent monetary rewards for better workers.
1941 When the United States joins World War II, the Valley changes from a place of agriculture to manufacturing as part of the war effort and defense institutions like Lockheed. 1941 Old Trapper’s Lodge Motel with giant trapper sculptures is built as an attraction. 1945 Despite the wartime ban against strikes, set designers from the Conference of Studio Unions strike against Warner Brothers film studio for 30 weeks.
1956 The San Fernando Valley Campus of the Los Angeles State College of Applied Arts and Sciences (CSUN) opens.
1959 Valley leaders and parents protest the increase in mailed pornography in the community. 1966 A coalition of property owning and tax paying associations come together to create a mass group to protest hikes on property taxes.
Between 1967 and 1971 there are six massive demonstrations at San Fernando Valley State College (now known as California State University Northridge) against the lack of representation or curricula related to ethnic studies and the war in Vietnam. 1971 The Sylmar Tunnel Disaster strikes when Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Company tunnels to bring water from the Feather River to the Los Angeles basin.
1979A  Valley residents march against Rocketdyne’s Canoga Park facility on the anniversary of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings to protest the dangerous activities of operations involving nuclear energy.
1991 Motorist Rodney King is pulled over on Foothill Boulevard in Lake View Terrace where 15 LAPD officers in patrol cars converged on him.
1992 The Rodney King trial takes place in Simi Valley with a jury of ten whites, one Latino, and one Asian. 1994 a€“ 57 people lose their lives in the wake of the 6.7 magnitude Northridge Earthquake. 1996 Unrest occurs at California State University Northridge when Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke speaks on campus. According to the World Health Organization hearing loss is already one of the leading causes of disability in adults globally, and noise-induced hearing loss is its second-largest cause. At this level, it can take less than a minute before permanent damage is done to your hearing. And reports from Australia have suggested there’s an increased prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss in young adults who use personal music players.
This is of significant concern considering some studies have reported a 70% increased risk of hearing loss associated with use of personal music players in primary school-aged children. What’s more, as the volume increases, the amount of time needed to cause permanent damage decreases. This is in contrast to Europe, where action has been taken after it was estimated that 50 and 100 million Europeans were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss due to personal music players. Considering the impact of hearing loss on individuals and its cost to society, it’s unclear why Australia has not adopted similar guidelines.
Limiting the output to 85 decibels is a great idea if you’re a regular user and value preserving your hearing. Taking breaks to avoid continued noise exposure will also help reduce your risk of damaging your hearing. Hearing loss has often been referred to as a “silent epidemic”, but in this case it is definitely avoidable. Though the voices saying this is nothing but gross exaggeration are many, a new study comes to show that even as little as one hour of listening to music on an MP3 player, with earphones on at high volume is very dangerous in terms of what it does to our hearing, the Daily Mail points out. The study included two groups: one of 21 people aged 19-28 who were exposed to pop and rock on their MP3 players at different volumes for no more than an hour, and another that was the control group, which was not exposed to music at all.
Still, more studies are due in order to establish accurately the kind of damage they can inflict on one’s hearing.
As its name suggests, it implies listening to music for no more than an hour at a time, at 60 percent of maximum volume. As Mark Knopfler played the opening chords of Money For Nothing, the crowd went wild, the noise carrying far across the city.
It is almost impossible to know precisely how many decibels earphones are delivering, but it is estimated to be up to 110.a€? As a general rule of thumb, if you have to turn up the volume in order to drown out background noise, the music is too loud. They move south along ice-fee corridors into the North American continent to what is now California.
With him are two Franciscan padres, Junipero Serra and Juan Crespi, who record the expedition and found the first mission. Of the missions’ eight million acres originally designated as the property of converted Native Americans, 500 land grants are created for influential families. Though the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo formally ends the war, it becomes an issue of contention when existing Californio rights are not honored as promised, and the Treaty is breached. The treaty takes place at the house of Don Feliz (Campo de Cahuenga) near the Cahuenga Pass.
His adobe house eventually becomes state historical monument: Los Encinos State Historical Park. This pamphlet extolls the benefits of living in Southern California in order to be healed of many diseases like tuberculosis.
Los Angeles Farm and Milling Company, the successor to the Homestead Association, promotes wheat and flour-milling industry. Going back to Native American terms, the word Cahuenga reflects the Native American origins of the San Fernando Valley.
Phyllis O’Kray from the crash of a jet plane, Valley residents picket Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Van Nuys to abolish the use of the San Fernando Valley for jet flying. This will be the third institution of higher education founded in the Valley; in 1947 Pierce College is founded and in 1949 Valley College opens. Murrow televises the Sodium Reactor Experiment from the Santa Susana Research Facility on his program as it powered Moorpark. Although safety inspector Wally Zavattero discovers hazardous conditions and orders precautions taken, they are ignored, leading to an explosion that killed 17 people.
Protesting for equality, the senior citizens gather at the Van Nuys-Sherman Oaks Recreation Center to band together. A local resident videotapes the beating, which becomes a national discussion on police brutality. With twenty billion dollars in damage, it is one of the costliest natural disasters in United States history.
If the 300 square mile area that is the Valley were a single city, it would be the 5th largest in the nation. The results showed that those in the first group stood to suffer from hearing damage in the long run. It was the start of a 252-gig world tour that would see the band play to 4.9million people over the next two years.

The whole experience was extremely unpleasant and I became interested in homeopathy and complementary treatments.
If you can still easily hear outside noises, you will be causing no extra damage.a€? Prolonged exposure of music at this kind of intensity for more than two hours a day can lead to tinnitus (ringing in the ears) by the mid-30s. The Sacred Expedition is a religious & military project of missionization and colonization on behalf of Spain.
Using Native American workers to not only construct the mission but also work it, the mission quickly becomes one of the most prosperous in California, producing abundant harvests and goods. Unknown to his readers, Nordhoff is paid by the Southern Pacific Railroad to praise the curative nature of the region’s climate.
The dam is approximately 200 feet high in San Francisquito Canyon, about 5 miles northeast of what is now Magic Mountain. Photographs at right by Dorothea Lange of the San Fernando Valley in 1936, care of the Library of Congress. Producers pelt metal nuts and bolts from the roof and police hose workers and throw tear gas. In July the Sodium Reactor Experiment suffers a partial meltdown; its estimated release is 240 times that of 3 Mile Island. Until now, there has been no one museum or institution to document, preserve, and celebrate the full scope of the collective history, culture, and arts of such an important place until the 2005 incorporation of The Museum of the San Fernando Valley.
Further research is needed to evaluate the long-term risk of cumulative recreational noise exposures,” Kempler says. As they left the stage that night, exhausted but on a well-earned high, bass guitarist John Illsley's euphoria was dampened by an insistent ringing in his ears. Hearing loss can begin as young as 45.a€? a€?Earbudsa€™ (headphones that fit snugly within the ear) and over-the-head models that enclose the whole ear in a cup are preferable to those that sit on the ear, as they cut out more background noise, allowing music to be played at a lower level. The mix of agrarian and industrial life at this early stage in the Valley’s history sets a precedent for the future economy of the Valley as a pastoral region with some areas of industry.
But the taking of this water destroys the environment and the economy of the Owens Valley, once a beautiful valley known for its migrating birds and diverse, self-sustaining ecosystems.
The dam fails upon its first full filling on March 12, killing 450 people in the San Francisquito and Santa Clara River valleys. But it was hardly surprising given that at every gig he was exposing his ears to damaging levels of decibels. The extent of noise damage is a result of both the loudness of the sound and the length of exposure time.
He also helps educate schoolchildren around the UK about risks from drugs, cigarettes and alcohol through the charity Life Education. After touring constantly from 1976 to 1992, he has now sustained considerable hearing loss, something that he readily admits was inevitable. I very much doubt that our audiences would have appreciated us lowering the volume rather than pumping it up. I believe the boys in the band were affected by hearing loss, too - it's difficult not to be. And now he has recorded two albums and taken to the stage again with Irish rock band Cunla and singer Greg Pearle.
These transmit a signal that actively disrupts ambient noises, stopping them from entering the ear, so music can be listened to at low volumes even in a noisy place. Senator Maclay goes to the County Recorder in Los Angeles and creates the City of San Fernando (township) through a map of development plans. This bloody event leads to the passage of the 1947 Taft Hartley Act, which severely restricts workers’ abilities to strike and the power of unions. Additional fuel-element handling accidents occurred during the recovery process that resulted in radiological releases to the environment and surrounding communities. But with real advances in personal sound monitoring, it should be possible to prevent any further deterioration.' But Illsley - who has four children, James, 27, Jessica, 21, Harry, 12, and eleven-year-old Dee Dee, the older two from his first wife Pauline and the younger two with his second wife Stephanie - is worried about the devastating impact of loud music on the younger generation. The iPod generation, clubbers and festival-goers are unwittingly exposing delicate hearing mechanisms to noise well above the healthy top level of about 55 decibels. He would like to see sound levels, particularly in clubs, made safer, something that has become even more pertinent since James has developed tinnitus, a condition in which the sufferer hears a ringing sound in the ears. The statistics are shocking - 75 per cent of under-55s have difficulty with their hearing, according to the Royal National Institute for the Deaf (RNID). Scientists estimate that the nation's hearing is being - or has been - damaged mainly by exposure to loud music of 85 decibels and above. These cells a€“ called hair cells, although they are not actually hairs a€“ send messages via the auditory nerve to the brain, which interprets the sounds.
From now on, though, James has been advised to avoid any excess sound levels because this could really exacerbate the problem and make it permanent. Hair cells cannot repair themselves and have to last our entire lives.a€? All noise causes damage and this is cumulative, says Dr Mark Downs of the RNID. Hair cells start to die at the age of about 55, and hearing loss gradually occurs as a result. Even I was affected when I went to Glastonbury last month and my ears were really hurting when some of the bands came on stage.' Illsley says that because he always stood to the right of the stage, it is his left ear that has taken a real battering from Dire Straits' music. However, if your ears are consistently exposed to loud noise then you may not be so lucky because permanent tinnitus can be a debilitating, distressing condition. There is no way of knowing how much damage has been caused until hearing loss occurs.a€? The hair cells at the start of the tube sense high-frequency (pitch) noise, while those at the inner most part of the tube sense low frequencies. As sound hits the outer hair cells more often, they die out before the inner cells, which is why high-tone hearing is lost first. Upon hearing the verdict, hundreds of Los Angelenos begin a protest that turns into a a€?livea€? televised six-day riot where 53 people die and the total cost of damages equals $1,000,000,000. The mix of agrarian and industrial life at this early stage in the Valleya€™s history sets a precedent for the future economy of the Valley as a pastoral region with some areas of industry.
Unknown to his readers, Nordhoff is paid by the Southern Pacific Railroad to praise the curative nature of the regiona€™s climate.
Many singers record Jenkinsa€™ song including Bing Crosby (whose version hits #1 on Billboard Magazinea€™s chart in 1944) and the King Sisters; the publicity helps build a population explosion.
The Westerns a€?Bells of San Fernandoa€? and the Western a€?San Fernando Valleya€? are released.
Phyllis Oa€™Kray from the crash of a jet plane, Valley residents picket Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Van Nuys to abolish the use of the San Fernando Valley for jet flying. Welcome to a Timeline of the San Fernando Valley This timeline was created for the Museum of the San Fernando ValIey and pulls from resources like Calisphere, the Library of Congress, CSUN, personal blogs and a diverse set of publications.
Until now, there has been no one museum or institution to document, preserve, and celebrate the full scope of the collective history, culture, and arts of such an important place until the 2005 incorporation of The Museum of the San Fernando Valley.This timeline was created for the Museum of The San Fernando ValIey and pulls from resources like Calisphere, the Library of Congress, CSUN, personal blogs and a diverse set of publications.

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