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From the study of physics we learn that an object produces sound when it vibrates in matter. Low-frequency waves produce low-pitched sounds (such as the rumbling sounds of distant thunder) and high-frequency waves produce high-pitched sounds (such as a mouse squeak). Sounds audible to the human ear usually range from as low as 20 Hz to as high as 20,000 Hz in a young child (the upper range, in particular, decreases with age).
How loud something is, is measured in decibels (dB): a measure of the energy content or power of the waves proportional to amplitude. The decibel scale begins at 0 for the lowest audible sound, and increases logarithmically, meaning that a sound of 80 dB is not just twice as loud as a sound of 40 dB, but has 10,000 times more power!
Score more in Science with Video Lessons, Sample Papers, Revision Notes & more for Class-IX - CBSESign up now. 1968: Jimi Hendrix uses feedback to play "The Star Spangled Banner" at Woodstock, taking the electric guitar where it has never gone before. Sound is often measured and described using two distinct reference points: the psychophysical perception of sound in the human ear and brain, and the scientific quantification of sound with acoustic measuring devices.
A given note is comprised of a series of "pitches" that vibrate in harmony with its fundamental frequency or pitch. This creates a drop in pressure, which pulls in more surrounding air particles, creating another drop in pressure, which pulls in particles even farther out.

We hear different sounds from different vibrating objects because of variations in the sound wave frequency. Psychophysical terms such as loudness and pitch describe the human perception of the same acoustical phenomena as amplitude and frequency. Loudness refers to the human perception of sound, while amplitude refers to quantifiable measurements of air pressure variations.
Rapid vibrations of air molecules create a high-pitched sound (treble); a slower rate of vibration creates a low-pitched sound (bass).
Those air particles in turn move the air particles around them, carrying the pulse of the vibration through the air.
A higher wave frequency simply means that the air pressure fluctuation switches back and forth more quickly.
For example, amplitude is the measurement of the range of air pressure quantified in decibels or dB. Amplitude is the change in air pressure over time and is universally measured in decibels (dB). You can experience this phenomena both aurally and visually by listening to and watching a guitar string being plucked. This book gives one of the best in-depth explanations of the science of sound and human hearing.

Right: Reflections that reach the ear within 40ms are perceived as richness and warmth (reverberation).
These air particles then collide with the particles in front of them, which in turn collide with the particles in front of them, and so on. The string will vibrate at a root, or fundamental, frequency, as well as at higher multiples of this frequency. The level of air pressure in each fluctuation – the wave’s amplitude – determines how loud the sound is. For example, a cello note playing the pitch of middle C will predominantly resonate at 261 cycles per second, but it will also contain frequencies vibrating at 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 cycles per second.
Many audio equipment manuals and professionals use these terms interchangeably, which can create confusion for newcomers. Sounds of low frequency are said to have low pitch whereas sounds of high frequency are said to have high pitch.

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