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There are two major kinds of hearing loss that children can experience: conductive hearing loss and sensorineural hearing loss.
Sensorineural hearing loss is almost always permanent and a child’s ability to develop typically may be affected by it.
A cochlear implant is a surgically implanted device that replaces hair cells in the cochlea and under the skin behind the ear for the purpose of providing useful sound perception via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve to restore hearing to a severely or profoundly deaf individual. Since the first cochlear implant approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in the early 1980s, great advances have occurred in cochlear implant technology.
Children who end up receiving cochlear implants require ongoing audiological management and otolaryngological follow up. Ongoing management by an audiologist includes programming the implant parameters and monitoring device performance from electrical threshold and dynamic range data.
Follow up audiological evaluations are required to assess improvement in sound and speech detection and auditory reception of speech following implantation.
In addition to facilitating the child’s development of sound awareness and sound discrimination, the role of SLP also includes providing parental education about cochlear implants to ensure that the parents understand the importance of device compliance. Children who have lost all or most of their hearing later in life will benefit tremendously from cochlear implants.
Cochlear implants, coupled with intensive post implantation speech therapy, can help young children to acquire speech, language, and social skills. Bio: Jane Jusova is currently an undergraduate in a Speech Language Pathology program at Adelphi University. Tatyana Elleseff is a bilingual speech-language pathologist who specializes in working with multicultural, internationally and domestically adopted as well as at-risk children with complex communication disorders. Subscribe to our NewsletterTo subscribe to our dandy newsletter simply add your email below.
This summary identifies key findings from the Meningitis Research Foundation (MRF) Impact of Meningitis Member Survey.
The survey aimed to gain an overall account of MRF members’ experiences of disease, with a particular focus on accessing urgent hospital care and follow-up care, and the long-term impact of the illness on health and well-being. We received responses to a detailed questionnaire from 809 members who had experienced the diseases between 1988 and 2003 (themselves or a close family member). Pneumococcal meningitis typically has a less dramatic onset than meningococcal disease, and the most visible symptom, the rash, is usually absent.
Of those sent home from the GP only 4% remembered having the symptoms of meningitis and septicaemia explained to them, which reinforces the need to educate healthcare professionals and the public about the symptoms of meningitis and septicaemia. Most people were admitted to hospital on their first visit, but delay was more likely in young children.
Thirty-eight percent of respondents told a health professional that they suspected meningitis, but fewer than half felt this was acted upon. The majority (67%) reported short-term after effects and half of the people in our survey had long-term after effects.
The most common short-term after effects included behavioural, emotional and psychological problems (27%), fatigue (16%), headaches (9%), hearing loss (7%), and sleeping problems (5%). Behavioural, emotional and psychological problems and hearing loss were the most frequently reported long-term after effects (13% and 10% respectively). Of the 716 people with bacterial meningitis, 25% had no hearing test and of those who did, only 32% remember having a test before or up to one month after discharge.
It is well documented6 that patients recovering from bacterial meningitis need an urgent hearing assessment so that if their hearing loss is too severe to benefit from conventional hearing aids, they can have cochlear implantation without delay.
Physiotherapy is crucial for enabling mobility and developing or regaining the ability to carry out everyday tasks.
This was the most frequently reported after effect, 301 members were affected, of whom about one-third (105) reported that the problems were long-term (13% of the total survey).
Figure 7: Percentage of people with behavioural, psychological or emotional problems who received support for those difficulties. Provision of support for behavioural, psychological and emotional problems was particularly inadequate.
Seven percent of those in education either at the time of or after the illness (total 455) were given a statement of educational needs. Long-term after effects had a significant impact on the work and finances of people affected and their families. In this survey, half of patients with meningitis and septicaemia met with delay when seeking urgent medical help from their GP.
Meningitis and septicaemia are difficult to detect in the early stages and therefore any ill patient sent home from the GP or hospital should be empowered to get medical help if their illness deteriorates. In this survey, fewer than a quarter of patients with bacterial meningitis had a hearing test within two months of discharge, despite the well-recognised urgency of this test.
Health professionals involved in treating patients with meningitis and septicaemia, and families affected, need to be aware of the importance of prompt hearing testing. This survey identified deficiencies in the provision of after care: nearly a third had difficulty accessing physiotherapy and occupational therapy respectively and over half had difficulty accessing speech and language therapy. In this survey nearly two-thirds of those who required support for psychological problems had difficulty accessing it.
Heathcare professionals discharging patients should inform the GP, and the health visitor or school nurse if the patient is a child, that the person has had meningitis or septicaemia.
In this survey 14% of people reporting an impact on their child’s education said that they did not receive enough educational support. The impact of meningitis and septicaemia on the work and finances of people affected and their families, demonstrates the far-reaching effects these diseases can have on well-being.

This survey illustrates the staggering cost of meningitis and septicaemia to families, the healthcare system and society; and to date, the cost-benefit analyses that underpin the introduction of new vaccines fail to consider the full medical, educational and societal costs of the diseases. Meanwhile, there are deficiencies in the early recognition and treatment of meningitis and septicaemia, and in the discharge process and after care package for people who have had these illnesses. Produced by Meningitis Research Foundationa in collaboration with University of Bristol Department of Social Medicineb written by L Clarka,b, C Suntera, A Flacka, S Spencera, CL Trotterb , M Hickmanb, L Glenniea with support from Wyeth Vaccines (now Pfizer) and the Department of Trade and Industry. WebMD Medical Reference Medically Reviewed by Dr Rob Hicks Remember your gruff PE teacher's advice for treating an injury? Your child's health care provider will look for signs of developmental delays at regular checkups. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism has conducted an exhaustive analysis of the scientific medical evidence regarding alcohol and breast cancer.
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All materials on this site are strictly copyrighted and may not be used without permission from the copyright holder. A My name is Harmanpreet and I started loosing my hearing due to medicine side effect in 1998 whenA i was 17 years old. I was born with Osteogenesis Imperfect (OI), a disease that affects the body's production of collagen. There can be many reasons why a person exhibits these disorders, when the real cause is loss of hearing. Medical examination and diagnostic testing using sound producing devices, such as a tuning fork, helps to determine the type of hearing loss and the extent of damage.
Other problems can occur due to illness, including serious infections, such as meningitis, as well as accidents resulting in head injuries.
Conductive hearing loss occurs when sound is not conducted efficiently through the outer ear canal to the eardrum and the tiny bones called ossicles of the middle ear. Hearing loss in children can have a harmful effect on their speech and language development.
A good candidate for a pediatric cochlear implant is a child at least 12 months of age with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears who demonstrates limited or no functional benefit from conventional hearing aid amplification. There is a comprehensive testing performed by audiologists and speech language pathologists to evaluate candidacy for a cochlear implant. Electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABR), middle latency responses (MLR), or acoustic reflexes (EART) may be used intraoperatively with stimuli delivered to the cochlear implant prior to leaving the operating room or postoperatively on outpatient basis to facilitate the fitting process.
Medical evaluation by an otolaryngologist should be performed as needed to monitor the postoperative course and medical status of the child.
Weekly, then monthly, extending to visits three to four times per year, the implant settings are adjusted.
Early implantation provides exposure to sounds that can be helpful during the critical period when children learn speech and language skills. She received her MA from NYU, her Bilingual Extension Certification from Columbia University and 4 ACE awards for continuing education from ASHA (to date). It was not sent to bereaved members, or those who had been affected within six months of when the questionnaire was sent out. Half of those who went to their GP with meningitis or septicaemia were sent home the first time and this is in line with the findings of a national MRF-funded study of meningococcal disease in children1. This may explain the higher chances of delayed diagnosis in people with pneumococcal meningitis. Since this survey was conducted, studies and guidelines1,2,3 have highlighted how crucial it is for healthcare professionals to explain to parents how to recognise serious illnesses – including meningitis – in sick children being sent home. Almost two-thirds (65%) of the 48 not admitted first time were under age five and 31% were under age one.
A number of recent studies and national guidelines2,4.5 have highlighted the importance of parental perceptions in identifying serious infections, including meningitis and septicaemia, so if their concerns are disregarded, potentially useful diagnostic information is lost. Overgrowth of bone within the inner ear happens rapidly after meningitis, so delays in assessment can reduce the success of cochlear implants. The occupational therapist is often key for access to physical rehabilitation, equipment for daily living, support for learning disabilities, and financial benefits. This corroborates previous MRF research documenting psychological problems after meningitis and septicaemia7,8. Of the 171 who reported an impact on education, 14% felt that they did not receive enough support.
Nineteen percent of our survey (157) reported an impact on finances and 15 percent (122) reported an impact on a family member’s job, sometimes forcing parents to leave jobs in order to become full-time carers. Health professionals involved in recognition and early management of serious illness should receive training to recognise the signs and symptoms of meningitis and septicaemia. Health professionals assessing children should take parents’ perceptions of their child’s illness seriously. MRF calls for formal audiological testing as soon as possible after bacterial meningitis, preferably before discharge, but within four weeks of being fit to test, in line with the NICE recommendation5. These therapies are time-critical, and can mean the difference between a child who is able to move and to communicate well enough to take part in mainstream activities and one who is not. Healthcare professionals involved in the care of patients after meningitis and septicaemia need to be alert to the potential need for early referral to psychiatric services and other sources of support for emotional and behavioural problems, including MRF’s befriending service.
MRF calls for improved awareness of the need for educational support in children affected by meningitis and septicaemia and for better and more timely access to such support including an early statement.

MRF aims to improve this outlook by campaigning for early recognition, treatment and better, more timely access to after care and psychological and educational support.
There is, therefore, a very real need for more focused quantitative research on the impact of disease on quality of life, to support the evaluation of future vaccines. There is a need for healthcare professionals to work together with local authorities and parents, to get the right treatment, support and help as quickly as possible.
This makes us believe that the celebrities are not the persons who can stay far from health complications. This exhibit is for demonstrative purposes only and should not be used for diagnosing or treating health problems.
You should visit your Cochlear country website for the most accurate information specific to your location. Inside these chambers lie structures that enable us to hear by receiving and sending sound waves, vibrations, and electrical impulses to the brain where they are interpreted into sounds.
Treatment is prescribed using various methods that include surgery if the hearing loss is due to a tumor. Many children may have recurrent ear infections, causing a build-up of fluid in the middle ear, which can also cause hearing loss.
There are several effective treatments for sensorineural hearing loss, one of which is cochlear implants.
These objective measures can be particularly useful in children who are either difficult to condition or otherwise unable to respond consistently to the electrical stimuli used to program the speech processor. This often provides recipients with the ability to understand speech solely by listening through the implant, without requiring any visual cues such as those provided by lip reading or sign language. Her articles have been published in several magazines including Adoption Today, ASHA Perspectives SIG 16 and 17, as well as Advance for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists. In our survey, those affected had a similar age spectrum to the national averages for the same time period.
Those who were sent home first time from the GP were 2.4 times more likely to have pneumococcal infection.
In this survey 70% of those with meningococcal disease but only 10% of those with pneumococcal disease had a rash.
This ‘safety net’ aims to enable parents to seek help again promptly if their child’s illness gets worse.
Delayed or insufficient therapy can limit a person’s ultimate ability to communicate, and so improving access is vital. It is important that the therapist’s assessment of need in these areas is timely, as delay is likely to affect a wide range of aspects of the person’s rehabilitation.
MRF calls for improved access and equality of access throughout the country to speech and language therapy, physiotherapy and occupational therapy after bacterial meningitis and septicaemia. However, for diseases that are difficult to diagnose in the early stages, and in which critical illness can ensue within hours, there will always be a limit to the improvements that can be achieved this way. One way children can meet potential friends and begin the process of socialization is through activities and interaction with their peers.
Hearing loss occurs when these structures sustain nerve damage through illness, trauma, or infections. Cochlear (auditory) NerveNerve Damage: Involves the vestibulocochlear or the 8th nerve as the result of illness. Sensorineural hearing loss on the other hand happens when the cochlea is not working correctly because the tiny hair cells are damaged or destroyed. Therapy may take place either by team therapists or by other professionals in the school or community. In addition, they were 2.7 times more likely to encounter delay at both the GP and hospital, than those people with other infections. Therefore, we believe prevention is key, and many deadly strains of meningitis are now preventable.
If the damage is so severe that it can not be reversed, hearing aids may help to improve the deficit. Depending on the loss, a person might hear most sounds (although they would be muffled), hear in quiet spaces but not in noise, hear only some sounds, or hear no sounds at all. Annual evaluations with the audiologist, speech language pathologist and social worker document the child’s progress and allow any concerns to be addressed. MRF calls for the widest and earliest possible implementation of effective vaccines to provide more comprehensive protection against meningitis. Prevention: Some types of hearing loss can be prevented with early diagnosis and treatment.
If you have an ear infection, a prompt visit to your health care professional will avoid extensive damage to the neural nerve, and helps to prevent the damage from spreading to other parts of the auditory system. Inside the cochlea are tiny hair cells that send mechanical energy to the cochlear nerve, which sends information to the brain. They are destroyed as we age, which explains why the elderly population has a high incidence of heard of hearing problems.

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