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DESCRIPTION: It was Martin Behaim of Nuremberg (1459-1507), who, in so far as we have knowledge, constructed one of the first modern terrestrial globes, and it may, indeed, be said of his a€?Erdapfel,a€? as he called it, that it is the oldest terrestrial globe extant. In the year 1490 he returned for a visit to his native city, Nuremberg, and there is reason for believing that on this occasion he was received with much honor by his fellow townsmen.
The manufacture of a hollow globe or sphere can hardly have presented any difficulty at Nuremberg, where the traditions of the workshop of Johann MA?ller (Regiomontanus), who turned out celestial spheres, were still alive.
The mould or matrix of loam was prepared by a craftsman bearing the curious name of Glockengiesser, a bell-founder. The important duty of transferring the map to the surface of the globe and illuminating it was entrusted to Glockenthon (and possibly Erhard Etzlaub). For over a hundred years the globe stood in one of the upper reception rooms of the town hall, but in the beginning of the 16th century it was claimed by and surrendered to Baron Behaim.
The globe, in its pristine condition, with its bright colors and numerous miniatures, must have delighted the eyes of a beholder.
At the request of the wise and venerable magistrates of the noble imperial city of Nuremberg, who govern it at present, namely, Gabriel Nutzel, P. The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver. 1,431 years after the birth of our dear Lord, when there reigned in Portugal the Infant Don Pedro, the infant Don Henry, the King of Portugala€™s brother, had fitted out two vessels and found with all that was needed for two years, in order to find out what was beyond the St. In the year 734 of Christ when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen of Africa, the above island Antilia called Septa Citade [Seven Cities] was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods. Through the inspiration of Behaim the construction of globes in the city of Nuremberg became a new industry to which the art activities of the city greatly contributed. The longitudinal extent of the old world accepted by Ptolemy was approximately 177 degrees to the eastern shore of the Magnus Sinus, plus an unspecified number of degrees for the remaining extent of China. The new knowledge displayed is confined to Africa, or rather to the western coast for the names on the east coast, save for those taken from Ptolemy, are fanciful. Sources: Behaim informs us in one of the legends of his globe that his work is based upon Ptolemya€™s Cosmography, for the one part, and upon the travels of Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville, and the explorations carried on by the order of King John of Portugal, for the remainder. Ptolemy (#119): Behaim has been guided by the opinion of the a€?orthodox a€? geographers of his time and has consequently copied the greater part of the outline of the map of the world designed by the great Alexandrian.
Isidore of Seville (#205), or one of his numerous copyists, is the authority for placing the islands of Argyra, Chryse and Tylos far to the east, to the south of Zipangu [Japan]. Marco Polo: One cannot fail to be struck by the extent to which the author of the globe is indebted to the greatest among medieval travelers.
A comparison of this sketch with Behaima€™s globe, or indeed with other maps of the period, even including SchA¶nera€™s globe of 1520 (#328), shows clearly that a much nearer approach to a correct representation to the actual countries of Eastern Asia could have been secured had these early cartographers taken the trouble to consult the account which Marco Polo gave of his travels.
The only contemporary map upon which the delineation of Eastern Asia including the place names is almost identical with that given on Behaima€™s globe is by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310), and was published in 1507. According to Marco Poloa€™s records, the longitudinal extent of the Old World, from Lisbon to the east coast of China, is approximately 142A°. Paolo Tosconelli in 1474 (#252), on the other hand, gives the old world a longitudinal extension of 230A° thus narrowing the width of the Atlantic to 130A°.
Toscanelli may be deserving of credit, for having been the first to draw a graduated map of the great Western Ocean, but when we find that he rejected Ptolemya€™s critique of the exaggerated extent given by Marinus of Tyre to the route followed by the caravans in their visits to Sera, and failed to identify Ptolemya€™s Serica with the Cathaia of Marco Polo, as had been done before him by Fra Mauro, we are not able to rank him as high as a critical cartographer as he undoubtedly ranks as an astronomer. Sir John Mandeville: Jean de Bourgogne, a learned physician of Liege, declared on his death-bed (in 1475) that his real name was Jean de Mandeville, but that having killed a nobleman he had been obliged to flee England, his native country, and live in concealment.
Portolano Charts (#251): These nautical [sailing direction] charts were widely distributed in Behaima€™s time, and the fact that the Baltic Sea (Ptolemya€™s Mare Germanicum) appears on the globe as Das mer von alemagna, instead of Das teutsche Mer, is proof conclusive that one of these popular charts was consulted when designing the globe or preparing the map which served for its prototype.
But while improving Ptolemya€™s northern Europe with the aid of a portolano chart, he blindly followed the Greek cartographer in his delineation of the contours of the Mediterranean, and this notwithstanding the fact that the superiority of these portolano charts had not only long since been recognized by all seamen who had them in daily use, but also by the compilers of a number of famous maps of the world, including the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235), which the King of Aragon presented to Charles V. Portuguese Sources: When Behaim, in the spring of 1490, left Lisbon for his native Nuremberg, Bartolomeu Diaz had been back from his famous voyage round the Cape for over twelve months, numerous commercial and scientific expeditions had improved the rough surveys made by the first explorers along the Guinea coast, factories had been established at Arguim, S. There is no doubt that the early Portuguese navigators brought home excellent charts of their voyages. Behaim, of course, enjoyed many opportunities for examining the charts brought home by seamen not only, but also other curious maps, whose existence has been recorded although the maps themselves have long since disappeared.
In addition to maps and charts a person of Behaima€™s social position and connections might readily have had access to the reports of contemporary explorers. Miscellaneous Sources: Foremost amongst these rank the maps in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy (1482), of which Domunus Nicolaus, a German residing in Italy, was the author.
Bartolomeo of Florence, who is said to have traveled for 24 years in the East (1401-1424), but whose name and reputation are other vise unknown, is quoted at length on the spice trade. Behaim had access, likewise, to valuable collections of books and maps, most important among which was the library of the famous Johann MA?ller of KA¶nigsberg (Monteregio), who at the time of his death was engaged upon a revised edition of Ptolemy, which he intended to illustrate with modern maps, including one of the entire world. But long before WaldseemA?ller and Behaim, the same old map must have been accessible to Dom. Be it known that on this Apple [Globe] here present is laid out the whole world according to its length and breadth in accordance with the art geometry, namely, the one part as described by Ptolemy in his book called Cosmographia Ptolemaei and the remainder from what the Knight Marco Polo of Venice caused to be written down in 1250. The ocean on Behaima€™s globe surrounds the continental mass of land, though covered around the North Pole with many large islands, so that in order to proceed from Iceland direct to the north coast of Asia it is necessary to pass through a narrow strait.
The North Sea, the Oceanus Germanicus of Ptolemy, is described as das engelis mere [the English Sea], for by that name it was known to the sailors of Scandinavia and of northern Germany. Be it known that the sea called Ocean, between the Cape Verde Islands and the mainland, runs swiftly to the south; when Hercules had arrived here with his ships and saw the declivity (current) of the sea he turned back, and set up a column, the inscription upon which proves that Hercules got no further. The Pillars of Hercules originally stood on the island of Gades [Cadiz], outside the Straits of Gibraltar, but in proportion as geographical knowledge extended so were these columns pushed ahead. On a Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246), there are two small islands off Cape Verde described as Illa de cades: asi posa ercules does colones [Cades Island where Hercules set up two columns], and on Fra Mauroa€™s famous map of 1459 (#249) a legend to the south of Cabo rosso tells us that he had heard from many that a column stood there with an inscription stating that it was impossible to navigate beyond. Diogo Gomez, an old mariner, well known to Behaim, to whom he presented his account De prima inventione Guineae, tells us that JoA?o de Castro, on his homeward voyage in 1415, had to struggle against the current which swept round Cabo de Non, upon which Hercules had set up a column with the well-known legend, quis navigat ultra caput de Non revertetur aut non.
Gregory of Nyssa (died 395) already knew of the existence of this current, which he ascribed to the excessive evaporation caused by the great heat of the southern sun and the absence of evaporation in the cool north. Behaima€™s Sinus arabicus corresponds to our Gulf of Aden, and this gulf as well as the das rod mer [the Red Sea], is, of course, colored red. Iceland: The story of the Icelanders selling their dogs and giving away their children is a fable invented by English and Hanseatic pirates and merchants, who kidnapped children, and even adults, and sold them into slavery.
Item, in Iceland are to be found men eighty years of age who have never eaten bread, for corn does not grow there, and instead of bread they eat dried fish. Insula de Brazil: The imaginary Jnfula de prazil, to the west of Ireland, appears for the first time on Dulcerta€™s chart (1339). Antilia: An imaginary island of Antilia (also spelled, Antillia ) has found a place upon the charts since the 14th century and was at an early date identified by the Portuguese with the equally imaginary Ilha de sete cidades [the island of the seven cities] where the Archbishop of Oporto with his six bishops is imagined to have fled after the final defeat of King Roderick of the Visigoths on the Guadalete in 711 and the capture of Merida in 712 by the Arabs. The historian Galvao (1862) reports that in 1447 a Portuguese vessel, driven westward by a storm, actually arrived at the island, the inhabitants of which still spoke the Portuguese tongue; other voyages to this island in the time of Prince Henry are referred to in the Historie of Fernand Colombo. Antilia on the ancient maps is a huge island, quadrangular in shape, resembling in all respects the Zipangu of Behaima€™s globe. In the year 734 of Christ, when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen [Moors] of Africa, the above island Antilia, called Septe citade [Seven cities], was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops, and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain, by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods.
Scandinavia: This area is almost wholly copied from a map in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy published in 1482. Marco Polo in the 38th chapter of the third book states that the mariners had verily found in this Indian Ocean more than 12,700 inhabited islands, many of which yield precious stones, pearls and mountains of gold, whilst others abound in twelve kinds of spices and curious peoples, concerning whom much might be written. There he shall find accounts of the curious inhabitants, of the islands, the monsters of the ocean, the peculiar animals on the land and of the islands yielding spices and precious stones. Many noble things are said about this island in ancient histories, how they (the inhabitants) helped Alexander the Great and went with the Romans to Rome in the company of the Emperor Pompey. The island Seilan, one of the best islands in the world, but it has lost in extent to the seas. Item, in past times the great Emperor of Cathay sent an ambassador to this King of Seilan, asking for this ruby and offering to give much treasure for it. The Three Holy Kings and Prester John: The three a€?holy kings a€? whose bones are exhibited to credulous visitors at Cologne Cathedral and whose memory is revived annually on Twelfth Day, were undoubtedly the King of Tarshish and the Isles, and the Kings of Sheba and Saba, of Psalm xxii. Closely connected with the legend of the Three Kings is the reported existence of a powerful Christian Prince, Presbyter or Prester John, in the center of Asia. The Tarshish of the Psalmist must be sought in the East, in maritime India, and not at Tartessus in the West; Sheba was in Southern Arabia, and Saba on the authority of Marco Polo probably in Persia. On Behaima€™s globe the Three Kings are localized in Inner Asia, on the Indian Ocean and in East Africa (Saba). On this mountain, the Mons victorialis (called Mount Gybeit by John of Marignola) the Three Kings watched for the appearance of the star which, according to Balaama€™s prophecy (Numbers xxiv. Below this we read Saba, which clearly stands for Shoa or Shewa, and to the west is a picture of this Prester John of Abassia with a kneeling figure in front of him.
In this country resides the mighty Emperor known as Master John, who is appointed governor of the three holy kings Caspar, Balthazar and Melchior in the land of the Moors.
Og to the west and Magog to the south of Tenduk are described by Marco Polo as being subject to the Prester. The country towards midnight is ruled by the Emperor Mangu, khan of Tartary, who is a wealthy man of the great Emperor, the Master John of India, the wife of the great King is likewise a Christian. All this land, sea and islands, countries and kings were given by the Three Holy Kings to the Emperor Presbyter John, and formerly they were all Christians, but at present not even 72 Christians are known to be among them. Mandeville, says that 72 provinces and kings were tributaries of Prester John, on the authority of an apocryphal letter supposed to have been sent to Manuel Commenus (1143-80), the Pope and others. Zipangu is the most noble and richest island in the east, full of spices and precious stones. Conclusion: Behaim is no doubt indebted to his globe, and to the survival of that globe, for the great reputation that he enjoys among posterity.
But we may well ask whether greatness was not in a large measure thrust upon Behaim by injudicious panegyrists; and if, on a closer examination of his work, he does not quite come up to our expectations, they, at all events, must bear the greater part of the blame.
Maximilian, invincible King of the Romans, who, through his mother, is himself a Portuguese, intended to invite Your Majesty through my simple letter to search for the eastern coast of the very rich Cathay .
Before embarking upon his journey, Magellan himself stated he knew that south of America there was a sound that led to the Southern Sea which Balboa had discovered in I5I3 at the Isthmus of Panama: he, Magellan, had seen the sound on a map by Martin Behaim.
No one has yet determined what connection the work of the Nuremberg scholar Behaim has with Magellana€™s great achievement.
Martin Behaim has accordingly been repeatedly regarded in former times as the actual discoverer of the Magellan Straits and even of the whole of America. Later, in I786, Otto, a German who then resided in the United States, described Behaim as the actual discoverer of America.
An outright struggle has been conducted for centuries concerning Behaima€™s claim to priority in the discovery of America (he himself had not the least idea of this strife).
This certainly does not do away with Magellana€™s peculiar statement that he already had seen on a map the straits which he set out to sail along. Magellana€™s conduct before his departure is depicted in greater detail in 1601 by the Spanish chronicler Herrera who, as Humboldt supposed, could use the notes made by Andrea de San Martin, the astronomer of the Magellan expedition. This report can certainly be assumed to be true, with the exception of Behaima€™s authorship. Two years later the same SchA¶ner made a globe (Book IV, #328) which in a charming manner enriched the Behaim, globe of 1492 with the new discoveries in the western ocean. The definite assertions in the pamphlet of 1508, of Johann SchA¶ner and others, that at their time the Portuguese had already discovered a sound south of America were certainly bona fide but are nevertheless incredible.
That Magellana€™s a€?advance knowledgea€? of the straits which he was to discover was doubtful is also indicated by a notice made by Pigafetta to the effect that in the austral winter of 1520 the explorer wintered with his crew on the coast on 49A° 8' S. Thus one can today describe as well-established facts that the Magellan Straits are rightly called so, that prior to the Portuguese discoverer the hypotheses connected with Martin Behaima€™s name must be considered figments of imagination. Breusing, Zur Geschichte der Geographie, Regiomontanus, Martin Behaim und der Jacobstab, Zeitsch, der Gesellsch. Humboldt, Examen Critique de la€™Histoire de la Geographie du Nouveau Continent et des progres de la€™astronomie nautique dans les XVe et XVIe siecles, volume 1, pp.
Detail of the Atlantic Ocean, Zipangu [Japan} on the left, real and mythical islands such as Antilia and St. The compilation of a printed mappamundi, which was used for the globe, naturally fell to the share of Behaim himself.
The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver.A  The legends, in the south German dialect of the period, are very numerous, and are of great interest to students of history and of historical geography.
He shared that excitement with Y100 listeners at a Fresh Faces of Country session on May 12th at Backstage at the Meyer in Green Bay.
It was also fun to watch Y100 Big Sing 2015 Winner, Luke Baehman, represent Hortonville, open the show, and rub elbows with the stars.
Huge thanks to Craig Morgan, Lauren Alaina, Drake White, and Maren Morris for supporting the ongoing fight against childhood cancer at St. On Tuesday, November 11th, 2014, Garth released MAN AGAINST MACHINE, his first new studio album in 13 years. Description: In 1507, the copper plates used for the 1490 Rome edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia were reprinted, together with six new maps, either by the printer Bernard Venetus de Vitalibus or the editor Evangelista Tosinus. Although there had been maps created after these voyages, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s map of the world in 1500 (based on Columbusa€™ second voyage, #305) and the Cantino world map (circa 1502, #306), these maps were not widely known in Europe outside of the professional circles of mariners and government officials for up to fifteen years. The oldest printed maps showing America (as opposed to one-of-a-kind a€?manuscripta€? or hand-drawn maps) are the world maps of Giovanni Matteo Contarini (#308), the one produced by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310) and this map by Ruysch. This map by Ruysch first appeared as an addition to the issue of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, originally published at Rome in 1507 and 1508, together with a commentary written by an Italian monk named Marcus Beneventanus, under the title of Orbis nouo descriptio. Excepting these excerpts, the Orbis nova descriptio of Marcus Beneventanus only contains an exhibition of learning, which is now quite worthless, but which was perhaps necessary, at that time, as an introduction for the new world to her older sisters: Asia, Europe, and Africa. While Ruysch is believed by some historians to have been with John Cabot on his famous voyage of 1497, his map makes no direct mention of the Cabots. There are several advanced features of this map that are the work of a virtually unknown cartographer.
With the exception of some small maps based on the cosmographical speculations of the ancients, and inserted in the works of Macrobius, Sacrobosco and others (#201), along with the Contarini and WaldseemA?ller maps (#308 and #310), it is one of the first printed maps representing Africa as a peninsula encompassed by the ocean (Note: the Chinese had been displaying Africa in this manner for over 100 years prior to this map, see #227 and #236).
Ruyscha€™s map is the first map published in print on which India is drawn as a triangular peninsula projecting from the south coast of Asia and bordered on the north by the rivers Indus and Ganges. Zimpangu [Japan], which was shown prominently in mid-Pacific on the Contarini-Rosselli map is omitted completely by Ruysch. Ruysch has produced the first printed map on which the delineation of the interior and eastern parts of Asia is no longer based exclusively on the material collected by Marinus of Tyre and Ptolemy more than a millennium previously, but on more modern reports, especially those of Marco Polo. The exaggerated extension given by Ptolemy to the Mediterranean is much reduced here by Ruysch, from 62 to 53 degrees, the actual difference of longitude between Gibraltar and the western coast of Syria amounting to only 41 or 42 degrees.
The map of Ruysch is the first map published in print that, following a correction made in the portolanos since the beginning of the 14th century, leaves out that excessive projection towards the east, which characterizes Ptolemya€™s map of the northern part of Scotland. In Northern Europe, the church Sancti Odulfi shown on Ruyscha€™s map, is not the church in VardA?, Finnmark, but the cathedral in Trondheim. Ruysch drew his map as a planisphere on a modified equidistant conical projection with its apex at the North Pole which is another remarkable feature. With respect to the New World, the most notable innovation in Ruyscha€™s map is the representation of the western discoveries. Directly south of Gruenlant the following inscription gives warning of the dangers encountered by fishermen in that region: It is said that those who came formerly in ships among these islands for fish and other food were so deceived by the demons that they could not go on land without danger.
Another interesting, but almost illegible, inscription near Gruenlant reads: Hic compassus navium non tenet nec naves quA¦ ferum tenent revertere valent. The Ruysch map is instructive concerning the location of Greenland on late 15th century maps and those of the 16th century. Some of Ruyscha€™s inland Asian data was extrapolated from Poloa€™s description of his trip from Peking to Bengal, which he says he made as an emissary for Kublai Khan. As regards the continental regions south of Newfoundland, and discovered by the Spaniards and Portuguese, Ruysch was clearly of the opinion that they were entirely distinct from Newfoundland or the pseudo Asiatic country which he had visited and delineated; and that they constituted a new world, as yet imperfectly known, particularly regarding its west coast.
Ruyscha€™s map positions a large island in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean between latitude 37 and 40 degrees north.
Both Japan and Antilia were described by the influential Italian humanist Paolo Toscanelli in his famous letter of 1474 to King Philip of Portugal, a copy of which Columbus read. This island of Antilia was discovered by the Portuguese, and now when it is sought it is not found. Later, not having been found in the Atlantic, the Seven Cities were sought on the American mainland, where they remained an elusive goal of riches-hungry Spanish explorers through much of the 16th century. While Ruysch undoubtedly believed that the lands seen by the Cabots and Corte-Reals were part of Asia, he thought that the coasts explored by Columbus, Vincente Pinzon, Cabral, and others belonged to a continent separated from Asia by a stretch of open sea. The unnamed northwestern continental land in Ruysch is also far less complete than we find it depicted in the Caveri map (#307); and it is certain, from its shape and position, that if Ruyscha€™s prototype had presented a coast line extending, for instance, so far south as 10 degrees north latitude, he would not have cut it off at ten degrees. Most of Ruyscha€™s Asian data comes from Poloa€™s description of his return to the West from China. From Zaiton they travelled a€?1500 milesa€? across a gulf to a country called Chamba, which is plotted here slightly inland as CIAMBA.
On the margin of the map, near the North Pole, is another interesting inscription referring to the magnetic pole, which it is said was first located by the English friar Nicolas de Linna, who made a voyage to the north in 1355 and presented to Edward III of England an account of his discovery, with the title, Inventio fortunat. The basis of the entire Ruysch map, according to the historian Henry Harrisse, was a purely Lusitanian planisphere, similar to those of Cantino and Caveri (#306 and #307), but constructed after the former and before the latter; that is, between 1502 and 1504, as we have shown in a comparative description of the continental region which is north of Central America in Portuguese charts. There are in the section of the map delineating the New World, two very distinct parts, based upon data of similar origin, one of which, however, was modified in a most important respect. But as Ruysch had himself visited the northern part of Newfoundland on board an English vessel, and acquired from experience positive data concerning the situation of that peninsula, as he calls it: qui peninsulae Terra Noua uocatA¦, without having the same reasons as Gaspar Corte Real to place it in the middle of the Atlantic, within the Portuguese Line of Demarcation, Ruysch, following the charts used by his English companions, brought Newfoundland close to the western continent.
Terra Nova, one of the earliest uses of this term for the modern Newfoundland, appears as a large peninsula jutting out from the mainland of Asia, although on some copies of the map, because of wear or creases, it may appear to be depicted as an island.
This is sometimes interpreted to be another element of British influence, as the variation of the compass orientation had been noted by Cabot on his second voyage. Meanwhile, it behooves us to show the Portuguese origin of his geographical data, south of what Ruysch names Terra Nova, which, with him, does not mean the New World, or the country newly discovered, but present-day Newfoundland exclusively; in imitation of the English mariners with whom he visited that island. To that effect, Harrisse compares the nomenclature of the region placed in Ruyscha€™s mappamundi, south of his Terra Nova, with the names inscribed on the northwestern continental land in the Cantino and Caveri maps, both of which are of the Lusitanian map tradition, with no admixture of foreign geographical elements whatever. Ruysch inscribes thirty-six names on his map, but not one of them is to be found either in the de la Cosa map or in any other Spanish map whatever; while thirty-one out of its whole number are duly set forth either in the Cantino (#306), or Kunstmann No. Ruyscha€™s delineations of the South American continent embrace likewise, the coasts of Venezuela and Honduras, which were discovered by Spanish navigators, who, of course, made maps of their discoveries.
The configuration of the continental land that corresponds with the northwestern region of the Cantino map is distorted in that map, but perfectly recognizable on Ruyscha€™s. M Polo says that 1500 miles to the east of the port of Zaiton there is a very large island named Sipagu .
In a fascinating example of how a geographic misunderstanding can assume a life of its own, Donald McGuirk has demonstrated how Ruyscha€™s hybrid Hispaniola-Japan was transformed into an atypical representation of Japan four years later by Bernard Sylvanus (#318).
In Ruyscha€™s Caribbean there lies a strange triangular landmass, undefined on its western coast, in the position one would expect to find Cuba. This was one of the first printed maps to show any part of the New World and may also be one of the first to include information on that continent from first-hand knowledge. In the state that preceded a€?state onea€? there was a smaller island within this space and it was labeled CVBA. The southern coastline of Newfoundland continues directly west to the land of Gog and Magog, and thence south to Cathay. Rather than forgetting Cuba, it is obvious that Ruysch deliberated at great length as to how Cuba should be represented. Below Antilia lies LE XI MIL VIRGINE [(Islands of) the Eleven Thousand Virgins], an early reference to the Virgin Islands named by Columbus for the story of St. On South Americaa€™s northern coast is the GOLFO DE PAREAS that Columbus believed lay at the foothills of Paradise. Nearly blocking the entrance to Columbusa€™ fountainhead of Paradise, the Gulf of Paria, is CANIBALOS IN [Trinidad], introducing to maps the cannibalism which Columbus reported about the Carib islanders. In this long inscription in the interior of Terra Sancte Crucis sive Mundus Novus here for the first time, Ruysch describes the inhabitants and natural products of the country following the letters of Vespucci and other sources. Portuguese navigators have inspected this part of this land, and have sailed as far as the fiftieth degree of south latitude without seeing the southern limit of it. As far as this Spanish navigators have come, and they have called this land, on account of its greatness, the New World. On the east coast of South America is the interesting name Abatia Aµniu sactoru, or All Saints Abbey.
Then, where did Ruysch pick up the egregious mistake that transformed A baia de todos Sanctos [All-Saints Bay] into Abatia omnium Sanctorum [AIl Saints Abbey]? Thus far the Spanish sailors have come, and because of its magnitude they call it a new world, for indeed they have not seen the whole of it nor at this time have they explored beyond this limit.
The Portuguese, of course, had also a€?come this far.a€? Their discovery of Brazil in 1500 was significant because it was rich in trade potential and because it clearly lay on their side of the papal demarcation line. The Ruysch map is classified by the historian Henry Harrisse as a Type III within the Lusitano-Germanic Group of new world maps (the only specimen that Harrisse places in this Type). While one of the more widely circulated of all the printed maps from this period, none have exercised so little influence over the cartography of the New World as this mappamundi. As mentioned above, Ruyscha€™s world map more usually appears in the 1508 printing of the Rome Ptolemy. It is evident, from what has already been said, that Ruysch deserves to be placed in the first rank among the reformers of cartography. Beans, George H., a€?The Ruysch World map in its earliest known state,a€? Imago Mundi V (1948), 72.
Swan, B., a€?The Ruysch Map of the World (1507-1508),a€? Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 45 (1951), 219-236. The oldest printed maps showing America (as opposed to one-of-a-kind a€?manuscripta€? or hand-drawn maps) are the world maps of Giovanni Matteo Contarini (#308), the one produced by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310) and this map by Ruysch.A  While Contarinia€™s and WaldseemA?llera€™s maps, printed as individual sheets, have fallen victim to the ravages of time, and only a single copy of each is known to have survived, a number of copies of Ruyscha€™s map, which was printed as a plate in an atlas, are preserved today. DESCRIPTION: This large circular planisphere (6 feet 4 inches in diameter), drawn on parchment and mounted on wood in a square frame, is preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice. Fra Mauro, a Camaldulian monk from the island of Murano near Venice, was active in about the middle of the 15th century. Fra Mauroa€™s map was in many ways a more up-to-date map than the printed versions of Ptolemy which succeeded it two decades later. I do not think it derogatory to Ptolemy if I do not follow his Cosmografia, because, to have observed his meridians or parallels or degrees, it would be necessary in respect to the setting out of the known parts of this circumference, to leave out many provinces not mentioned by Ptolemy. Ptolemy, he writes, like all cosmographers, could not personally verify everything that he entered on his map and with the lapse of time more accurate reports will become available. In my time I have striven to verify the writings by experience, through many yearsa€™ investigation, and intercourse with persons worthy of credence, who have seen with their own eyes what is faithfully set out above.
Therefore, Mauro did not use Ptolemya€™s framework of longitude and latitude and he also opened up the Sea of India, which in editions of Ptolemy is traditionally landlocked, but was generally left open to the circumfluent ocean by Mauroa€™s contemporaries. Jerusalem is indeed the center of the inhabited world latitudinally, though longitudinally it is somewhat to the west, but since the western portion is more thickly populated by reason of Europe, therefore Jerusalem is also the center longitudinally if we regard not empty space but the density of population. Like the Greek geographers before Ptolemy and like the Arab cartographers, Fra Mauro shows all of the continents as being surrounded on all sides by the great ocean.
Likewise I have found various opinions regarding this circumference, but it is not possible to verify them. Fra Mauro, therefore, did not have a very accurate conception of exactly what proportion of the earth that he was portraying in his map.
The orientation of the mappa mundi towards the south is perhaps the first aspect that surprises and intrigues the modern spectator who is used to north-oriented maps, and who is therefore disoriented by the effort required to identify landmasses which not only have 500-year-old outlines, but which are also turned a€?upside down,a€? thus losing their familiar shapes. AFRICA: Putting aside for the moment questions of interpretation, it is impossible not to be struck by the illusion of accuracy which the general shape of the continent produces here, especially when compared with most of the previous medieval European representations.
Since very little of the coastline beyond Cape Roxo shows a linear correspondence with the actual coastline, these charts may have been worthless counterfeits, the latest official Portuguese findings having been suppressed even at this early stage of exploration to protect the competitive advantage that such knowledge bestowed. The lack of tangible examples displaying the latest information on the map has been criticized, especially as Mauroa€™s assistant, Bianco, was employed in its production, but it is scarcely justifiable to argue from this that information was deliberately withheld from the cartographer by the Portuguese authorities. It is, however, evident that Fra Mauroa€™s map depicts the coasts of Africa as far as Senegal and Cape Verde, which were explored by the Portuguese expeditions of 1441, as well as giving evidence of that countrya€™s penetration as far as the Congo.
About the year of Our Lord 1420 a ship, what is called an Indian junk [Zoncho de India], on a crossing of the Sea of India towards the Isle of Men and Women, was driven by a storm beyond the Cape of Diab, through the Green Isles, out into the Sea of Darkness on their way west and southwest, in the direction of Algarve. The large island at the extreme southern end of Africa, named Diab, is probably based upon reports of the existence of the great island of Madagascar. Some authors state of the Sea of India that it is enclosed like a lake, and that the ocean sea does not enter it.
The detailed knowledge of the northeast African interior extends as far as the river Zebe [? It has been shown that two main causes of the confused representations of northeast Africa are the ignorance of the cartographer about the existence of the eastern Sudan, so that he telescoped Egypt and Abyssinia together, and the failure to realize that much of the hydrographic detail available applied to one river only, the Abbai, and not to a number of distinct streams. The Coptic Church of Abyssinia was in touch with Cairo and Jerusalem, and it was doubtless from emissaries of this Church that Fra Mauro obtained some of his information.
The suggestion is partly retained of a a€?western Nilea€™ flowing from a great marsh, no doubt Lake Chad; beyond this marsh a river flows westwards to enter the ocean by two branches to the north of Cape Verde, no doubt the Senegal and perhaps the Gambia. The draftsman places the legendary and fabulously wealthy Christian ruler, Prester John and his kingdom of Abassia at the source of the Nile. ASIA: Fra Mauroa€™s map was called by Giovanni Battista Ramusio (1485a€“1557, an Italian geographer and travel writer), who saw the original, a€?an improved copy of the one brought from Cathay by Marco Poloa€?. An inscription appears near Chambalec [Beijing], and is very close to Marco Poloa€™s description of the seasona€™s hunting undertaken by Cubilai and his court.
To the east, there is a more or less recognizable Bay of Bengal, confined on the further side by the great island of Sumatra. In the southeast, close to the border of the map, is an island with the inscription Isola Colombo, which has abundance of gold and much merchandise, and produces pepper in quantity .
To the east of the Bay of Bengal is a very large island, Sumatra [Taprobana over Siometra], the first time that name appears unequivocally on a map. Giava minor, a very fertile island, in which there are eight kingdoms, is surrounded by eight islands in which grow the a€?sotil speciea€™. Giava Major, a very noble island, placed in the east in the furthest part of the world in the direction of Cin, belonging to Cathay, and of the gulf or port of Zaiton, is 3,000 miles in circumference and has 1,111 kingdoms; the people are idolatrous, sorcerers, and evil. The islands south of Giava minor doubtless represent the Moluccas, as on the 1457 Genoese map (#248). For the representation of China, a great deal has been extracted from Marco Poloa€™s narrative, as for the Catalan Atlas (#235). The towns, and the numerous annotations, are taken directly it would appear, from Poloa€™s narrative. With respect to the infamous Gog and Magog, Fra Mauro provides the following long legend on his map. Some write that on the slopes of Mount Caspian, or not far from there, live those peoples who, as one reads, were shut in by Alexander the Macedonian.
Here Fra Mauro is opposing the literary and cartographical tradition that took Mount Caspian [the Caucasus mountains] as defining the territories occupied by the eastern-most populations of the world - in particular, such legendary figures as the giants Gog and Magog, whom Alexander the Great was said to have enclosed within the valley of the Eurus. In the western regions, the picture is confused owing again to the inadequate space allotted to them. EUROPE: Of particular interest here is Mauroa€™s delineation of the extreme northern regions. This note brings together information gleaned from various writers, including Paolo Diacono, Pietro Querini, etc. Note that in ancient times Anglia was inhabited by giants, but some Trojans who had survived the slaughter of Troy came to this island, fought its inhabitants and defeated them; after their prince, Brutus, it was named Britannia.
As it is shown, Scotia appears contiguous to Anglia, but in its southern part it is divided from it by water and mountains. The tradition in nautical cartography was often to depict Scotland as separated from England by water - perhaps a simple river; it is this error that Fra Mauro refers to in his note. Fra Mauroa€™s depiction of the Baltic-Russian regions is much richer and more innovative than that one finds in his contemporaries.
Fra Mauro goes against contemporary opinion in the following map legend in saying that the river Don arises not in the Riphei mountains, as Ptolemy claims, but in the heart of Russia. The Caspian Mountains shown above start at the Sea of Pontus and extend eastwards as far as the Sea of Hycanus, which is also called the Caspian because [sic] near those coasts there are the Gates of Iron, which are named thus because they are impregnable. According to authorities such as Leo Bagrow, the over-abundance of detail in Fra Mauroa€™s map is a blemish, since the important and accurately drawn geographical features are inextricably mixed with superficial data based upon hearsay. According to Angelo Cattaneo a€?Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi is among the most relevant compendia of knowledge of the Earth and the Cosmos of the 15th century. The comparison between two of my favorite maps, Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi and the Kangnido (#236) permits us also to reflect closely on the issue of the 15th century cosmographic representation of Europe. This contribution will also present the romanization of the 210 or so toponyms written in Chinese, constituting the most ancient description of Europe existing on a map made in Asia. At first glance the circular form of Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi, the plentiful illustrations and the two thousand-odd inscriptions all around recall medieval world maps.
Though often acclaimed as representing the culmination of medieval mapmaking through its synthesis of the traditional, portolan and Ptolemaic, the Fra Mauro map in truth represents the first great map of a new tradition. The most definitive discussion of this map, with translations of all of the place names, legends and notes is in Falchetta, P. Facsimile manuscript by William Frazer for the East India Company, 1804, British Museum, Add. Almagia, R., a€?I mappamondi di Enrico Martellus,a€? La Bibliofilia 42 (Florence, 1940), pp.
Barber, Peter, a€?Visual Encyclopaedias the Hereford and other Mappae Mundi,a€? The Map Collector, Autumn 1989, No. Cattaneo, Angelo, Fra Mauroa€™s Mappa Mundi and Fifteenth-Century Venice, Terrarum Orbis, Brepolis Publishers, 470pp. Cerulli, Enrico, a€?Fonti arabe del mappamondo di Fra Mauro,a€? Orientalia commentarii periodici Pontifici Instituti Biblici, Roma, nova series, IV (1935), pp. Crone, Gerald Roe, Maps and their makers, an introduction to the history of cartography (London: Hutchinsona€™s University Library, 1953), pp. NordenskiA¶ld, Adolf Erik, Periplus, an essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions (Stockholm, 1897), pp. Omboni, T., a€?Ricerche sui mappamondi de Fra Mauro,a€? La€™Esploratore, Milano, IV (1879), pp.
Sierakowski, JA?zef, Sul famoso mappamondo di Fra Mauro Camaldolese del secolo decimo quinto: lettera del Signor . Skelton, Raleigh A., Explorersa€™ Maps Chapters in the Cartographic Record of Geographical Discovery, pp.
Fra Mauroa€™s map was in many ways a more up-to-date map than the printed versions of Ptolemy which succeeded it two decades later.A  Ptolemya€™s Geographia was a€?rediscovereda€™ in Western Europe and had been circulating in Latin manuscript form since 1406, coming to Italy fresh from the Byzantine conquests.
I do not think it derogatory to Ptolemy if I do not follow his Cosmografia, because, to have observed his meridians or parallels or degrees, it would be necessary in respect to the setting out of the known parts of this circumference, to leave out many provinces not mentioned by Ptolemy.A  But principally in latitude, that is from south to north, he has much a€?terra incognitaa€™, because in his time it was unknown. Ptolemy, he writes, like all cosmographers, could not personally verify everything that he entered on his map and with the lapse of time more accurate reports will become available.A  He claimed for himself to have done his best to establish the truth. Likewise I have found various opinions regarding this circumference, but it is not possible to verify them.A  It is said to be 22,500 or 24,000 miglia or more, or less according to various considerations and opinions, but they are not of much authenticity, since they have not been tested. Since very little of the coastline beyond Cape Roxo shows a linear correspondence with the actual coastline, these charts may have been worthless counterfeits, the latest official Portuguese findings having been suppressed even at this early stage of exploration to protect the competitive advantage that such knowledge bestowed.A A  Actually the only contemporary names that Mauro has included are C.
Fra Mauroa€™s Indian must be taken to mean a€?Araba€™.A  The Arabs had established regular trade connections with places far to the south in East Africa, and it is not unlikely that a vessel may have rounded the Cape of Good Hope and sailed into the Atlantic, which the Arabs had long been calling the Sea of Darkness. He took advantage of the opportunities which were offered him for travel, though, according to both E.G. It was the suggestion of George Holzschuher, member of the City Council, and himself somewhat famed as a traveler, that eventually brought special renown to this globe maker, for he it was who proposed to his colleagues of the Council that Martin Behaim should be requested to undertake the construction of a globe on which the recent Portuguese and other discoveries should be represented. This map was subsequently mounted upon two panels, framed and varnished and hung up in the clerka€™s office of the town hall. This was fortunate, for had it remained, uncared for, in the town hall it might have shared the fate of so many other a€?monumentsa€? of geographical interest, the loss of which the living generation has been fated to deplore.
In the course of time, however, the once brilliant colors darkened or faded, parts of the surface were rubbed off; many of the names became illegible or disappeared altogether. Volkhamer, and Nicholas Groland, this globe was devised and executed according to the discoveries and indications of the Knight Martin Behaim, who is well versed in the art of cosmography, and has navigated around one-third of the earth. The chief magistrate induced his fellow citizen to give instruction in the art of making such instruments, yet this seems to have lasted but a short time, for we learn that not long after the completion of his now famous Erdapfel, Behaim returned to Portugal, where he died in the year 1507. The globe has also great importance in the perennial controversy over the initiation of Columbusa€™ great design and the subsequent evolution of his ideas on the nature of his discoveries. Ravenstein has shown that Behaim possibly made a voyage to Guinea in 1484-5, but that he was certainly not an explorer of the southern seas and a possible rival of Columbus, and his cartographical attainments were distinctly limited. Behaim accepted more or less Ptolemya€™s 177A° and added 57A° to embrace the eastern shores of China.
We are justified in assuming on these and other grounds that Behaim had not gone directly to the authorities he quotes, but had merely amended an existing world map.

The main features of the west coast are more or less recognizable, though Cape Verde is greatly over-emphasized. Other sources were, however, drawn upon by the compiler, and several of these are incidentally referred to by him or easily discoverable, but as to a considerable part of his design scholars have been unable to trace the authorities consulted by him.
He has, however, rejected the theory of the Indian Ocean being a mare clausum [closed sea] and although he accepted Ptolemya€™s outline for the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Caspian, he substituted modern place names for most of those given by ancient geographers. Accounts, in manuscript, of Poloa€™s travels in Latin, French, Italian and German, were available at the time the globe was being made at Nuremberg, as well as three printed editions. One may conclude from this that both Behaim and WaldseemA?ller derived their information from the same source, unless, indeed, we are to suppose that the Lotharingian cartographer had procured a copy of the globe that he embodied in his own design. This encouraged Columbus to sail to the west in the confident hope of being able to reach the wealthy cities of Zipangu and Cathay.
He may have been the a€?initiatora€? of the voyage that resulted in the discovery of America, but cannot be credited with being the a€?hypotheticala€? discoverer of this new world. Further evidence of such use is afforded by the outline given to the British Isles, and possibly also by a few place names in western Africa, which are Italian rather than German or Portuguese. Jorge da Mina, Benin and, far within the Sahara, at Wadan, trading expeditions had gone up the Senegal and Gambia, and relations established with Timbuktu, Melli and other states in the interior. Columbus, who saw the charts prepared by Bartolomeu Diaz, speaks of them as a€?depicting and describing from league to league the track followeda€? by the explorer.
He might have learned much from personal intercourse with seamen and merchants who had recently visited the newly discovered regions or were interested in them.
Behaima€™s laudable reticence as to mirabilia mundi has been referred to already, but he does not disdain to introduce long accounts concerning the a€?romancea€? of Alexander the Great, the myth of the a€?Three Wise Mena€? or kings, the legends connected with Christian Saints, such as St. Nicolaus Germanus, for in the map of the world in the edition of Ptolemy published in 1482 he introduces a third head stream of the Nile, which is evidently derived from it. The worthy Doctor and Knight Johann de Mandavilla likewise left a book in 1322 which brought to the light of day the countries of the East, unknown to Ptolemy, whence we receive spices, pearls and precious stones, and the Serene King John of Portugal has caused to be visited in his vessels that part to the south not yet known to Ptolemy in the year 1485, whereby I, according to whose indications this Apple has been made, was present. The Arctic Ocean, called das gesrore mer septentrionel [the frozen sea of the North] is surrounded on all sides by land. The Baltic, the Mare Germanicum of the learned, is called das mer von alemagna, [the German Sea], which proves conclusively, according to Ravenstein, that Behaim in delineating that part of the world was guided by an Italian or Catalan portolano chart.
Albertus Magnus (died 1280) in his Meteorologia ascribed the current to the same cause, namely, a difference in the level of the ocean due to differences of evaporation, but believed the current thus produced to be steady and almost imperceptible.
As an instance may be mentioned the misdeeds of William Byggeman, the captain of the a€?Trinity,a€™ who was prosecuted in England in 1445, for having committed this offense.
It is the custom there to sell dogs at a high price, but to give away the children to (foreign) merchants, for the sake of God, so that those remaining may have bread. Subsequently, in the Medicean Portolano Chart of 1351 (#233), it figures as one of the Azores, usually identified with Terceira, a cape of which still bears the name of Morro do Brazil. Two flags fly above these islands from the same flagstaff, the upper one with the arms of Nuremberg, the lower with those of Behaim.
These voyages, however, are purely imaginary, or, at all events, led to no actual discoveries.
Brandon in his ship came to this island where he witnessed many marvels, and seven years afterwards he returned to his country. The author of the globe was well aware that the three northern kingdoms, since the Union of Calmar (1397), were ruled by the King of Denmark, for the standard of that kingdom flies at the mouth of the Elbe, at the westernmost point of Norway and on Iceland.
And if anyone desires to know more of these curious people, and peculiar fish in the sea or animals upon the land, let him read the books of Pliny, Isidore (of Seville), Aristotle, Strabo, the Specula of Vincent (of Beauvais) and many others. This island has a circuit of 4,000 miles, and is divided into four kingdoms, in which is found much gold and also pepper, camphor, aloe wood and also gold sand.
But the King replied that this stone had for a long time belonged to his ancestors, and it would ill become him to send this stone out of the country. It was not doubted that these a€?kingsa€? were descended from the three wise men from the East, who, according to Matthew ii.
This rumor first reached Europe through the Bishop of Gabala in 1145, and it was supposed that this Royal Priest was a direct successor or descendant of the Three Kings. Saba Ethiopie, however, in course of time, was transferred to Abyssinia, and its Christian ruler was accepted as the veritable and most popular Prester John. Here is a royal tent with the following legend: The kingdom of one of the Three Holy Kings, him of Saba. But while the undoubted beauties of that globe are due to the miniature painter Glockenthon, according to Ravenstein the purely geographical features do not exhibit Behaim as an expert cartographer, if judged by modern standards. The globe by Behaim was designed to demonstrate the ease with which one could sail westward to Japan and China, to the Zipangu and Cathay of Marco Polo. Unknown to Behaim, Columbus had discovered the Bahamas and the Antilles and had returned to Spain by March 1493.
Otto's arguments seemed so convincing that Benjamin Franklin had a letter which Otto had written him printed in the works of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. Postela€™s Cosmography speaks outright of Martini Bohemi fretum and in 1682 Wagenseil demanded that the Magellan Straits be called the Behaim Straits. The following took place according to Herrera: a€?(When Magellan) appeared for the first time at the Spanish court in Valladolid, he showed the Bishop of Burgos a painted globe on which he had traced his planned route. 12 years prior to Magellana€™s discovery, there was printed a pamphlet which spoke of the circumnavigability in the south of the newly discovered south American country. The whole of South America - as much as was discovered of it by that time - appears on this globe under the name of Paria sive Brasilia, south of it the sea rises in a broad front against the continent. If Magellan had ever come across it, he would, as can be understood, have believed that Behaim was its author. However, due to the verities of time, many legends and place-names are illegible.A  In his book on the life and work of Behaim, Ravenstein provides a complete listing of all decipherable place-names and legends, along with a translation and discussion where his interpretation differs from previous scholars. A  See highlights in the pictures and video below and at :58 into the "Dance With Ya" video, we noticed a nod to Prince. A Follow his journey from backstage to the stage, and get his reaction after the show in this behind the scenes video.
But today, like so many in country music and beyond, hea€™s saddened by the death of yet another music legend. He last played in East Lansing, MI on April 9-10, 1996, at MSU-Breslin Center and sold 28,393 tickets. It has been certified platinum by the RIAA, making Garth once again the #1-selling solo artist in US history with 136 million sold. In addition to the new regional maps, this rare new map of the world by Johann Ruysch is sometimes found in advance of its normal appearance in the Ptolemy atlas the following year. Only a few copies of these maps survive not simply because they were manuscript rather than printed maps, but also because they were often regarded as state secrets. It is at any rate a remarkable fact that every time Beneventanus deigns to descend from his pedestal of learning, he communicates a fact of great importance to the history of geographical discovery. Johannes Ruysch was born around the year 1460 in Utrecht, which is now located in the Netherlands. Cape Race, which appeared on La Cosaa€™s map (#305) as Cavo de Ynglaterra, on Ruyscha€™s map is called C. Apart from the fact that Ruysch was from Utrecht and sojourned in Cologne, little is known of him. The southern point of Africa moreover is here placed on a nearly correct latitude, thus giving a tolerably exact form to that part of the world. Even though it has not yet received its full extension as a peninsula, yet an important deviation from Ptolemya€™s geography is thus made on the map to a part of the world to which almost a privilegium exclusivum of knowledge was attributed to the ancients.
Various new names are here added in Scytia intra Imaum, such as Tartaria Magna and Wolha [Volga], and an immense, quite new territory, an Asia extra Ptolemaeum, or Asia Alarci Pauli Veneti, is added beyond the eastern limits of Ptolemya€™s oikumene [known world]. In its plane state the map appears as an opened fan with the curved, or southern edge, at the bottom.
Ruysch depicts the North Polar regions with some geographical basis for the first time and it is believed that the famous Gerhard Mercator was influenced by the map when he prepared the circular inset of the Arctic on his great world map of 1569 (#407).
However, his map is also a mixture of tradition, new information, and misleading conjecture.
An inscription describing nearby islands warns that sailors who had gone to them had been tricked by demons.
He labels the waters within the four islands as the Mare Sugenum, and speaks of a violent whirlpool that sucks the incoming waters down into the earth; in addition, his map shows a ring of small, very mountainous islands around the four islands, which numerous islands Ruysch says are uninhabited. Ruysch judges Poloa€™s TOLMA[N], a region later reincarnated in the New World as part of the Northwest Coast, to lie just south of the realm of Gog and Magog. This coast Ruysch could not admit to be connected in any manner with as he already depicts in detail the eastern Asiatic seaboards, from the point where they merge with his northern regions, to 39 degrees south latitude, which is the termination of the map.
In this island are people who speak the Spanish tongue, and who in the time of King Roderick are believed to have fled to this island from the barbarians who at that time invaded Spain. Near the island of Spagnola [Haiti] and south of the island of Antilia is an inscription that tells the story of that island as given on Behaima€™s globe (Book III, #258).
Marco, Maffeo, and Niccolo Polo, long detained at the pleasure of Kublai Khan, were allowed to return to Europe when sent as the personal escorts of a bride for Arghun, khan of the Levant [Persia].
Ruysch designates its coast as SILVA ALOE [aloe forest] for the valuable plant which Polo said the king of Chamba offered as part of his annual tribute to the Kublai Khan.
However, theses dates are obviously not correct given the notations on the map of the Portuguese discoveries of 1507. On all other maps of the first half of the 16th century, even on the Cabot map of 1544, it is represented as a group of islands.
More likely, however, the legend originated in a medieval treatise, the same from which Ruysch configured his Arctic region.
Harrisse establishes a similar comparison between Ruyscha€™s South America and the latter continent in all of the seven world charts, now known, which circulated in Europe when he constructed his mappamundi.
No such designation as the a€?Land of the Holy Crossa€? was ever adopted in Spain for Brazil, or written on any map by the Spanish pilots or geographers of that time. Glaciato on the eastern coast suggests the work of the Italian editor and Baia de Rockas shows the influence of English associations. This island lies between 45A° and 55A° east of the coast of Asia, just above the Tropic of Cancer. But a€?Cubaa€? does not appear as such, and historians have long been puzzled by Ruyscha€™s apparent omission of the island. It has long been recognized that there were corrections to the plates of this map even before the earliest known example, state one - thus the importance of examining an early strike of the map, to better discern these changes. The vestige of DE CVBA is still discernable, as is part of the coastline of its original (insular?) geography. The stippled lines which represent ocean spill well into the current landmass, both in the north and south. From the Biblical land of Gog and Magog the people of the Middle Ages expected the coming of destructive races at the last day.
Near the island of Spagnola [Haiti] and south of the island of Antilia is an inscription that tells the story of that island as given on Behaima€™s globe (#258).
It has long been recognized that there were corrections to the plates of this map even before the earliest known example, state one. In the state that preceded state one there was a smaller island within this space and it was labeled CVBA. After first choosing to represent it as a small island, he then changed his mind and used the outline of the a€?North Americana€? continental landmass on Portuguese manuscript charts akin to the Cantino map (#306), only in smaller dimensions, to represent Cuba on his map. This a€?Land of the Holy Crossa€? also contains the term MUNDUS NOVUS, one of the first references to a a€?New Worlda€? on a printed map.
Columbus reached this fancy when attempting to explain the variation of the North Star, noted by him near the Gulf of Paria. It is interesting to note that on State I of the Ruysch map Canibali designated LA DOMINICA [the island of Dominica] instead, which was one of the islands Columbus said was inhabited by that reputably fierce race. This country, which is generally considered another continent, is inhabited in scattered settlements. Not in Spanish charts, certainly, but in a Lusitano-Germanic map, manipulated by a northern cartographer who had read the Latin version of the four voyages of Vespucci, printed at St. In 1507 the Pacific, still simply the a€?Orientala€? or a€?Chinaa€? Sea, had never been sighted from the American side and had only been cursorily approached from the Asian side. Therefore this map is left incomplete for the present, since we do not know in which direction it trends.
There are, both in the Ruysch and Caveri (#307) maps, geographical representations and names showing that their prototypes differed in important respects from Cantino. We have never seen its configurations reproduced anywhere; and it is only mentioned twice in the first half of the 16th century. The first of a series on geographical misconceptions,a€? The Map Collector 2 (March 1978), pp.
He seems to have been, to some extent, a a€?professional cartographera€?, substantiated by the monastic records that document expenditure on materials and colors for mapping, wages for draftsmen, and so on. Mauro did, however, take account of Ptolemya€™s geography and travelersa€™ reports concerning the great extent of the East, and as a result, moved Jerusalem away from the position as the worlda€™s center, a marked departure from medieval custom to its true position, west of center in the Eurasian continent. Most of the diagrammatic manuscript mappae mundi of the period 1150-1500 are oriented to the east. Nothing but air and water was seen for forty days and by their reckoning they ran 2,000 miles and fortune deserted them.
There would be no improbability in a vessel being driven down to the latitude of the Cape of Good Hope, or of Arabs at Soffala having some inkling of the trend of the coast to the south. But Solinus holds that it is the ocean, and that its southern and southwestern parts are navigable.
Fra Mauro tells us that he was supplied with Portuguese charts and had spoken with those who had navigated in these waters. When he travels, he sits in a carriage of gold and ivory decorated with gemstones of inestimable price. To the north of it, and somewhat squeezed together by the limit of the map, are many islands. The mythical figures of Gog and Magog are represented behind Alexandera€™s Wall in northeast Asia and Termes [Sarmatia] is shown as a town near Bokhara, on the Amu Dorya [Iaxartes]. Fra Mauro states that these regions are inhabited and travelled by numerous well-known peoples, and that if there were such extraordinary figures in the area of the Caucasus then we would certainly have heard of it. But certainly if they had seen with their own eyes, they would have laid it out differently and enlarged its borders, because one can say that within Sithia are most of the peoples who live between the North-East and the East, between the North-East and the North. The Alexandrinea€™s description and depiction of Central Asia showed Mount Imaus - the Himalayan range, in the widest sense of the term - in the center, with the territories of Scythia intra Imaum to the west, Scythia extra Imaum to the east. But later the Saxons and the Germans conquered it, and after one of their queens, Angela, called it Anglia. The people are of easy morals and are fierce and cruel against their enemies; and they prefer death to servitude. Such a division of the two was obviously a hang over from the Roman defenses (Hadriana€™s Wall) that had separated the two nations; it is clearly represented, for example, in the Tabula Peutingeriana (#120).
The name, which also appears in this very form in the report of the Zeno brothers (which was, however, only published in the middle of the 16th century), is certainly an indication of the time when Greenland was under the control of the kings of Norway. Though there are a number of imaginary, or, one might say, conjectural elements in this area of the map, and as observed by Leo Bagrow, it cannot be denied that a€?one is surprised at the wide scope of knowledge Fra Mauro possessed because his picture is unprecedented and would remain so for a considerable period of timea€?. He then describes its course, saying it runs to within 20 miles of the Volga (in effect, the distance between the two rivers at Volgograd is 25 miles) and then flows into the Sea of Azov (Palude Meotida). It is through them that one has to pass if one wants to go through these mountains, which are very high, extend in depth for the distance of twenty day's travelling, and spread for many more days in length.
The composite networks of contemporary knowledge (scholasticism, humanism, monastic culture, as well as more technical skills such as marine cartography and mercantile practices) converge in the epistemological unity of the imago mundia€?. In these 15th century documents, Europe therefore emerges as the result of global networks, encompassing trade and knowledge, with the intervening agencies of several cultures. But where they relied on tradition, in his inscriptions Fra Mauro questioned it, on the basis of his own observations, reports received from abroad and from his contacts with contemporary merchants, mariners and visitors to Venice. The expanded depiction of Africa, showing Timbuctu and the rivers Senegal and Gambia, reveals knowledge of the ongoing Portuguese voyages which, with the help of Italian navigators (who had no scruples about passing on information to their compatriots in Venice), were rapidly revealing the true course of the African coast. Fra Mauroa€™s World Map with a Commentary and Translations of the Inscriptions, Brebols, 2006, Terrarum Orbis + CD ROM.
Breve historia del mundo y su imagen (Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1968), Figure 15. R., a€?Fra Mauroa€™s representation of the Indian Ocean and the Eastren Islands,a€? Comitato cittadino per la celebrazione Colombiane. It is clear from numerous legends on his map that Fra Mauro was very much aware of the great deference then paid to the cosmographical conceptions of Ptolemy, and the likelihood of severe criticism for any map which ignored them.
Ethyopia extends to the west and south coasts of the continent.A  Thus Mauro weaves Marco Poloa€™s narrative into Arab theory and makes these fit together with the cartographic notions of Abyssinia which he had obtained from a€?first-hand sourcesa€™. To the north of it, and somewhat squeezed together by the limit of the map, are many islands.A A  As Fra Mauro states that in this region lack of space had compelled him to omit many islands, it no doubt also obliged him to alter their orientation drastically. From a record on the globe itself, placed within the Antarctic Circle, we learn that the work was undertaken on the authority of three distinguished citizens, Gabriel Nutzel, Paul Volckamer, and Nikolaus Groland.
Johann SchA¶ner, in 1532, was paid A?5 for a€?renovatinga€? this map and for compiling a new one, recording the discoveries that had been made since the days of Behaim.
Having covered the mould with successive layers of paper, pasted together so as to form pasteboard, he cut the shell into two hemispheres along the line of the intended Equator. The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces.
The whole was borrowed with great care from the works of Ptolemy, Pliny, Strabo, and Marco Polo, and brought together, both lands and seas, according to their configuration and position, in conformity with the order given by the aforesaid magistrates to George Holzschuer, who participated in the making of this globe, in 1492. Ravenstein describes this remarkable cartographic monument of a period that represented the beginning of a rapid expansion of geographical knowledge (in summary): Martin Behaima€™s map of the world was drawn on parchment that had been pasted over a large sphere. The ships thus provisioned sailed continuously to the westward for 500 German miles, and in the end they sighted these ten islands. All the available evidence tends to show that he was a successful man of business who made a certain position for himself in Portugal, and who, like many others of his time, was keenly interested in the new discoveries.
No special knowledge of Contia€™s narrative is shown, but a certain Bartolomeo Fiorentino, not otherwise known, is quoted on the spice trade routes to Europe.
To Cape Formoso, on the Guinea coast the nomenclature differs little from contemporary usage.
The edition of Ptolemy of which he availed himself was that published at Ulm in 1482, and reprinted in 1486, with the maps of Dominus Nicolaus Germanus.
Sri Lanka though unduly magnified would have occupied its correct position, and the huge peninsula beyond Ptolemya€™s a€?Furthest,a€? a duplicated or bogus India, would have disappeared, and place names in that peninsula, and even beyond it, such as Murfuli, Maabar, Lac or Lar, Cael, Var, Coulam, Cumari, Dely, Cambaia, Servenath, Chesmakoran and Bangala would have occupied approximately correct sites in Poloa€™s India maior. A comparison of the two shows, however, that such cannot have been the case, for there are many names upon the map that are not to be found on the globe. The author of the Laon globe went even further, for he reduced the width of the Atlantic to 110A°. That honor, if honor it be, in the absence of scientific arguments is due to Crates of Mallos (#113), who died 145 years before Christ, whose Perioeci and Antipodes are assigned vast continents in the Western Hemisphere, or to Strabo (66 B.C. Behaim, however, erred in good company, and for years after the completion of his globe the mistaken views of Ptolemy respecting the longitudinal extent of the Mediterranean were upheld by men of such authority as WaldseemA?ller (1507), SchA¶ner (1520), Gerhard Mercator (1538), and Jacobus Gastaldo (1548). In addition to all this, ever since the days of Prince Henry and the capture of Ceuta, in 1417, information on the interior had been collected on the spot or from natives who were brought to Lisbon to be converted to the Christian faith. But not one of these original charts has survived, and had it not been for copies made of them by Italians and others, our knowledge of these early explorations would have been even less perfect than it actually is. Fernando, the son of King Manuel, in 1528, and which had been brought to the famous monastery of Alcoba, ca. His contemporary, the printer, Valentin Ferdinand, was thus enabled not only to consult the manuscript Chronicle of Azurara, and the records of Cadamosto (credited with the discovery of the Azores) and Pedro de Cintra (his account of a voyage to Guinea), but also to gather much valuable information from Portuguese travelers who had visited Guinea. There are three sections of the globe, upon the origins of which much light might be thrown by the discovery of ancient maps formerly in the possession of John MA?ller. Towards the west the Sea Ocean has likewise been navigated further than what is described by Ptolemy and beyond the Columns of Hercules as far as the islands Faial and Pico of the Azoreas occupied by the noble and valiant Knight Jobst de HA?rter of Moerkerken, and the people of Flanders whom he conducted thither. It is the Mare concretum of Pierre da€™Aillya€™s Imago mundi, and of the Ulm edition of Ptolemy printed in 1482. Later charts, like that of Pizzigani (1367), contained three islands of the name, the one furthest north lying to the west of Ireland.
We are told nothing about the a€?burning mountaina€? and the great earthquake which happened in 1444. Two more flags are merely shown in outline and may have been intended for the arms of Portugal and Hurter. It is certain, however, that FernA?o Telles, in 1475, and FernA?o Dulmo, in 1486, were authorized to sail in search of this imaginary island.
Brandan, who, after a seven yearsa€™ peregrination over a sea of darkness, penetrated to an Island of Saints, a terra repromissionis sanctorum, was very popular during the Middle Ages.
The ruby is said to be a foot and a half in length and a span broad, and without any blemish.
1-10, were guided by a star to Bethlehem, and there worshipped the newborn a€?King of the Jews.a€? The Venerable Bede (died 735) already knew that the names of these kings were Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar. Friar John of Marignola (1338-53) is the first traveler who mentions an a€?African archpriest,a€? and on a map of the world that Cardinal Guillaume Filastre presented in 1417 to the library of Reims we read Ynde Pbr Jo at the easternmost cape of Africa. 8), but Polo says that they are known to the natives as Ung and Mongul, that is, the Un-gut, a Turkish tribe, and the Mongols.
The above information as well as that given in the remaining legends may have been taken from Mandeville, who himself is indebted to Haiton, Friar Odorico and others.
He was not a careful compiler, who first of all plotted the routes of the travelers to whose accounts he had access, and then combined the results with judgment. It showed Zipangu as only 80 degrees to the west of the Canaries and Cathay some 35 degrees more. It sets a problem: two men with identical plans to reach Asia, at the same time in history and with similar cosmographical concepts. The map has either been lost or, as already assumed by Humboldt, there was a mistake on the part of the Portuguese discoverer.
It cannot be proved that Behaim had under-taken any longer sea-journey to the west from Fayal (Azores) where he mostly resided from 1486 to I507 with some intervals.
As late as 1859 Ziegler and in 1873 the American Mytton Maury designated Behaim as Americaa€™s actual discoverer. However, it is altogether possible that Magellan had come across a map with the entry in question, as such maps have actually existed!
The supplementary text - Magistralis - indicates however that it is a question of straits whose length and width cannot as yet be stated. It can be inferred that Magellan had no clear idea on which latitude the longed for sea route was to be found. The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces.A  In his opinion it could not last much longer.
A But unlike almost EVERY other tribute we've seen he didn't decide to cover "Purple Rain". A And Lauren Alaina getting Craig Morgan to dance to "Next Boyfriend" was our favorite "in the moment" moment. Seal urged Urban to go, but the country singer recoiled when he found out what time Prince would take the stage. A Jake Owen found out that someone was doing that to his female fans and did something about it! Today he has sold over 51,000 tickets for Van Andel ArenaA in Grand Rapids and tickets are still selling!
It is not enumerated in the table of contents of the 1507 edition and it must be assumed that Ruyscha€™s drawing came into the engraver's hands late in the year, just in time to be engraved and inserted into some of the copies then printed.
This situation changed drastically from 1506 to 1507 when three separate efforts to produce world maps were published. This must be noted, as it constrains us to limit our interpretation of the geographical configurations and legends to the map itself.
He thus incidentally informs us that the author of this map, which from a geographical point of view marks an epoch in cartography more distinctly than any other that has ever been published in print, had joined in a voyage from England to America. Ruysch may therefore have drawn on first-hand knowledge in producing a map that is independent of the Contarini-Rosselli map of 1506, although there are a number of similar characteristics. Ruysch also gives on his map a relatively correct place to the Insule ae Azores, Insula de Madera, Ins. The Indian peninsula on the Ruysch map now has significantly more names on both the west and east coasts than the Contarini-Rosselli map (#308) and, further east, Ruysch recognizes that the old Ptolemaic coastline can no longer apply. Here the Chinese river-system is given in a manner indicating other sources for the geography of eastern Asia, than Marco Poloa€™s written words. The first cartographer who adopted Ruyscha€™s reduction, was the celebrated Gerard Mercator. Some of the lettering is also unusual as it appears to have been made by a punch rather than the usual burin engraving tool. Inland from North America, into Ruyscha€™s a€?Asiaa€? proper, the influence of the medieval imagination is found in the dreaded realm of Gog and Magog from which the Antichrist would spring at Armageddon. South of TOLMA lies the mountainous country of TEBET [Tibet, but actually in present-day Sze-cha€™wan and YA?n-nan], which a€?is terribly devastated, for it was ravaged in a campaign by Mongu Khan . Here dwelt an archbishop with six other bishops, each one of whom had his own particular city.
Groves of trees yielding a black wood, which Polo said was used for making chessmen and pen-cases, are noted by Ruysch as SILVA EBANI [ebony forest]. Originally, the region was delineated nearly as we see it in Cantino, and in all the Lusitano-Germanic maps. The use of the name Insula Baccalauras on the coast of Terra Nova is one of the earliest instances of the appearance on any map of the American coast of that Romance word for codfish, baccallaos.
The use of the letter a€?ka€? in this a€?Rocky Baya€? is one of the mapa€™s scant traces of the British flag under which Ruysch is believed to have sailed. Along the Asian coast facing this whirlpool arctic is IUDEI INCLUSI, where the lost tribes of Israel were thought to dwell.
This is shown by the fact that none of his designations for the Honduras, Venezuela, and Guyana coasts are to be found among the fifty names inserted along those sea-boards by Juan de la Cosa, who was one of the discoverers; nor even in the nomenclature of the Ribero map (#346) and other official quantity of cosmographers, who must have followed, in that respect, though it was twenty-five years later, the traditions of the Spanish school. He depicts no island, whether named a€?Isabellaa€? or otherwise, between that northern continent and Hispaniola.
Ruyscha€™s problem was that two of his prime sources of data a€” the recent Spanish expeditions, and Marco Polo a€” both located an island at that spot. In his scholarly work, The Continent of America, John Boyd Thacher made this comment regarding the Ruysch map; a€?The mystery of this map a€” and every early map boasted its mystery a€” is the absence of the island of Cuba from its place in the Caribbean Seaa€?. It is astonishing to think that a map which was published only once, over a period of one or two years, had so many revisions (at least six). Thus the importance of examining an early strike of the map, to better discern these changes. Whether this second configuration represents combined information from Columbusa€™ first two voyages, data gained from Amerigo Vespuccia€™s a€?firsta€™ voyage, an early description of the Yucatan, or some other source has been, and will continue to be, a matter of great debate.
Another inherited tradition involving the a€?fairer sexa€? is found in the island of MATININA to the south.
South America is mapped through the Gulf of Venezuela, with the Guahira Peninsula shown as an island (TAMARA QUA).
Columbusa€™ association of Paria with Paradise was reinforced by the fact that there he encountered four rivers emptying into the gulf, corresponding to the number of rivers commonly believed to flow from Paradise.
While at Dominica on the Second Voyage, a colleague of Columbus wrote that a€?these islands are inhabited by Canabili, a wild, unconquered race which feeds on human flesh.
The name a€?Americaa€? had been suggested only the previous year by WaldseemA?ller (#310), and it is possible that Ruysch had not heard of the suggestion when he made his map or for some reason he did not care to follow it.
Die in Lorraine, in May, 1507, and where we see Omnium sanctorum abbatiam, while all the Spanish maps properly inscribe, Baya de todos sanctos (Turin and Weimar charts). Vincent of Vespuccia€™s third voyage (1501-02), hence the name of the mountains shown just inland by Ruysch.
The Asiatic coasts are different; the nomenclature presents also a number of names that are in one and not in the other two, and vice versa. The legends on this map are consequently of very high interest, and form a more important contribution to the history of geography than many a bulky volume. The map was fully described and reproduced on vellum for the first time published by William Frazer in London and Venice, 1804 Manuscript on vellum, BL Add. But among the maps contemporary with that of Fra Mauro are the 1448 world map of Andreas Walsperger (#245), the so-called Borgia world map (#237) of the first half of the 15th century, and the Zeitz mappa mundi (#251) of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South. When the stress of the weather had subsided they made the return to the said Cavo de Diab in seventy days and drawing near to the shore to supply their wants the sailors saw the egg of a bird called roc, the egg being as big as a seven gallon cask, and the size of the bird is such that from the point of one wing to another was sixty paces and it can quite easily lift an elephant or any other large animal.
He then continues that the less well-known peoples must necessarily be located in the more distant regions, which are bound on three sides by high mountains and on the fourth by the ocean - hence at a great distance from Mount Caspian. In fact, Fra Mauro underlines, the name of Scythia applies to a much larger territory, which is inhabited by innumerable different peoples.
The island is very fertile in pastures, rivers, springs and animals and all other things; and it is like Anglia. In fact, the large island was first colonized around the year 1000, but passed under the political control of Norway in 1261. He also underlines how trustworthy his information is by stating that he had obtained it from persone degnissime che hano veduto ad ochio [persons most worthy of credit, who have seen with their own eyes]. Then, at Belciman, it turns and runs almost southwest into the Sea of Abache - that is, the Meotide Marshes. The map is oriented with south and not east at the top (though Jerusalem does receive an especially large vignette). Fra Mauro was the first mapmaker to make extensive use of the writings of Marco Polo and Niccolo de Conti for his portrayal of the Asian interior and the islands of the Indian Ocean. However, it has also been pointed out by researchers such as Portuguese scholar Professor A.
Crawford suggests that this was the origin of the legend about the source of the Nile, and that it was only later that the site was transferred to the Equator. Stevenson, it is hardly probable that he is entitled to that renown as an African coast explorer with which certain of his biographers have attempted to crown him, nor does it appear that he is entitled to a very prominent place among the men famed in his day for their astronomical and nautical knowledge. The hemispheres were then taken off the mould, and the interior having been given stability by a skeleton of wooden hoops, they were again glued together so as to revolve on an iron axis, the ends of which passed through the two poles. It was left by the said gentleman, Martin Behaim, to the city of Nuremberg, as a recollection and homage on his part, before returning to meet his wife (Johanna de Macedo, daughter of Job de Huerter, whom he married in 1486) who lives on an island (at Fayal) seven hundred leagues from this place, and where he has his home, and intends to end his days.
The globe itself has a circumference of 1,595 mm, consequently a diameter of 507 mm or 20 inches, resulting in a scale of 1:25,138,000.
On landing they found nothing but a wilderness and birds that were so tame that they fled from no one. The effect of this was to reduce the distance from Western Europe westwards to the Asiatic shores to 126A°, in place of the correct figure of 229A°.
Southeast Asia is represented as a long peninsula extending southwards and somewhat westwards beyond the Tropic of Capricorn. Beyond it, though a good deal can be paralleled in the two other contemporary sources, Soligo and Martellus (#256), there are elements peculiar to Behaim, e.g.
An intermediate position between these extremes is occupied by Henricus Martellus, 1489 (#256), who gives the Old World a longitudinal extent of 196A°. Cooley describes as a€?the most unblushing volume of lies that was ever offered to the world,a€? but which, perhaps on that very ground, became one of the most popular books of the age, for as many as sixteen editions of it, in French, German, Italian and Latin, were printed between 1480 and 1492. It is curious that not one of these learned a€?cosmographersa€? should have undertaken to produce a revised version of Ptolemya€™s map by retaining the latitudes (several of which were known to have been from actual observation), while rejecting his erroneous estimate of 500 stadia to a degree in favor of the 700 stadia resulting from the measurement of Eratosthenes (#112). These copies were made use of in the production of charts on a small scale, the place names upon which, owing either to the carelessness of the draftsmen or their ignorance of Portuguese, are frequently mutilated to an extent rendering them quite unrecognizable. Foremost among these was JoA?o Rodriguez, who resided at Arguim from 1493-5, and there collected information on the Western Sahara. It is this northern island that retained its place on the maps until late in the 16th century, and, together with the islands of St. John of Hildesheim (died 1375) wrote a popular account of their story, which was first printed in German in 1480. Oppert has satisfactorily shown that this mysterious personage was Yeliutashe of the Liao dynasty, which ruled in Northern China from 906 to 1125.
In the Sinus magnus of Ptolemy we also read: This sea, land and towns all belong to the great Emperor Prester John of India. Had he done this, the fact of India being a peninsula could not have escaped him; the west coast of Africa would have appeared more accurate. Behaim had hopes of leading a voyage westward to Asia and sought the backing of the Emperor Maximilian.

At your pleasure you can secure for this voyage a companion sent by our King Maximilian, namely Don Martin Behaim, and many other expert mariners, who would start from the Azores islands and boldly cross the sea.
Columbus, in the copy of the Toscanelli letter (made on the flyleaf of the Historia Rerum of Pope Pius II) gave Cathay as 130A° west of Lisbon and Zipangu as ten spaces, or 50A°, west of the legendary island of Antillia. Previously no doubts were entertained with respect to Magellana€™s statement, since it undoubtedly was well supported.
He may have participated in a minor exploration trip which one Fernan Dulmo planned in I486 and which had to have Azores as the point of departure. When the Kinga€™s Ministers assailed him with questions, he confided to the Ministers that he planned to land first on the promontory of St. It states inter alia with respect to the Land of Brazil: a€?The Portuguese have circumnavigated this land and they have found a sound which practically tallies with that of our continent of Europe (where we live). On the other hand, SchA¶nera€™s drawings may very well be re- produced more or less exactly in other maps which took into consideration the discoveries in America.
Yet the globe has survived, and its condition seems in no manner worse than it was when it was under treatment by the Bauers.
An inscription on the map just off Taprobana refers to the voyages of the Portuguese to that area in the year 1507.
The Contarini-Rosselli map of 1506 (#308) and Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s map of the world and globe of 1507 (#310 and #311) were very influential, but not very widely published. Marcus adds nothing whatever as regards facts and data; instead, his treatise is less complete, considering that he fails to mention either Cuba or the continental land which the map exhibits between Newfoundland and South America. Both maps are on fan-shaped conical projections, engraved on copper in typical Italian style, and select from a variety of Spanish, Portuguese, and earlier sources. In its main features the delineation of eastern Asia, to the south of latitude 60 degrees north, on the map of Ruysch, so nearly resembles Behaima€™s globe (#258), that a common original might have served for both. On his famous map ad usum Navigantium of 1569 (#406), he gives the Mediterranean Sea a length of 52 degrees. This suggests that the map was prepared for press in a hurry and the punch used as the quickest method of lettering the plate. Ruysch correctly draws Gruenlant [Greenland] as separate from Europe, not connected with Europe by a vast polar continent as some earlier maps indicate.
Originally a Biblical saga, the story of these two malevolent creatures developed a rich mythology through medieval lore. In like manner, there is a second peninsula above Norway that usually represents Greenland Island (G) on most maps of the period.
Wherefore this island is called by many a€?seven cities.a€? This people lived most piously in the full enjoyment of all the riches of this time. The historian Varnhagen maintained that it was the land seen by Vespucci on his disputed voyage of 1497. This coast was called a€?Labradora€™s Landa€? as it was first sighted by the Portuguese, JoA?o Fernandes, the a€?llabradora€? or laborer, whom John Cabot had brought with him from the Azores, where he had gone the previous summer to recruit skilled seamen for his crew.
This can be seen simply by comparing the eastern profile of the Terra del Rey de portugall (present-day Newfoundland) in Cantino and the King-Hamy (#307.1), with the profile of the Terra Nova of Ruysch, which is exactly the same region.
There is no certain authority for the statement sometimes made that the term was first applied in the west by the Cabots nor for the assertion by Peter Martyr that the word was found by Europeans in use among the natives of Terra Nova.
In the Atlantic between Ireland and Greenland lies an island with an inscription stating that this island in the year of our Lord 1456 was totally consumed by fire.
But the Spaniards always, and justly, claimed to have discovered that country, as Pinzon had sighted and actually taken possession of the land situated by 8A° 19a€™ south latitude, three months before. For Columbus it was the island of Hispaniola [modern-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic].
Indeed, many scholars of early New World cartography have debated the meaning of this oversight on Ruyscha€™s part.
Obviously the printers were taking great care to ensure that it was accurate and up to date. It can be surmised that Ruysch was confused by Columbusa€™ insistence that Cuba was the eastern tip of a continental Asian promontory; Columbus, on his second voyage (1493-94), went so far as to force his officers to make sworn statements that Cuba was such a peninsula, in effect the Aurea Chersonesus or Cattigara of Ptolemy. This outline continues within the current landmass except to the northwest, where it extends into the ocean as a faint but obvious serpentine line. No trace of Columbusa€™ fourth voyage (1502-03), in which he stumbled across Central America, is found on Ruyscha€™s map. Pierre Da€™Ailly had declared that there was a€?a fountain in the Terrestrial Paradise which waters the Garden of Delights and which flows out by four rivers,a€? and Columbus himself annotated his copy of the Imago Mundi with a€?Fons est in paradisoa€? [a fountain is in Paradise].
I would be right to call them anthropophagi.a€? That Ruysch, on the later states of his map. We here obtain notices regarding exploring-voyages undertaken before 1508, of which no other information is met with in the history of geographical discovery. Vespucci said this cape lies eight degrees south of the equator (modern-day Recife), and that thence sailing southwest along the coast they encountered friendly Indians a€?gazing in wonder at us and at the great size of our ships.a€? Vespucci remarked that a few of the Indians, taken a€?to teach us their tongue,a€? volunteered to return to Portugal with them. MS 11267 and by Placido Zurla in II Mappamondo di Fra Mauro Camaldolese, 1806 in Venice (also now in the British Library), and later by Santarem in his facsimile Atlas of 1849. Thus it is not surprising that, around the mid-15th century, a mappa mundi was oriented to the south. The four most noble kings of his dominions stand one at each corner of this carriage to escort it; and all the others walk ahead, with a large number of armed men both before and behind.
Taking up information given by Marco Polo, he says such peoples are those of the kingdom of Tenduch and surrounding territories, which are inhabited by the legendary Gog and Magog.
The names for these populations are, however, not very useful because they change from language to language, from period to period and from interpreter to interpreter - as well as being subject to the mistakes made by copyists. Founder of the Brigittines (Ordo Sanctissimi Salvatoris) at Vasteras, she visited Rome and her Revelationes would be read widely throughout Europe. They live up in the mountains, where the inhabitants - or, at least, most of them - work iron and make weapons and all that is necessary for the military art. When we look at the representations of Europe on these two world maps, the idea of an imagined European superiority and dominion over the rest of the world disappears.
He also tried as far as he could, for instance in his depiction of India which was not to be reached by the Portuguese until 1498, to include information from Claudius Ptolemya€™s Geographia.
CortesA?o that, in pursuance of their ambition to hold a monopoly of the trade of West Africa, successive kings of Portugal decided on the suppression of all information calculated to excite the interest and jealousy of other powers.A  This Portuguese colonial policy in the a€?conspiracy of silencea€™, as it has been called,A  reached formality with John II (reigned 1481-1495), using his energies to prevent leakages of the news of discoveries at a time when foreigners were seeking by every means to acquire it.
In a footnote Mauro says that he drew the cities of Asia so large because there was simply more room on the map there than in Europe.A A  According to some critics, having enlarged Asia in relation to Europe, our cosmographer has not put the additional space to very good use.
It was doubtless, for reasons primarily commercial, that he first found his way to Portugal, where, shortly after his arrival, probably in the year 1484, he was honored by King John with an appointment as a member of the junta dos mathematicos [a nautical or mathematical council]. The sphere was then coated with whiting, upon which was laid the vellum that was to bear the design.
Only two great circles are laid down upon it, the equator, divided into 360 degrees (unnumbered), and the ecliptic studded with the signs of the zodiac. But of men or of four-footed animals none had come to live there because of the wildness, and this accounts for the birds not having been shy. There is no indication on the globe of what Behaim considered the length of a degree to be, but even if he did not go as far as Columbus in adopting the figure of 562 miles for a degree, he presented a very misleading impression of the distance to be covered in reaching the east from the west. It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument. In the original French the author is called Mandeville, in German translations Johannes or Hans von Montevilla, in the Latin and Italian Mandavilla.
But even of maps of this imperfect kind illustrating the time of Behaim and of a date anterior to his globe, only two have reached us, namely the Ginea Portugalexe ascribed to Cristofero Soligo, and a map of the world by Henricus Martellus Germanus (#256). To Ferdinand we owe, moreover, the preservation of the account that Diogo Gomez gave to Martin Behaim of his voyages to Guinea.
As to the first it is remarkable that although Ptolemya€™s outlines of lakes and rivers have been retained, his place names have for the most part been rejected and others substituted. The far-off places towards midnight or Tramontana, beyond Ptolemya€™s description, such as Iceland, Norway and Russia, are likewise now known to us, and are visited annually by ships, wherefore let none doubt the simple arrangement of the world, and that every part may be reached in ships, as is here to be seen. Brandan and of the Septe citez [the Seven Cities] it still appears on Mercatora€™s chart of the world in 1587. Having been expelled by the Koreans, Yeliutashe went forth with part of his horde, and founded the Empire of the Kara Khitai, which at one time extended from the Altai to Lake Aral, and assumed the title of Korkhan.
His delineation is rather a€?hotch-potcha€? made up without discrimination from maps that happened to fall in his hands. The Emperor shrugged it off by passing it on to King John of Portugal in a letter written by Dr.
Pigafetta, Magellana€™s fellow-traveller and the chronicler of the world trip, has noted this fact. This trip referred however only to the discovery of new islands in the Azores waters and may not have been performed at all. Satirical Voltaire, displaying a truly French superficiality of judgment, expressed in 1757 his disbelief in that a€?one (!) Martin Behem of Nuremberga€? had travelled in 1460 (Behaim was born in I459) a€?from Nuremberg to the Magellan Straitsa€? on a mission for the Duchess of Burgundy(!).Voltaire was followed, as result of substantially more thorough studies, by Tozen in 1761, v.
We have from 15I5, the year when SchA¶nera€™s globe was made, also the so-called of Leonardo-representation the countries in the west (Book IV, #327). This can be inferred with certitude from the statement made in the pamphlet of 1508 to the effect that one had found Americaa€™s southern cape south of the 40A° S. Indeed, on examining the globe, a beholder may feel surprise at the brightness of much of the lettering. This enlarged map of the known world constructed from recent discoveries, engraved on copper, is one of the earliest printed maps showing the discoveries in the new world.
There is only one original copy of each map in existence today, and both of these copies were discovered in the 20th century.
It is even doubtful whether the Celestinian monk, or any of the parties engaged in the publication of the Ptolemy of 1507-1508, had any personal intercourse with Ruysch.
By this name he probably designates either the illegitimate son of Columbus, Ferdinand, who sojourned in Europe until his 19th year (1509), or rather the brother of Columbus, Bartholomew, who seems to have been an eminent cartographer. The African continent on the map is yet another cartographic advance as it breaks with the early tradition which held that there was a land-bridge between eastern African and the peninsula of Southeast Asia. Sri Lanka, under the name of Prilam, is also laid down by Ruysch with about its proper size, and correctly as regards the southern point of India. Both deviate from Fra Mauroa€™s map of the world (#249), which gives us a representation of these regions much inferior to both Behaim and Ruysch. Ruyscha€™s map is also the first printed map on which, in conformity with the drawings on the portolanos, a tolerably correct direction is given to the northern coast of Africa, by attending to the considerable difference of latitude between the coastlines to the east and to the west of Syrtis, and by giving a proper form to that bay. So, it was in place long before Ruysch made his map, and to be true, no one knows from what saint it was named.
Instead of connected with Europe, he links Greenland with Asia through Newfoundland (Terra Nova).
Gog and Magog were traditionally imprisoned behind the Caspian gates by Alexander the Great; belief in the menace was so great that the level-headed Roger Bacon hoped that the study of geography might predict when, and from what direction, their onslaught might come in the days of the Antichrist so as better to prepare to defend against them. Above this is Hyperborea Europa (H) which is a carryover from the Norveca Europa of the de Virga map of 1414 (#240) where it was presumed the Hyperboreans lived near the North Pole. Sailing seven hundred miles south-south-west from Chamba the traveler, says Polo, passes two uninhabited islands, Ruyscha€™s SODVR and CANDVR.
Turning north, a€?they had,a€? says Peter Martyr, a€?in a manner continual daylight.a€? The action of the compass in those high latitudes might well cause the alarm expressed in the above inscriptions.
By 1506 Portuguese fishermen were hauling so much cod from northern American waters that their monarch sought tariffs on its import. Here the compasses of the ships lose their power, and it is not possible for ships which have iron on board to return. It is tempting to suggest that this is an epitaph for the fabulous island of Brasil from Irish legend. The other six originated in Portugal, and were delineated during the first few years of the 16th century. They consequently never accepted its Lusitanian name, and invariably called that region Tierra del Brasil. Henry Harrisse, in his book, The Discovery of North America, states that as early as 1526 Franciscus Monachus criticized the Ruysch map for its depictions in the Caribbean Sea. Apparently much soul- searching was done in the choosing of its delineations, especially in regard to the New World.
Within this smaller island, and to the left of the name CORVEO are found the faint letters DE CV Under the small triangle preceding the name CORVEO is the letter B and under the following C the letter A is found. At the southern end of South America another inscription states that the Portuguese had sailed as far south as 50A° latitude without seeing the southern limit of the land, possibly also a reference to Vespuccia€™s third voyage. Fra Mauro, in fact, did not even think it necessary to address the issue, probably considering it congruent with the wider culture of his readers and patrons.
But given that those peoples are at the limit of the earth - something of which I have information that is certain - this explains why all the peoples I listed above know no more about them than we do. Such a note reveals Fra Mauroa€™s sharp awareness of problems relating to the communication - and communicability - of knowledge from one period to another or from one culture to another. Let it not seem strange that I have shown the mountains as both the Caspian and the Caucasus, because those who live there claim this is a single chain of mountains, which changes name because of the diversity of languages of the people who live up there.
A conceptualization and representation of Europe in both mid-15th century European culture and Korean-Chinese culture emerges from, and is also based upon, the existence of channels of communication and trade at a global level; the gathering of global information and the world circulation of knowledge and technology were a relevant part of the circulation of material culture from the 13th to the late 17th centuries between Europe and Asia.
However, as Fra Mauro noted, modern discoveries had shown some of Ptolemya€™s information to be incorrect and had uncovered important places completely unknown to him. In the reign of his successor, Manuel I, the vigilance of the government was even more intensified, especially after the return of Cabral from India.
It is, for instance, extremely difficult to comprehend Mauroa€™s representation of southern Asia.
During his earlier years in Portugal he was connected with one or more expeditions down the coast of Africa, was knighted by the king, presumably for his services, and made his home for some years on the island of Fayal. The vellum was cut into segments resembling the gores of a modern globe, and fitted the sphere most admirably.
The Tropics, the Arctic and the Antarctic circles are likewise shown and in the high latitudes the lengths of the longest days are given. On this ground the islands were called dos Azores, that is, Hawk Islands, and in the year after, the king of Portugal sent sixteen ships with various tame animals and put some of these on each island there to multiply.
The coast swings abruptly to the east at Monte Negro, placed by Behaim in 38A° south latitude. Behaim calls him Johann de Mandavilla, as in Italian, although six editions of his work printed in German, at Strasburg and Augsburg, were at his command.
MA?ntzer, in 1495, saw hanging on a wall of the royal mansion in which he resided as the guest of Joz da€™Utra; and lastly, the map which Toscanelli is believed to have forwarded to King Affonso in 1474 in illustration of his plan of reaching Cathay and Zipangu by sailing across the Western Ocean. Eastern Asia, with its islands, and Africa have, however, been copied from a map or maps which were also at the command of WaldseemA?ller (#310). It is this northern island that was searched for in vain between 1480 and 1499, and figures on Behaima€™s globe. Brandona€™s Island retained a place upon the maps, notwithstanding Vincent of Beauaisa€™ disbelief in the legend, until the days of Ortelius (1570) and Mercator; and as late as 1721 the Governor of the Canaries sent out a vessel to search for this imaginary island. The King George in Tenduk, whom Marco Polo describes as a successor of Presbyter John, was actually a relative of this Yeliutashe who had remained in the original seats of the tribe not far from the Hwang-ho, and of Kuku-kotan, where the Kutakhtu Lama of the Mongols resided when Gerbillon visited the place in 1688. In this respect, however, he is not worse than are other cartographers of his period: Fra Mauro and WaldseemA?ller, SchA¶ner and Gastaldo, and even the famous Mercator, if the latter be judged by his delineation of Eastern Asia.
He writes: a€?But Hernando knew that is was the question of a very mysterious strait by which one could sail and which he had seen described on a map in the Treasury of the King of Portugal, the map having been made by an excellent man called Martin di Boemiaa€?. Apart from this there is nothing to indicate that he had undertaken from Fayal sea trips other than those to Europe. Murrin 1778, Cancellieri in 1809 and others, and more recently, above all by Ghillany in 1842, v.
The Magellan Straits are on the other hand on 52A° and prior to Magellan had no expedition, of which we know, sighted land near there. This, however, is due to the action of the a€? renovators,a€? who were let loose upon the globe in 1823, and again in 1847; who were permitted to work their will without the guidance of a competent geographer, and, as is the custom of the tribe, have done irreparable mischief. By contrast, Johannes Ruyscha€™s 1508 map of the world was much more widely published and many copies were produced and still exist. Otherwise we would certainly find in the elaborate description that Marcus Beneventanus gives of the transatlantic discoveries of the Spaniards and Portuguese, some statement or name that should have been omitted in the map. For there is an annotation on a copy of: Paesi nouvamente retrovaetc, Vicentia 1507, at the library Magliabechi, stating that Bartholomew, when visiting Rome in 1505, wrote, for a canon of the church of San Giovanni di Laterano, a narrative of the first voyage across the ocean, to which a map of the new discoveries was appended. It is thought (see the Beneventanus commentary below) that he accompanied John Cabot on his expedition to North America in 1497 and 1498, or, considering the prevalence of Portuguese names on his 1507 map, a Portuguese ship leaving from Bristol.
Ruysch adopts the Portuguese name, Terra Sancte Crucis [Land of the Holy Cross] for South America instead of Tierra del Brazil, the name used by the Spaniards.
It is also the first map that shows the Portuguese discoveries and landfalls along the southern and Cape coasts. Taprobana is placed further towards the East Indian peninsula, in which position this geographical remnant from the time of Alexander the Great was retained, down to the middle of the 16th century. Neither is it any reason for thinking that the island above Norway is meant to be Svalbard. In addition, he shows the northern polar regions as a basin with a number of islands, thus prompting the long-held hope for a Northwest passage from Europe to Asia. This threat was quite real to Columbus, who figured himself prominently into the events, believed by him to be close at hand, leading to the end of the world. Across the vertical ocean or Ginnungagap (GP) is a caption that cautions mariners not to rely upon compass bearings as the compass fails in this region.
Among the Polean islands lying further to the south on Ruyscha€™s map is AGAMA, which like TOLMA would later be transposed to the New World as a region of the Northwest Coast.
The evidence that the landfall of the Cabots was Greenland and not Labrador is cited by Biggar.
There are forests, mountains and rivers: there is the greatest abundance of pearls and gold.
Some explanations also include the influence of the contemporary Islamic cartography, the cosmographical concepts of Aristotle, and, of course, the Venetian maritime commercial focus of Fra Mauroa€™s time of the Indian Ocean and thus towards the south.
Hence I conclude that these peoples are very far from Mount Caspian and are, as I said, at the extreme limit of the world, between the north-east and the north, and they are enclosed by craggy mountains and ocean on three sides.
And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved citya€?. It is worth underlining that it is the very logic of a€?moderna€™ cartography within which Fra Mauro is working that requires him to consult and compare sources, and thus develop a critical approach that was certainly not the norm in the mappaemundi produced before this date.
Alternate influences must have been absorbed through interaction along Asian routes of communication, such as the Silk Road and sea trade routes in the Indian Ocean, with the crucial intervening agency of Islamic traders. The Earthly Paradise, beautifully depicted by, perhaps, Leonardo Bellini, is exiled beyond the map to the bottom left where an inscription tries to establish its actual physical location. A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust. The only meridian which is drawn from pole-to-pole 80 degrees to the west of Lisbon is graduated for degrees, but also unnumbered. Arthur Davies, in his discussion of the Martellus map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara. This is the point reached by CA?o in 1483, and its true position is 15A° 40a€™ south; a Portuguese standard marks the spot. Pipinoa€™s Latin version, on the other hand, is divided in this manner, and Behaim in seven of his legends quotes these divisions correctly. One could conclude from this that he is indebted to an Italian map and not to a perusal of his Travels for the two references on the globe. A comparison of that cartographera€™s map with Behaima€™s globe leaves no doubt as to this, unless we are prepared to assume that WaldseemA?ller took his information from the globe, which Ravenstein concludes to be quite inadmissible.
The island Seilan has a circuit of 2,400 miles as is written by Marco Polo in the 19th chapter of the third book.
Tarsis (Tarssia) is shown on many medieval maps in a similar position, for instance, on the Catalan Atlas of 1375, where the three kings are shown on horseback about to start for Bethlehem.
His famous globe which he made in I491-92 in Nuremberg does not show even the slightest trace of a knowledge of countries or islands beyond the Azores. A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust.A  In 1510 the iron meridian was displaced by one of brass, the work of Johann Verner, the astronomer. As a result numerous place-names have been corrupted past recognition, and if one desires to recover the original nomenclature of the globe we must deal with it as a palimpsest. The few personal details given by the commentator and by Thomas Aucuparius in the preface were most probably conveyed by a letter accompanying the map when it was sent in manuscript from Germany to Rome. His general accuracy in the eastern hemisphere is almost certainly due to contemporary information gained from Portuguese navigators and explorers. Ruysch seems to have had no doubt that Gruenlant was a part of Asia and not of Europe as usually represented on maps of this period. In the gulf formed by North America and the ominous land of Gog and Magog lies the Spanish Main, the Caribbean, which in Ruyscha€™s mind was really the China Sea.
Usually, maps had this caption southwest of Greenlanda€”thus one may be on good grounds for identifying the land here called Grvenlant as Labrador (L).
Mixing Polean, Portuguese, and Ptolemaic data, Ruysch charts a JAVA MAJOR and LAVA MINOR, Poloa€™s Java and Sumatra respectively. Ruysch uses the term to designate the entire peninsula of North America, and names its most southeasterly point as C.
Cannibalism had, though, been reported independently by early mainland explorers, such as Vespucci, perhaps rendering the Trindad association more plausible in Ruyscha€™s mind. Kimble makes it clear that they do not refer to a€?South Africaa€™, for the Mareb and Tagas Rivers with their affluents Mana, Lare and Abavi, can be none other than the Abyssinian rivers Mareb, Takkazye, Menna, Tellare and Abbai; while flumen Xebi and flumen Avasi are traced with such extraordinary fidelity that they can be readily identified with the Ghibie and Hawash Rivers of southern Abyssinia - a region not thoroughly explored until modern times, but such accuracy could have been the result of information received from an Ethiopian mission to Florence in 1441. The upper course of the Quiam [the Yangtse Kiang], the greatest river in the world, is brought too far south; but the Hwang ho has its great upper bend clearly drawn.
They are to the north of the kingdom of Tenduch and are called the Ung and the Mongul, which people know as Gog and Magog and believe that they will emerge at the time of the Antichrist.
This passage is also very clear on the importance of knowledge regarding the transformation of toponyms if one is to preserve and transmit correct geographical information; such an awareness would only find full expression more than a century later, when Giacomo Gastaldi drew up his concordance tables of place-names for his editions of Ptolemy and his three large maps of the different areas of the world.
No monstrous races are depicted in Africa since, Fra Mauro tells us, none have ever been seen, with the exception of the Dog Heads (Cynocephali).
Beyond Tarna, India is broken into two very stumpy peninsulas, resulting in the confusion of relative positions in the interior, and in the placing of C.
The notes attached to some of the islands, giving their direction in relation to others, as in the case of the Maldives already quoted, support this probability.A  Certainly the whole southern outline of the continent as depicted here could scarcely have been taken directly from a chart drawn by a practical navigator. The sea is colored a dark blue, the land a bright brown or buff with patches of green and silver, representing forests and regions supposed to be buried beneath perennial ice and snow. This feature is a remnant of Ptolemya€™s Geography that evolved when the Indian Sea was opened to the surrounding ocean.
On the eastward trending coast, there are names that seem to be related to those bestowed by Diaz, and the sea is named oceanus maris asperi meridionalis, a phrase which doubtless refers to the storms encountered by him. We should naturally conclude from this that this was the version consulted if on other occasions he had not quoted the chapters as given in the version which was first printed in Ramusioa€™s Navigationi e viaggi in 1559. The first of these (near Candyn) refers to the invisibility of the Lodestar in the Southern Hemisphere and the Antipodes, and is one of the four original statements of the learned doctor, and the second describes the dog-headed people of Nekuran, which he has borrowed from Odoric of Portenone and enlarged upon.
It was on the same map that Ritter von Harff, who returned to Germany in 1499 after a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, performed his fictitious journey from the east coast of Africa, across the Mountains of the Moon and down the Nile to Egypt. Brandana€™s Island is generally associated with the Canaries, as on the Hereford map of 1280 (Book II, #226), but Dulcerta€™s Insulla Scti Brandani sive puellarum (1339) lies further north, while Pizzigania€™s San Brandany y ysole Pouzele lie far to the west (1367). Finally, in 1939 the problem was definitively clarified as regards the connection between Americaa€™s discovery and the great Nuremberg scholar by answering it in the negative.
He was all the more sure to find a sound as he had seen it on a sea map made by Martin de Bohemia. He owned the map, but the master-drawer did made this representation which is extremely poorly executed. Such a process, however, might lead to the destruction of the globe, whilst the result possibly to be achieved would hardly justify running such a risk. According to the historian Henry Harrisse, if Ruysch had supervised the engraving in person, the probability is that the nomenclature would have been entirely in Latin, or according to its original Portuguese form, instead of being so frequently Italianized, as is seen in the pronoun a€?doa€?, everywhere written a€?dea€?, and in the words Terra secca, C.
This may be a notice respecting the same map, that Marcus Beneventanus had seen with a€?Columbus Nepos,a€? and which appears to have been partly copied by Ruysch, whose map consequently may be regarded as a direct illustration of the ideas prevailing in the family of Columbus as to the distribution of the continents and oceans of the globe.
Off the coast of Gruenlant is the location of an island that was totally consumed by fire in the year of our Lord, 1456.
Since most historians have assumed this is simply another frivolous naminga€”we can understand the controversy over whether the Spanish navigator Fernandez (The Labrador) actually discovered Greenland or Labrador. He creates a a€?moderna€? Sri Lanka [PRILAM] from Portuguese sources but exiles the old TAPROBANA, the Sri Lanka or Ceylon of Ptolemy, to the east, giving it both the old and new names (TAPROBANA ALIAS ZOILON), and mistakenly notes the 1507 Portuguese landfall in Sri Lanka by it rather than by Prilam.
Popularly it was also called La terra dagli Papaga [Parrotsa€™ Land], on account of those large and beautiful birds that Gaspar de Lemos brought to Portugal. Then it is more probable that this feature of the map is inspired by the Inventio Fortunatae, or from the fact that the old cartographers wanted the landmasses to be in balance. According to some accounts, the Portuguese are stated to have reached the meridian of Tunis (10 degrees East) and perhaps even that of Alexandria.
But certainly this mistake is due to the way some force the Sacred Scriptures to mean what they want them to mean.
Augustine in De Civitate Dei: a€?For these nations which he names Gog and Magog are not to be understood of some barbarous nations in some part of the world, whether the Getae and Massagetae, as some conclude from the initial letters, or some other foreign nations not under the Roman government.
Indeed figures of any sort are missing though the map does depict cities, buildings, ships and fish.
Perhaps the most attractive feature of the globe consists of 111 miniatures, for which we are indebted to Glockenthona€™s clever pencil. The placing of Madagascar and Zanzibar approximately midway between this peninsula and the Cape must be another feature of some antiquity. Owing to the exaggeration of the latitudes, Monte Negro falls fairly near the position that the Cape of Good Hope should occupy. On Behaima€™s globe may be traced twenty-one names, out of about forty to be found on WaldseemA?llera€™s map of 1507, and four of them mark stages of the worthy knighta€™s journey. The evidence which carried the greatest weight was doubtlessly the letter which on July 14th, 1493 was written to King John II of Portugal by Hieronymus Miinzer who was a friend of Behaim and was in close touch with him.
Also this representation of the newly discovered South America shows a wide sound that separates America from the hypothetical southern continent of Ptolemy.
Glaciato and Capo formoso, which certainly indicate a translation of Portuguese names, made not by a German, but by an Italian, without being errors of the engraver. The one inscription to the left of India states that this sea, which on the Ptolemaic maps was represented as landlocked (#119), was shown by the Portuguese to be connected with the ocean. On the other hand, we know that several cartographers identified North American mainland as a€?Greenlanda€? so the label for Labrador on this map is not so unusual. De Fundabril on the peninsula extending toward Spagnola is suggestive of Cuba as that name was given by Columbus, on his second voyage, to a cape on the coast of Cuba which he left the on the 30th of April. For John marks that they are spread over the whole earth, when he says, a€?The nations which are in the four corners of the earth,a€? and he added that these are Gog and Magoga€?, and by Nicholas of Lyra in his Postillae sive Commentaria brevia in omnia Biblia. On the whole, however, a fair knowledge of China is displayed; the mid-19th century certainly knew less of the interior of Central Africa than 15th century Europe did of the interior of China. And it is also said there are many new kinds of animals, especially huge white bears and other savage animals. The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher. It is noticeable that the Soligo chart ends in 14A° south, which is near the limit of Behaima€™s detailed knowledge. Behaim had ample opportunity to study the proposals of Columbus and the map(s) that accompanied them.
This letter which knew nothing about Columbusa€™ discovery was written to suggest to King John a western trip across the ocean in order to reach East Asia. Another contemporary map, designed by the Turkish map-maker Piri Rea€™is in 1513 (Book IV, #322) even regarded South America as a peninsula of the southern continent and therefore did not contain any separating sound.
The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher.A  There are, in addition, 48 flags (including ten of Portugal) and five coats of arms, all of them showing heraldic colors. He is thought to be the a€?Fleming called Johna€?, a close friend of Raphael who at one point resided with him. On Taprobane (alias Zoilon), which almost corresponds to the immense island currently called Sumatra, there is a long legend, partly borrowed from Ptolemy, but with the interesting addition that Portuguese mariners arrived there in 1507. On the scroll upon the west coast of this unnamed land is the inscription: As far as this the ships of Ferdinand have come. South of JAVA MINOR [Sumatra] an inscription refers to an archipelago of precisely 7,448 islands reported by Polo, probably the Philippines but here suggesting Indonesia. BACCALAURAS [codfish island], testifying to that fisha€™s profound influence on early Atlantic exploration. Crvcis, but Cabo de Santa Maria de la Consolacion which is the name given to that cape by Pinzon on January 26, 1500, or Rostro Hermoso, as he also, if not de Lepe, named it. Augustine, who in his De Civitate Dei rejects all the opinions of those who claim that Gog and Magog are the peoples that will support the Antichrist. We might conclude, therefore, that Behaima€™s contribution was to reproduce this coast from a similar chart, and to add some gleanings from the Diaz voyage round the Cape.
This was the origin of Behaima€™s later plan to sail to Asia and the source of his concepts of the distances involved.
This letter would of necessity have referred to Behaima€™s legendary discoveries in the western ocean, if such discoveries had been made, since Behaim certainly knew about the letter and approved of it.
This shows that individual mapmakers used their imagination arbitrarily in their efforts to combine cartographically the new countries of which only fragments were known.
It has been suggested that he assisted and advised Raphael on his 1509-1510 Astronomia and other frescoes in the Stanza della segnatura. Another legend on the southeastern parts of Asia alludes to the existence of numerous islands in that part of the ocean, of which notices from Indian merchants seem to have already reached Europe. This term, in its sundry Romance variations, soon became a major place-name associated with North America. From the Persian Gulf eastwards, he appears to have taken the Ptolemaic outline, but exaggerated the principal gulfs and capes, and to this outline he has fitted the contemporary nomenclature. And Nicholas of Lyra agrees with this claim, explaining the two names by their Hebrew origin. The two personal names are not to be found on any other map: in conjunction with the attempt made to associate Behaima€™s own voyage with the discovery of the Cape, we are justified in assuming that this portion of the globe at least was designed in a spirit of self-glorification. Leonardoa€™s map conceived all the new western countries as islands: the islands and coasts of the mainland which were discovered by Columbus, Labrador-Newfoundland in the north, found by Cabot, and the coast line of North America, cursorily explored by Cabral, Verrazano and others.
Forty-eight of them show us kings seated within tents or upon thrones; full-length portraits are given of four Saints (St.
Not long after, Ruysch went to work at the Portuguese court as cartographer and astronomer, presumably by recommendation of Julius II who was a friend of Manuel I of Portugal. How arbitrary were the designs of the drawers of these earliest maps of America is shown inter alia by the Ruysch map of 1508 (Book IV, #313) which had inserted a connecting water way even between Honduras and Yucatan or also the much-discussed Anian Strait in northern America which were sought even late as the beginning of the 19th century. This Portuguese influence may be due only to the fact that Portuguese charts, while kept in great secrecy, were more numerous than Spanish ones.
As far as he knew in 1492, Columbus had not gained support for his enterprise in Portugal or Spain and there was no logical or moral reason why he should not seek German support. This comment, as well as the rivera€™s latitude and its probable origin in the Corte-Real voyages, all suggest that this is the Gulf of St. Michele at Murano we are told that Diab is a great province in parts of which there is an abundance of very good things, its principal town being called Mogadis, which can be none other than Magadoxo of the Somali coast. The adjacent features also make sense in this interpretation; C GLACIATO (a reference to glacial waters) would be Newfound-land, C DE PORTOGESI would be Nova Scotia, and IN BACCALAURAS would be Cape Breton or Prince Edward Island.
Eleven vessels float upon the sea, which is populated by fishes, seals, sea lions, sea-cows, sea-horses, sea-serpents, mermen, and a mermaid.
This Chinese Li was by the European cartographers confounded with the Italian mile (60 = 1 degree). The land animals include elephants, leopards, bears, camels, ostriches, parrots, and serpents.A  The only fabulous beings that are represented among the miniatures are a merman and a mermaid, near the Cape Verde Islands, and two Sciapodes in central South Africa, but syrens, satyrs, and a€?men with dogsa€™ heads are referred to in some of the legends.
Nor do we meet with the a€?Iudei clausi,a€™ or with a a€?garden of Eden,a€™ still believed in by Columbus.A  There is a curiously faulty representation of the Portuguese arms, especially for someone like Behaim who had lived in and sailed for that country for many years.

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