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The death of a five- and a seven-year-old boy in New Brunswick after being strangled by an African rock python is not just tragic — it's criminal.
You can hardly blame the snake, a common breed of python, for simply reacting to the world around it.
Melissa Matlow from the World Society for the Protection of Animals in Canada told the Globe and Mail it's not the first time a python has killed in Canada and she maintains they are not appropriate as pets. Jordan: Let’s begin with a simple question: What do we mean by the term “human-wildlife conflict”? Conflict can also occur when wildlife—both native and introduced—impacts human infrastructure and economies. In the final analysis it is difficult to blame wildlife for human-wildlife conflict, because the animals are simply, doing what animals do. Jordan: The interactions between humans and wildlife and the perceptions of wildlife held by various stakeholders can heavily influence management and policy programs aimed at conserving imperiled species. In today’s world, for many species, we can expect human-wildlife-conflict to increase in direct proportion to conservation success.
How animals are perceived by humans is a major factor contributing to the development of wildlife management and conservation policy. Michael: As with virtually anything involved with conservation, there have been some successes and some failures. Regulated hunting is another way to prevent human-wildlife conflict, not only in that it reduces the numbers of problem animals, and perhaps even more importantly, prevents animals from becoming habituated to and thus more dangerous to humans. Another example of conflict is bird-aircraft collisions; birds, such as the ubiquitous Canada goose, can threaten human safety and lives when they collide with flying aircraft in the vicinity of airports.
Sometimes attempts to manage human-wildlife conflict a priori through lethal control have gone too far.
New technologies may revolutionize our ability to manage human-wildlife conflict non-lethally, at least for some species. Predator compensation programs are an example of a post-hoc (after the fact) approach to reducing human-wildlife conflict.
Jordan: You have traveled extensively and have seen the plight of both people and wildlife as they attempt to coexist in an increasingly crowded world. Michael: I’ve already given you several examples from around the globe, so instead I’d like to concentrate on why it is so difficult to address human-wildlife conflict in developing countries. So, how do we protect people and their crops and livestock from large carnivores and herbivores? Jordan: Road ecology is an emerging field, but few people are familiar with this applied scientific discipline. Michael: Yes, road ecology is a fascinating topic and one that has important implications for wildlife conservation. Jordan: In the minds of the general public, the notion of human-wildlife conflict often conjures up aggressive encounters between humans and wild carnivores, but these interactions are actually quite rare in North America relative to some other places around the world, where wild carnivores often seriously injure or kill humans and are later killed as retribution. Michael: Large carnivores represent some of the most complex challenges when it comes to human-wildlife conflict. You are correct in stating that the problem of human-large carnivore conflict is minimal in North America when compared to other areas of the world. One idea is to set aside the Sundarbans as a reserve and limit the number of people that can enter.
By far the best way to decrease human-tiger conflict is to give the animals large reserves that have plenty of prey, thus decreasing the potential for human-tiger encounters.
Surely radically improved education and dependence on renewable and sustainable resources would be a better solution than suggesting population control or depopulation. Too often negative conflicts can be easily solved but their answers are woefully overlooked.
National Geographic VoicesResearchers, conservationists, and others around the world share stories and commentary on the National Geographic Society's conversation platform Voices. Society Field Inspection 2016: Gulf of CaliforniaDescribed by Jacques Cousteau as the "aquarium of the world," the Gulf of California in Mexico is threatened by coastal development, climate change, and other human activities.
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Two years after being discovered deep in a South African cave, the 1,500 fossils excavated during the Rising Star Expedition have been identified as belonging to a previously unknown early human relative that National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Lee Berger and team have named Homo naledi. With at least 15 individuals of all ages and both sexes represented, the find adds an unprecedented amount of information to our understanding of early human evolution in Africa. In addition, the absence of any other animal remains or large debris in the fossil chamber strongly suggests that these non-human beings intentionally deposited their dead within this cave. The largest member of this extensive family of tropical snakes, found in all tropical regions except the Americas. Details of Specimens IllustratedImage 1 Reticulated Python Python reticulatus Stage - adult Source - died in captivity Acknowledgement - Courtesy of J. GoodRelations is a standardized vocabulary (also known as "schema", "data dictionary", or "ontology") for product, price, store, and company data that can (1) be embedded into existing static and dynamic Web pages and that (2) can be processed by other computers.
This Agent-Promise-Object Principle can be found across most industries and is the foundation of the generic power of GoodRelations. The main difference between using GoodRelations in microdata and in RDFa is that you use just the local part of a property identifier (e.g.
Note 1: When GoodRelations is used in microdata syntax, URLs used with the itemid attribute are to be handled according to the WHATWG HTML5 rules.
Note 2: When GoodRelations markup is ported from RDFa to microdata syntax, itemid values holding an IRI or containing backslash characters may result in a different identifier than the equivalent resource from RDFa. Identity based on itemid: Two items with the same itemid represent the same conceptual entity and must be merged by GoodRelations processors.
References to itemid: An itemprop property having an absolute or relative URL as its value is referring to the conceptual entity whose itemid resolves to this URL, same as if the entity was defined within the scope of this property. Implicit typing: Where the range of a property is a single GoodRelations type, it is not required to specify this type explicitly as the itemtype within the microdata markup. Full URIs for properties: If the full URI for a GoodRelations property is provided on an item with a GoodRelations type, it is treated as equivalent to a property named with just the local part.
Unsupported properties shall be ignored while parsing, unless they have an absolute URL outside of the GoodRelations namespace, e.g.
If the type of the value isn't valid according to the range of the property, that value is ignored. If a mandatory property is missing from an item, then the item is invalid and is to be ignored.
If you parse GoodRelations data from microdata syntax in order to generate a RDF representation, the URIs for all properties should be built by directly attaching the local part of a property (e.g. All GoodRelations properties have global identifiers within the vocabulary, even if they are applicable to multiple types.
Multiple values should be represented by multiple triples with the same subject and predicate in RDF, not using an RDF collection. The following UML class diagram illustrates the interplay between the GoodRelations language elements.Please note that UML class diagrams are only approximations of OWL ontologies and microdata vocabularies. An instance of this class represents the legal agent making (or seeking) a particular offering. A business entity type is a conceptual entity representing the legal form, the size, the main line of business, the position in the value chain, or any combination thereof, of a gr:BusinessEntity. Licenses and other proprietary specifications of access rights are also instances of this class. Examples: Delivery by direct download is free of charge worldwide, delivery by UPS to Germany is 10 Euros per order, delivery by mail within the US is 5 Euros per order. The total amount of this charge is specified as a float value of the gr:hasCurrencyValue property. A delivery method is a standardized procedure for transferring the product or service to the destination of fulfilment chosen by the customer. There should have been no manner in which it could have escaped its enclosure and made its way up through the ventilation system into the apartment the children were in. The father of their friend is Jean-Claude Savoie, the owner of the pet store below the home.
But if you believe there was no negligence then these snakes should be banned as pets because if snakes escaping and killing are something we cannot prevent, then it follows that it could happen again.
Savoie is reported to be suffering badly, but in the interests of justice, and deterrence, let's hope the RCMP make the right decision.
This might range from offensive smells coming from the accumulation of bat guano in one’s attic to raccoons or black bears turning over garbage cans and spreading their contents across your lawn to deer or rabbits eating your expensive ornamental plants or produce grown in a backyard garden.
On the other hand, if humans view wildlife as pests, as damaging to their livelihoods, or as a danger to their community or family, then wildlife is going to lose.
Generally, the greater the negative impact wildlife has on human lives and livelihoods, the greater the perception of wild animals as “pests”, as opposed to valued components of our environment.


The basic concept behind HWCC was to share information and improve responses to human-wildlife conflict through consultation, not only among wildlife professionals and between their organizations, but also with economic and social development organizations, land use planners, agribusiness, and other key decision makers.
Such conflict occurs in developing regions of the world as well as in more developed areas.
In southern Florida, for example, negative interactions between humans and alligators are comparatively rare given the large populations of both.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) maintains a database on wildlife strikes on aircraft.
They have several tools at their disposal, the success of which varies with the circumstance.
Can you provide some examples of lesser-known negative human-wildlife interactions in some of the developing countries you have visited?
Can you explain what it is and discuss some of what we have learned about managing wildlife in regard to our expanding network of roads here in North America and around the globe. The construction of a system of roads that allow us to drive from place to place or transport goods can have a number of direct and indirect effects on wildlife. For example, fragmented habitats can be reconnected by using over- or under passes that allow the safe movement of animals across roads. Can you elaborate on the human-wild carnivore conflict and discuss the implications for carnivore conservation and wildlife conservation in general? First, as apex predators, with comparatively, large home ranges, they require a great deal of space. But portions of the Sundarbans are already tiger reserves with no permanent human settlements. With the former attitude, you reduce human -human relationships and trust, as opposed to unifying with developing countries and offering them the technology that allows them to not make the same environmentally degrading mistakes that first world counties made in order to maximise their economies. From Darwin’s time upto date, nature has to control animal populations including humans yet man has ways to prevent nature from taking its course. Flow devices are cheap and efficient solutions to beaver flooding problems, and allowing those beavers to stay can let their own naturally territorial behaviors keep others away.
Posters and commenters are required to observe National Geographic's community rules and other terms of service. To learn firsthand what's going on in and around this marine treasure of global importance, the National Geographic Society sent its top scientists and officials to the region in January 2016. This increases the visibility of your products and services in the latest generation of search engines, recommender systems, and other novel applications. For examples, tools, and other developer resources, click on the menu items on top of this page. It allows you to use the same vocabulary for offering a camcorder as for a manicure service or for the disposal of used cars. If the itemid attribute is missing or if resolving it fails, the respective item will have no global identifier. Where two items with the same itemid have values for the same property, these must be merged if the property can take multiple values. This indicates the recommended range for the number of occurrences of this property for the same item. If that item appears as the value for a property, then it is removed from that set of values.
From the ontological point of view, business entity types are mostly roles that a business entity has in the market. A delivery charge specification is characterized by (1) a monetary amount per order, specified as a literal value of type float in combination with a currency, (2) the delivery method, (3) the target country or region, and (4) whether this charge includes local sales taxes, namely VAT. Delivery methods are characterized by the means of transportation used, and by the organization or group that is the contracting party for the sending gr:BusinessEntity (this is important, since the contracted party may subcontract the fulfilment to smaller, regional businesses). The RCMP, who reportedly euthanized the snake (though that does no good) have called the room the boys were killed in a crime scene and are considering charges. In his responses to my questions, the noted wildlife biologist provides an array of examples of conflict, solutions to some of these pressing conservation concerns, and some direction as to where we can go from here to advance efforts to mitigate the global problem facing our wildlife resources.
The challenge for conservationists is to somehow change those attitudes by offering practical and effective solutions. The primary focus of HWCC in recent years has been the development of an interactive workshop that applies techniques used to resolve human-human conflict to human-wildlife conflict. Here in North America, advances in wildlife management practices often prevent or subvert (thwart) would-be negative interactions between people and free-ranging wildlife. Some involve addressing the issue a priori, that is, before the negative interactions occur. Garbage had been a major attractant to bears, which placed them into close proximity to humans, thus increasing the probability of negative encounters.
This is despite the fact that recreational activities involving water are very popular and bring humans and alligators into potential contact.
From 1990 to 2007, the number of recorded strikes on civilian aircraft went from 1,759 to 7,666, respectively.
The basic concept is that herders or ranchers that lose livestock to wild predators would not suffer any economic loss, which is a great idea in theory.
Are we making any progress in reducing such conflict between people and wildlife in these regions? Even those that are better off are highly dependent on their crops and livestock for their and their family’s survival, particularly in rural areas.
I’ve mentioned some of the recent innovations that people are using as non-lethal alternatives for addressing the issue.
Fencing can also be used to direct animals to safer places to cross or prevent wildlife-vehicle collisions in areas of highest risk. Current Indian wildlife protection laws state that animals must be saved unless the tiger is a repeat offender and no hope exists for rehabilitation. Nonetheless, thousands of people still feel the need to travel into the area to collect resources, such as fish, honey and wood. However, setting aside vast tracts of land has become increasingly difficult in countries like India and Bangladesh that have rapidly growing human populations.
I believe we can set aside room for nature of we are more radical in our approach to environmental and conservation issues. My own city installed a flow device 5 years ago and now because of beaver-created wetlands we regularly see otter, heron, steelhead, woodduck and even mink in our tiny urban stream.
They toured the desert islands off the southeastern coast of the Baja Peninsula and they listened to presentations by more than a dozen experts, including several whose Baja California research is funded by the Society.
Note that microdata requires that all items with a global identifier must have a type specified. If the property cannot take multiple values, the value for that property from the first item within the document must be used.
However, it is good practice to provide the type explicitly and necessary if you want to assign a global identifier to the item.
Business entity types are important for specifying eligible customers, since a gr:Offering is often valid only for business entities of a certain size, legal structure, or role in the value chain. He said he was astonished the 14-to-16-foot snake escaped and managed to crawl through a small pipe and into the ventilation system and drop down into the room the boys were in. Large carnivores, such as lions, jaguars, leopards, wolves, and crocodilians kill and eat domestic livestock.
Can you explain some of the success we have had here in the United States with regard to mitigating human-wildlife conflict? The development of bear-proof containers has helped to alleviate this problem, as has improved regulations and public education.
The entire database contains records of 82,057 strikes, of which the vast majority involved birds (97.5%). When hunger pangs arrive, they cannot simply saunter down to the local MacDonald’s to order a hamburger and fries.
Depending on the type of animal and amount of vehicular traffic present, roads can be risky to cross or completely impenetrable. When natural prey populations dwindle, the animals will seek other alternatives, including domestic livestock and even humans. Sometimes man-eaters are live- captured and translocated to other more remote reserves, though the success of this is often minimal, with the newly introduced cats being killed when crossing into the territory of an existing tiger.
Unfortunately, tigers will still venture onto the periphery of their range and enter plantations and other areas that are frequented by people. For this, typical address standards (vCard) and location data (geo, WGS84) can be attached. In some cases, wildlife may pose a threat not only to human livelihoods, but also to human lives and well-being. This is not surprising given the fact that human populations continue to expand, pushing wildlife into increasingly smaller areas of “natural” habitat and bringing humans and wildlife into more frequent contact.


Based on evaluations and testimonials by participants, the workshops have been successful, but it remains to be verified that this is resulting in effective on-the-ground action. Solutions can also be post hoc, meaning that the problem is addressed after the negative interactions occur.
Around 12% (9,814) of these strikes caused damage to the aircraft, and in 2,700 of these incidents, the damage was considered substantial. This might, for example, involve reducing goose-grazing activity in an area by providing an alternative feeding site and then hazing the geese off the site, as for example, by using trained dogs, where grazing is unwanted.
For example, in order to be compensated, the owner must prove that his or her animal was killed by a wild predator.
When they leave their homes to travel by foot, they may be threatened by large, dangerous animals, which that have the ability to kill or seriously injure them or their family members. Third, they are highly mobile and can travel long distances in a relatively short time span.
In one experiment, human figures were erected and hooked up to a battery, so that when tigers attacked they received a powerful shock. Note that the location of the business entity is not necessarily the location from which the product or service is being available (e.g. The region or regions to which this charge applies is specified using the gr:eligibleRegions property, which uses ISO 3166-1 and ISO 3166-2 codes.
Examples of a priori approaches include the proper containment or protection of human food sources so that wildlife cannot access it. Public feeding, when the public wishes to interact directly with wildlife, thus bringing them into closer proximity, is particularly problematic. All of these help to prevent the association between humans and food, hence also reducing the chance of habituation and maintaining a healthy fear of humans in alligators. Large carnivores are critical to functioning ecosystems and regulated hunting as a method of population and behavior management must be science-based and sustainable (Peek, J.
The devise has been used in Alaska on habituated bears and looks to be an extremely valuable new tool for wildlife management. Given the condition of the kill site or what is left of the carcass, if anything, this may be difficult.
I’ve often wondered how relatively wealthy, good intentioned conservationists from developed countries would feel about having lions or leopards in their own back yards in areas where their children play?
In the past, however, local people (those living with the animals) derived little benefit from tourism, with the profits from these operations going to large companies based in other countries and operated by foreigners. Individual animals attempting to cross roads in order to migrate, find food or mates, or return to their breeding grounds are not always successful as evidenced by the vast number of dead animals found on or near roads. Last, but not least, they are stealthy, powerful and efficient killers, which pose a direct threat to both humans and their domestic livestock and pets. In In 1975-1985, 425 people were reportedly killed by tigers in the Indian Sundarbans and another 187 were killed by tigers in Bangladesh (McDougal, C. In another, the Indian government issued groups of workers masks to be worn on the back of their heads, and surprisingly, because tigers prefer to attack prey from the back, the idea worked.
This ranges from rodent- and insect-proof grain storage containers to predator-proof fences that keep livestock safe. Not surprisingly, when people feed wild animals, the animals come to perceive humans as a source of food. Negative interactions still occur and people do not always follow the rules; however, in the absence of active management, the situation could be much worse. In some situations, especially those that involve a high risk to human safety, wildlife professionals have recommended lethal control, such as hunting or live-capture and euthanasia to reduce goose numbers.
In fact, large animals find the experience so distasteful that they appear to totally avoid the location of their experience and humans, in general, after only one application. If large carnivores, such as lions, grizzly bears, and tigers are going to survive into the future, then it is critical that every effort be made to promote coexistence and prevent negative interactions—a goal that is becoming increasingly difficult in a world dominated by human influences. Human-wildlife conflict will likely continue to be one of the most significant impediments to the conservation of large carnivores worldwide. In North America, fatal encounters between humans and grizzly bears, though comparatively rare, are well known (Herrero, S. Over time, this can lead to habituation, wherein the animals become increasingly comfortable around humans and do not view them as a threat. For example, following the recent US Airways incident at LaGuardia Airport in which a bird-aircraft collision brought down a large jet, New York City ordered as many as 2,000 geese rounded up and euthanized by the U.S.
Similarly, a young boy in Kenya recently came up with an innovation that could reduce human-lion conflict—LED lights that flicker on and off giving the impression of a person moving with a flashlight in hand. Combined with a lack of adequate law enforcement, these factors make it difficult to address human-wildlife conflict in many areas of the world, as local people are often taking matters into their own hands. Wildlife can then be seen as a valued resource, one that warrants protection and conservation.
In the United States alone, there are an estimated 1.3 million deer-vehicle collisions annually, resulting in the loss of millions of dollars and in both human and deer lives. A major question becomes how can we maintain the tenuous balance that exists between large carnivores and humans? While some people would see this as a positive outcome, it is, in fact, when animals become the most dangerous. Rather than indiscriminate killing, new approaches have attempted to focus lethal control solely on problem animals. When animals have a healthy fear of people, they keep their distance and negative interactions are less frequent, only occurring during rare chance encounters. These geese were living in public parks and other open areas near the city’s two busy airports. For example, the livestock protection collar is a relatively new tool used to selectively kill coyotes that attack sheep or goats.
In their efforts to keep elephants from decimating their crops, innovative African farmers have installed beehives on their farms.
But, the tigers eventually adapted and the method was less successful; in one later fatal attack on a mask wearer the tiger attacked from the side rather than the rear.
These are non-lethal approaches; however, depending on the circumstances, lethal approaches also have been utilized. In the case of many animals, such as wolves and coyotes, the habituation process is known to follow a predictable pattern.
First, the animals are attracted to humans by the presence of food, which brings them into close proximity. Perhaps, however, this is a difficult argument to make to the families of those that are, in fact, killed by tigers. If these initial interactions are positive, the next stage often involves “testing”, wherein the animals may approach even closer and perhaps nip at humans, assessing their reactions.
Because of their design and position on the throat, most attacking coyotes will puncture the collar and ingest a lethal dose of the toxicant. Elephants find hot peppers unpalatable and, when planted as a buffer around crops, they can discourage elephants from foraging in the area.
Clearly, predator control is a complex and difficult issue, which may vary from circumstance to circumstance.
The final stage might involve an all-out attack, wherein the animals treat humans as prey (Geist, V. 1080 is slow acting, and a coyote ingesting the toxicant do not exhibit symptoms or die for several hours. I often wonder whether we would still have grizzly bears in North America if the toll on human life were that substantial.
A similar controversy is now playing out as the numbers of wolves increases across the western and north-central U.S. Large predators are key to the health of functioning ecosystems, as they keep prey populations in check (Unger, K. The collar is registered only for use against coyotes and may be placed only on sheep or goats.
Overpopulation of herbivores can result in over-browsing and grazing and alter the composition of entire plant communities.
So the basic question becomes: how many coyotes or wolves are too many, and how can populations be managed sustainably, while still maintaining the tenuous balance between humans and large carnivores?




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