Electronically fuel injected, providing turn-key starting, increased power, and improved fuel economy with spectacular reliability. Mercury?s jet-drive outboards are specifically designed to pilot boats in shallow waters where propeller-driven hulls are unable to operate.
Water is drawn into the unit through the intake grill by an impeller, driven directly by the engine driveshaft.
At its height around 100 AD, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the Northwest to Egypt in the Southeast. This map provides some perspective on just how big Roman territory was relative to the transportation technologies of the day. Rome went from being one of many city-states in 340 BC to being master of the entire peninsula by 264.
In the early years of the republic, the Roman infantry used a version of the Greek phalanx.
Between 200 BC and 14 AD, Rome conquered most of Western Europe, Greece and the Balkans, the Middle East, and North Africa.
After the Marian reforms, Roman generals had to promise rewards — either booty captured abroad or land awarded to them on their return — to attract soldiers to their banners. Rome wasn't initially a major naval power, but when the Romans came into conflict with the Carthaginians, they realized they needed to play catch-up.
In 58 BC, Julius Caesar took command of Rome's northern frontier and set out to conquer Gaul, which corresponds roughly to modern-day France. The forces opposing Caesar in the civil war were led by Pompey, a former political ally of Caesar who had once enjoyed a string of military victories in the East. Julius Caesar wasn't the first Roman military commander to march on the capital and take it by force, but he was the first one who didn't even pretend that he was preserving the constitutional structure of the old republic.
Julius Caesar's death would lead to a war between the two men who had the strongest claims to be Caesar's heir. One of our richest sources of information about ancient Rome comes from the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. The site of Pompeii was first rediscovered in 1599, but only a few artifacts were uncovered before interest in the site waned.
There is a surprising amount of erotic artwork on the walls of Pompeiian buildings, like this painting from a bedroom in the home of a wealthy Roman aristocrat. Baths were an important part of Roman society, and all major towns and cities had at least one. As Rome expanded, the traditional homeland of the Jewish people at the eastern end of the Mediterranean came under Roman control. Jesus Christ's birthplace in Bethlehem became part of the Roman province of Judea during Christ's lifetime. For the first two centuries after Augustus became emperor in 27 BC, the Roman Empire experienced a period of unprecedented political stability and economic prosperity. Diocletian set up an imperial structure called a "tetrarchy," in which power was shared among four emperors.
As its financial health deteriorated, the empire became increasingly vulnerable to invasion.
Probably the most famous of the barbarian invaders was Attila the Hun, who built an empire in Eastern Europe between 434 and 453. This map looks dramatically different from the map of the Western Roman Empire as it existed a few decades earlier. The 24 sport is our answer to your request for a vessel in the small boat class that has the fishability Contender’s are known for, but with features and options that allow for more family activities. THIS CONTENDER 22 SPORTFISH IS POWERED WITH A YAMAHA F300 22' 6" LOA 8' 6" BEAM, STEP DOWN CONSOLE FOR A PORTABLE HEAD IF NEEDED, FORWARD SEATING FOR THE FAMILY PLUS EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO FISH INSHORE AND OFFSHORE HAS A 26 GAL. Powered by triple Yamaha 350hp engines, the Contender 39 ST is untouchable in the open water, and yet, the 39 ST really proves itself when conditions deteriorate.
Because there is no lower unit extending below the hull, the jet drive permits passage over obstacles that would foul a propeller-driven outboard boat. The water is then forced at high pressure through an outlet nozzle, creating thrust that drives the boat forward.
He was Rome's first emperor, having won a civil war more than 40 years earlier that transformed the dysfunctional Roman Republic into an empire.
By 200 BC, the Roman Republic had conquered Italy, and over the following two centuries it conquered Greece and Spain, the North African coast, much of the Middle East, modern-day France, and even the remote island of Britain. To get a sense for how big that is, it's helpful to compare it to the contemporary United States. Created by researchers at Stanford, it estimates how long it took for someone leaving Rome to reach various locations around the empire.
The Romans began to come into conflict with another rising power located just across the water: Carthage. In this formation, soldiers stand shoulder to shoulder in a tightly packed formation that can be more than a dozen soldiers deep. Because commanders were responsible for making sure these promises were kept, the troops increasingly felt personal loyalty to these generals rather than abstract loyalty to the Roman state. They immediately built 20 triremes — so named because it had 3 banks of oars — and 100 quinqueremes — heavier ships with five rowers for each bank of oars. He was following in the footsteps of other ambitious Roman politicians who had led foreign conquests as a way to bolster their reputation at home. This map shows Caesar's movements as he defeated Pompey and then dealt with Pompey's allies. Excavation began in earnest after the site was discovered a second time in 1748, and has continued to the present day. Pompeii had three public baths, of which the the Stabian bath, depicted here, was the oldest. Romans worshiped a pantheon of Roman and Greek deities, including Jupiter, Apollo, and Venus.
Roman troops first invaded the area under Pompey in 63 BC, and after 40 BC it was ruled as a Roman client state (shown here in green) by King Herod. As a result, Christianity emerged there and spread during the early Roman Empire, one of the most peaceful and prosperous eras of the ancient world. Most of his predecessors had sought glory by conquering new territory, steadily expanding the size of the empire.
He wanted to provide more localized leadership for an empire that had become too sprawling and complex for any one man to manage. Upon Constantine's death in 337, the empire was divided among Constantine's three sons, who quickly began fighting among themselves. Map was illustrated by Steve McEntee, with funding from the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung Foundation. That's the year that Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by the barbarian general Odoacer, who declared himself the King of Italy. But this is an arbitrary distinction invented for the convenience of historians; it wouldn't have made sense to people living in Constantinople, the Eastern Capital, at the time. This model not only comes standard with forward and aft seating, but also has a step down console with optional head. OWNER ONLY WISHES TO SELL BECAUSE HE WANTS THE EXACT BOAT ANOTHER COLOR AND WITH NEW MERCURY 400! To obtain reverse, a gate lifts into position over the outlet re-directing the pressure stream in the opposite direction. Under Augustus and his successors, the empire experienced 200 years of relative peace and prosperity. The Roman provinces of Britain and Egypt were about as far apart as the American states of Florida and Washington. The Mediterranean was a big help in getting around — most coastal locations in the western Mediterranean could be reached in under a week, and even far-flung coastal cities like Alexandria and Jerusalem could be reached in two weeks. The number of provinces changed over time as territories were gained or lost, and as larger provinces were divided into smaller ones. We don't know very much about these people, in part because we haven't figured out how to read their distinctive language. In 340, Rome came into conflict with its former allies, the neighboring Latins, and subdued them by 338.
Located in North Africa near modern-day Tunis, Carthage was the capital of a seafaring empire, shown here in red, that dominated commerce in the Western Mediterranean. Soldiers in the front were protected by a wall of large shields, and they tried to reach around their shields with long spears to stab the enemy. Previously, military service had been limited to Romans with property holdings, who would serve for a few seasons and then return to their farms.

As a result, in the late Republican period (107 BC to 27 BC), it became increasingly common for victorious commanders to march their armies back into Rome and seize power to ensure their troops received the land they had been promised. Beginning with the triumph over the Carthaginians in 201, Rome began to demand that defeated foes give up their naval forces, giving Rome undisputed mastery over the Mediterranean. This map shows Caesar's exploits, which took almost a decade and brought him to almost every part of modern-day France. Pompey initially fled to the east; Caesar consolidated control of Spain and Italy before following him. The other was Caesar's teenage grand-nephew, Octavian, whom Caesar adopted posthumously in his will. The existence of these towns was forgotten for many centuries, but the thick layer of ash deposited by the eruption preserved them for modern archeologists. From the early days of the republic, the Romans built temples and made sacrifices to the gods, and would consult religious leaders to determine which days were auspicious ones for a wedding, military offensive, or other major undertaking. When the Romans prevailed on the battlefield, they would often take their defeated enemies captive and sell them into slavery. Not long after Herod died, the Romans created the province of Judea, which was under Roman control for centuries thereafter. Between 235 and 285, Rome had more than 20 emperors, and as this map shows, most died violent deaths. But after Diocletian's death in 311 AD, the tetrarchy became a bloody tournament bracket for choosing Rome's next emperor.
Their style of warfare centered on mounted archers, who could fire arrows with deadly accuracy while on horseback. Western Europe was populated by largely the same ethnic groups in 526 as they had been a century earlier. People in the Byzantine Empire continued to think of themselves as Romans, and their empire as the Roman Empire, for centuries after 476. Here are 40 maps that explain the Roman Empire — its rise and fall, its culture and economy, and how it laid the foundations of the modern world. One obvious difference is that the Roman Empire had the Mediterranean in the middle of it, which helped move people and supplies over vast distances. There were 46 provinces under Trajan, a figure that would grow to 96 by the reign of Diocletian (285–305). But the evidence suggests that Rome was ruled by Etruscan kings until the Romans revolted and established a republic — an event that is traditionally dated to 509 BC.
Beginning in 326, Rome fought the Samnites to the East, a conflict that would continue sporadically until Roman victory in 282. Rome fought three conflicts with Carthage, known as the Punic Wars, between 264 and 146 BC.
Hannibal believed Italians were chafing under the Roman yoke; he hoped his arrival would trigger a broad rebellion that would break Rome's control of Italy. While this formation worked well on level ground, the Romans found it was too brittle for the hilly terrain where they did much of their fighting.
But in 107 BC, to cope with growing demands for military manpower, the Roman commander Marius opened the army to landless peasants and extended the length of military service. This led to recurrent civil wars, eventually transforming Rome from a moderately democratic republic into an autocratic empire. For the first two centuries of the imperial era (beginning in 27 BC), Rome controlled the Mediterranean so completely that it wiped out piracy and didn't have to fight any major naval battles.
The decisive battle came on August 10, 48 BC, when Caesar defeated Pompey at the Battle of Parsalus, in the north of modern-day Greece. After all, Rome's founding legend was about the citizens of Rome rising up to depose a despotic king.
This has given us information about daily life in a Roman town that would have been difficult to obtain from other sources. Some areas of the town have yet to be explored due to restrictions imposed by the authorities. Paintings in Pompeii suggest that Romans enjoyed lively and varied sex lives, with illustrations of cunnilingus and sex with multiple partners. After the fall of Troy, Aeneas leads a group of surviving Trojans around the Mediterranean looking for a new home.
The biggest problem was that, as the late historian Chester Starr put it, Christians were expected to "sacrifice to the emperor or to the gods for the emperor. Over the next four decades, Roman troops explored the entire island, including the northernmost parts of Scotland. He believed the empire was becoming overextended militarily, and immediately upon taking office he focused on consolidating Roman control of the territories that had already been conquered. This map, based on geographical data recorded by a Greek writer in the early years of the Roman Empire, shows the trade route from Rome to India. The winner was Constantine, who made some profound changes to the empire after he became Rome's sole emperor in 324.
Frustrated provincials began fortifying their towns and organizing their own local militias for self-defense. Long before it finally collapsed, manpower shortages had forced the empire to incorporate barbarians peoples into the legions. In 527, the Emperor Justinian took power in the Byzantine Empire and began a campaign to reconquer the Western half of the empire. Exceptional ride, very nice floor plan for your Serious fisherman or for some cruising. Rome gradually split into Eastern and Western halves, and by 476 AD the Western half of the empire had been destroyed by invasions from Germanic tribes. Reaching the most distant points in the empire, such as Britain, could take close to a month.
In Trajan's time, provinces in the interior of the country were run by governors chosen by the Senate, a legislative body run by leading aristocrats. Rome also fought sporadic battles with Etruscans and Gauls to its North during this period. The first conflict occurred after Carthage intervened in a dispute on the island of Sicily, just off the southern tip of Italy. Hannibal enjoyed an unbroken string of victories on the battlefield, including the total destruction of a Roman army at Cannae in 216. Over the next century, the Roman army was transformed into a full-time, professional fighting force. This map depicts the deployment of Rome's legions when Rome's first emperor, Augustus, died in 14 AD.
While he was on campaign, Caesar's enemies gained the upper hand in Rome and declared martial law. So on March 15, 44 BC, in perhaps the most famous murder in world history, a group of disgruntled senators surrounded Caesar and stabbed him to death. But after Antony went east and became romantically involved with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra, he and Octavian had a falling-out, leading to war.
Inscriptions, graffiti, and frescoes provide insight into how various buildings were used and what people did in the town.
In addition to archaeological teams, the site is visited by millions of tourists each year.
Sex was a topic of political controversy in ancient times just as it is today, with the Emperor Augustus trying — without much success — to crack down on adultery. Notice that in addition to temples to traditional pagan gods, the map shows a Temple of Vespasian. This map shows Aeneas's journey, with stops in Greece, Sicily, and Carthage before he finally made his way to the Italian peninsula. Romans were suspicious of people who insisted on practicing minority religions, and between 63 AD and 135 AD Jews staged three major revolts against Roman authority. But the Romans only conquered an area roughly corresponding to modern-day England and Wales. He withdrew from a few Eastern territories conquered by his predecessor, Trajan, and he negotiated peace agreements with rivals such as the Parthians. Elites in India and China prized Roman-made glass and rugs, while Roman aristocrats enjoyed purchasing silks made in the Far East.
He created a new imperial capital at Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople, laying the foundations for an Eastern Roman Empire that would endure long after the West fell. People were increasingly forced to stay close to fortified towns for safety, making them less productive and more dependent on local lords. The Romans proved unable to defeat Attila on the battlefield, and the Huns even forced the Romans to pay them tribute for several years.
Starved of the tax revenues they needed to raise a serious military, their control over nominally Roman territory was increasingly tenuous.

By his death in 565, he had made significant progress, retaking Italy, most of Roman Africa, and even some parts of Spain. The Eastern half of the empire, based in Constantinople, continued for many centuries after that. And by 400 BC, the prosperous and technologically sophisticated Greeks had established colonies at Italy's southern tip. Rome then turned its attention to the Greeks in the south of Italy, fighting a war with the Greek king Pyrrhus.
While Sicily wasn't Roman territory at the time, the Romans felt this was a little too close to home. To address this weakness, the Romans developed the maniple formation illustrated here, sometimes described as a "phalanx with joints." Instead of a single line of men, the Romans divided their infantry into groups of about 120 men, each of which could maneuver independently, and arranged them in a checkerboard pattern. Marius also reorganized the Romans' fighting formations, moving away from staggered maniples in favor of 10 larger formations called cohorts. Augustus and his successors distributed the Roman army along the frontier, ensuring that no single general had command of more than a small fraction of Rome's troops at any one time. If Caesar had returned to Rome as a private citizen — without his army for backup — he would have faced trial for alleged misdeeds prior to his departure (the charges had some merit, but he was far from the first Roman politician to bend the rules).
At this point, Caesar's rule over Rome was a foregone conclusion, but it took him another three years to mop up resistance from Pompeian forces.
Brutus, one of the assassins, supposedly shouted "sic semper tyrannis" — "thus always to tyrants" — as he delivered the fatal blow, though this is probably apocryphal.
Interestingly, we have a contemporaneous account of Vesuvius's eruption from the Roman author Pliny the Younger, who witnessed the eruption firsthand, and whose uncle perished trying to rescue victims. The Roman baths included a number of facilities that would be familiar at a modern spa: changing rooms, pools with different water temperatures, and saunas.
This is an unfinished structure that some historians speculate was intended to honor the emperor who was in power at the time Mount Vesuvius erupted, destroying the city. The Romans would govern this territory until 410, when the declining Western Roman Empire was forced to abandon the remote province. One reflection of this shifting thinking was Hadrian's Wall, whose construction was begun in 122. Some Roman writers saw the increasing sums Romans were spending on silks for their wives as a symbol of Rome's decadence and moral decline. One died in battle against foreign foe; another was captured in battle and died in captivity. Provincials became less willing and able to pay taxes to a central government that wasn't protecting them anyway. However, the Huns were unable to sustain prolonged sieges, which made them incapable of taking large cities such as Constantinople or Rome. When Odoacer and other barbarian generals carved the Roman Empire up into kingdoms, they were largely just formalizing the de facto reality that the emperors had little actual power over their distant domains. The rulers of these new kingdoms generally sought to co-opt Roman elites that still held significant wealth and power across the former Western Empire. While his successors wouldn't be able to hold these new territories, the Byzantine Empire would endure as a Christian empire for another thousand years, until it was finally overrun by the Ottomans in 1453.
The researchers estimate that it took seven weeks to travel from Constantinople (at the eastern end of the empire) to London (in the far west). Fighting effectively in this formation required greater skill, but the professionalized Roman legions had time to learn the necessary maneuvers. And emperors reduced the soldiers' dependence on their commanders by paying them salaries from the imperial treasury. Unfortunately, while the conspirators saw themselves as defenders of Rome's republican system of government, they didn't actually have a plan for bringing back the republic. Antony and Cleopatra tried to flee from Octavian's advancing army by sea, but he was intercepted by a navy commanded by Octavian's deputy, Agrippa. Religion and state were closely intertwined in Roman society, and subjects were encouraged to think of their rulers as semi-divine figures.
This story, written early in the reign of Rome's first emperor, Augustus, became one of Rome's most important founding myths. And while American slaves generally performed manual labor, Roman slaves could sometimes be highly skilled. One ancient historian estimates that the Romans killed 580,000 Jews to put down the rebellion, and many more were sold into slavery.
Over time, similar fortifications would be built all around the edges of the empire, transforming what had been a fluid frontier into a clearly defined border.
It wouldn't have been surprising if this cycle of bloodshed had led to the dissolution of the empire. And so the Roman army grew weaker, and the empire as a whole became more vulnerable to barbarian attack. So while Romans certainly found it jarring to be suddenly ruled by outsiders, Western Europe in 526 was not so different from how it had been in 426. Border provinces needed armies to defend against invasion, and emperors worried that if these troops were put under the control of someone not personally loyal to the emperor, that person could try to seize power and proclaim himself emperor. The Romans were able to raise a new army to replace the one Hannibal had destroyed, and Hannibal's army wasn't powerful enough to capture Rome. The Romans put their least experienced soldiers in the front line (the bottom in this picture), in hopes that the enemy would waste energy fighting them, making them too exhausted to put up a fight when they reached more experienced (and better-armed) soldiers further back. In 49 BC, Caesar took the fateful step of crossing the Rubicon, the river that marked the northern border of Italy, with his army. Octavian's ships won the battle, and although Antony and Cleopatra escaped, they no longer had enough forces to pose a serious threat to Octavian.
Roman baths were communal spaces; Romans would talk business and share gossip as they washed themselves. Educated slaves captured from the Greek world were highly sought after for tutoring children and performing clerical work. The wisdom of Hadrian's decision became apparent after 142, when Hadrian's successor, Antoninus Pius, conquered additional British territory and ordered a second wall built farther north. But in 285, Emperor Diocletian took power and managed to get the empire out of its tailspin. The empire never fully recovered from the political crisis of the third century, or from a plague that began in 250 and killed millions of people. A symbolic turning point came in 410, when Aleric, king of the barbarian Visigoth tribe, sacked Rome for the first time in 800 years. When Attila died in 453, his sons squabbled over how to divide his empire, which quickly disintegrated. This wasn't an idle concern — coups and civil wars were a recurrent problem for the empire. This map shows the situation after the war: Rome gained control of the islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia, making it a significant naval power for the first time. Antony and Cleopatra died a year later, leaving Octavian the sole ruler of the Roman world. Roman aristocrats would sometimes try to win favor with the masses by building more elaborate baths, and baths became larger and more elaborate as Rome became a wealthier and more sophisticated society. For example, near the beginning of The Aeneid is the story of the Trojan horse, a subterfuge the Greeks used to take over Troy. The new wall was only manned for a few years before the Romans were forced to abandon the new territory and retreat to the border Hadrian had chosen.
In a 20-year reign, he (temporarily) ended the cycle of bloodshed and instituted reforms that allowed the empire to endure until the late 400s. Octavian changed his name to Augustus in 27; historians treat this as the year when the Roman Republic became the Roman Empire. This map shows a portion of the most famous slave revolt in Roman history, in which the gladiator Spartacus led an army that eventually grew to 120,000 freed slaves. By 400, it simply wasn't possible for a single emperor to raise a large enough army to protect a domain that stretched from Spain to the Middle East. When the rebellion was finally crushed, 6,000 surviving slaves were crucified along the Appian Way, a major road leading into Rome. Rome imposed harsh terms, seizing Carthage's overseas possessions and dismantling Carthage's navy. Then in 149 the paranoid Romans provoked a Third Punic War against the helpless Carthaginians that led to the total destruction of their civilization.

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