An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools.
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world.[1] It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age.
Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery, and, in Britain, it remains unclear to what extent plants were domesticated in the earliest Neolithic, or even whether permanently settled communities existed.
Unlike the Paleolithic, where more than one human species existed, only one human species (Homosapiens) reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek ??????????, neolithikos, from ???? neos, "new" + ????? lithos, "stone", literally meaning "New Stone Age." The term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. The prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, China, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 5000–6000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. Until the findings in Tell Qaramel are adopted within the archaeological community, sites in the Levant (Jericho, Palestine & Jbeil (Byblos), Lebanon) that go back to around 9500 to 9000 BC. An early temple area in southeastern Turkey at Gobekli Tepe dated to 10,000 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the Neolithic 1. In the 21st century, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. Settlements became more permanent with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. The Neolithic 2 (PPNB) began around 8500 BC in the Levant (Jericho, Palestine).[1] As with the PPNA dates there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. Settlements have rectangular mudbrick houses where the family lived together in single or multiple rooms. The Neolithic 3 (PN) began around 6500 BC in the Fertile Crescent.[1] By then distinctive cultures emerged, with pottery like the Halafian (Turkey, Syria, Northern Mesopotamia) and Ubaid (Southern Mesopotamia). The Chalcolithic period began about 4500 BC, then the Bronze Age began about 3500 BC, replacing the Neolithic cultures. Around 9500 BC, the first fully developed Neolithic cultures belonging to the phase Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) appeared in the fertile crescent.[1] Around 10,700 to 9400 BC, a settlement was established in Tell Qaramel, 25 kilometers north of Aleppo. In 1981 a team of researchers from the Maison de l'Orient et de la Mediterranee, including Jacques Cauvin and Oliver Aurenche divided Near East neolithic chronology into ten periods (0 to 9) based on social, economic and cultural characteristics.[13] In 2002 Danielle Stordeur and Frederic Abbes advanced this system with a division into five periods. Domestication of sheep and goats reached Egypt from the Near East possibly as early as 6000 BC[citation needed]. In South India, the Neolithic began by 3000 BC and lasted until around 1400 BC when the Megalithic transition period began. In East Asia, the earliest sites include Pengtoushan culture around 7500 BC to 6100 BC, Peiligang culture around 7000 BC to 5000 BC. The 'Neolithic' (defined in this paragraph as using polished stone implements) remains a living tradition in small and extremely remote and inaccessible pockets of West Papua (Indonesian New Guinea). Families and households were still largely independent economically, and the household was probably the center of life. Control of labour and inter-group conflict is characteristic of corporate-level or 'tribal' groups, headed by a charismatic individual; whether a 'big man' or a proto-chief, functioning as a lineage-group head.
The shelter of the early people changed dramatically from the paleolithic to the neolithic era. A significant and far-reaching shift in human subsistence and lifestyle was to be brought about in areas where crop farming and cultivation were first developed: the previous reliance on an essentially nomadic hunter-gatherer subsistence technique or pastoral transhumance was at first supplemented, and then increasingly replaced by, a reliance upon the foods produced from cultivated lands. The profound differences in human interactions and subsistence methods associated with the onset of early agricultural practices in the Neolithic have been called the Neolithic Revolution, a term coined in the 1920s by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe.
One potential benefit of the development and increasing sophistication of farming technology was the possibility of producing surplus crop yields, in other words, food supplies in excess of the immediate needs of the community. However, early farmers were also adversely affected in times of famine, such as may be caused by drought or pests.
Another significant change undergone by many of these newly-agrarian communities was one of diet.
In addition, increased population density, decreased population mobility, increased continuous proximity to domesticated animals, and continuous occupation of comparatively population-dense sites would have altered sanitation needs and patterns of disease. Neolithic peoples were skilled farmers, manufacturing a range of tools necessary for the tending, harvesting and processing of crops (such as sickle blades and grinding stones) and food production (e.g. Neolithic peoples in the Levant, Anatolia, Syria, northern Mesopotamia and Central Asia were also accomplished builders, utilizing mud-brick to construct houses and villages.
The peoples of the Americas and the Pacific mostly retained the Neolithic level of tool technology until the time of European contact. Most clothing appears to have been made of animal skins, as indicated by finds of large numbers of bone and antler pins which are ideal for fastening leather, but not cloth. The world's oldest known engineered roadway, the Sweet Track in England, dates from 3800 BC and the world's oldest free-standing structure is the neolithic temple of Ggantija in Gozo, Malta.

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Neolithic stone implements are by definition polished and except for specialty items not chipped. The Neolithic followed the terminal Holocene Epipaleolithic period, beginning with the rise of farming, which produced the "Neolithic Revolution" and ending when metal tools became widespread in the Copper Age (chalcolithic) or Bronze Age or developing directly into the Iron Age, depending on the geographical region. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which then evolved into true farming. In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally-distinctive Neolithic cultures that arose completely independent of those in Europe and Southwest Asia.
Homo floresiensis may have survived right up to the very dawn of the Neolithic, about 12,000 years ago.
Neolithic cultures are also attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by c. This site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity.
In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred.
The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, and therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings. But this terminological structure is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin. Burial findings suggest an ancestor cult where people preserved skulls of the dead, which were plastered with mud to make facial features.
The settlement included 2 temples dating back to 9650.[3] Around 9000 BC during the PPNA, the world's first town, Jericho, appeared in the Levant. South Indian Neolithic is characterized by Ashmounds since 2500 BC in Karnataka region, expanded later to Tamil Nadu.
Polished stone adze and axes are used in the present day (As of 2008[update] CE) in areas where the availability of metal implements is limited. However, excavations in Central Europe have revealed that early Neolithic Linear Ceramic cultures ("Linearbandkeramik") were building large arrangements of circular ditches between 4800 BC and 4600 BC.
Whether a non-hierarchical system of organization existed is debatable and there is no evidence that explicitly suggests that Neolithic societies functioned under any dominating class or individual, as was the case in the chiefdoms of the European Early Bronze Age.[31] Theories to explain the apparent implied egalitarianism of Neolithic (and Paleolithic) societies have arisen, notably the Marxist concept of primitive communism. These developments are also believed to have greatly encouraged the growth of settlements, since it may be supposed that the increased need to spend more time and labor in tending crop fields required more localized dwellings.
Surpluses could be stored for later use, or possibly traded for other necessities or luxuries. In instances where agriculture had become the predominant way of life, the sensitivity to these shortages could be particularly acute, affecting agrarian populations to an extent that otherwise may not have been routinely experienced by prior hunter-gatherer communities.[25] Nevertheless, agrarian communities generally proved successful, and their growth and the expansion of territory under cultivation continued.
Pre-agrarian diets varied by region, season, available local plant and animal resources and degree of pastoralism and hunting.
At Catal hoyuk, houses were plastered and painted with elaborate scenes of humans and animals. However, wool cloth and linen might have become available during the British Neolithic, as suggested by finds of perforated stones which (depending on size) may have served as spindle whorls or loom weights. Some of the traps mentioned are the lever action, runaway clutch, box, cage traps and many more. Depending upon overall building design, the connections may also be required Roof truss in a side building of Cluny Abbey, France. The actual date is not established with certainty due to different results in carbon dating by scientists in the British Museum and Philadelphia laboratories[citation needed]. This temple site may be the oldest known man-made place of worship.[10] At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres (100,000 m2), contain limestone pillars carved with animals, insects and birds. This evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. The rest of the corpse may have been left outside the settlement to decay until only the bones were left, then the bones were buried inside the settlement underneath the floor or between houses. It was surrounded by a stone and marble wall and contained a population of 2000–3000 people and a massive stone tower.[12] Around 6000 BC the Halaf culture appeared in Lebanon, Israel and Palestine, Syria, Anatolia, and Northern Mesopotamia and subsisted on dryland agriculture. This is likely to cease altogether in the next few years as the older generation die off and steel blades and chainsaws prevail.

Possession of livestock allowed competition between households and resulted in inherited inequalities of wealth. These structures (and their later counterparts such as causewayed enclosures, burial mounds, and henge) required considerable time and labour to construct, which suggests that some influential individuals were able to organise and direct human labour — though non-hierarchical and voluntary work remain strong possibilities. In the neolithic, mud brick houses started appearing that were coated with plaster.[32] The growth of agriculture made permanent houses possible. This trend would continue into the Bronze Age, eventually giving rise to towns, and later cities and state whose larger populations could be sustained by the increased productivity from cultivated lands. Agricultural life afforded securities that pastoral life could not, and sedentary farming populations grew faster than nomadic.
Post-agrarian diet was restricted to a limited package of successfully cultivated cereal grains, plants and to a variable extent domesticated animals and animal products. They were also skilled manufacturers of a range of other types of stone tools and ornaments, including projectile points, beads, and statuettes. The clothing worn in the Neolithic Age might be similar to that worn by Otzi the Iceman, although he was not British and not Neolithic (since he belonged to the later Copper age). As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, and a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which may have supported roofs. Emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated (animal husbandry and selective breeding). The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned.
Among the earliest cultural complexes of this area are included the Sesklo culture in Thessaly, which later expanded in the Balkans giving Starcevo-Koros (Cris), Linearbandkeramik, and Vinca. Neolithic pastoralists who controlled large herds gradually acquired more livestock, and this made economic inequalities more pronounced.[25] However, evidence of social inequality is still disputed, as settlements such as Catal Huyuk reveal a striking lack of difference in the size of homes and burial sites, suggesting a more egalitarian society with no evidence of the concept of capital, although some homes do appear slightly larger or more elaborately decorated than others. Doorways were made on the roof, with ladders positioned both on the inside and outside of the houses.[32] The roof was supported by beams from the inside. Supplementation of diet by hunting and gathering was to variable degrees precluded by the increase in population above the carrying capacity of the land and a high sedentary local population concentration.
But what allowed forest clearance on a large scale was the polished stone axe above all other tools. Plans for you to build your own gable Fink wood roof trusses ebook shed house garage free shipping. By 9500–9000 BC, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Through a combination of cultural diffusion and migration of peoples, the Neolithic traditions spread west and northwards to reach northwestern Europe by around 4500 BC. In some cultures, there would have been a significant shift toward increased starch and plant protein.
Together with the adze, fashioning wood for shelter, structures and canoes for example, this enabled them to exploit their newly-won farmland. These tombs are particularly numerous in Ireland, where there are many thousand still in existence. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat, millet and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep and goats.
The Vinca culture may have created the earliest system of writing, the Vinca signs, though it is almost universally accepted amongst archeologists[who?] that the Sumerian cuneiform script was the earliest true form of writing and the Vinca signs most likely represented pictograms and ideograms rather than a truly developed form of writing.[citation needed] The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture built enormous settlements in Romania, Moldova and Ukraine from 5300 to 2300 BC.
The relative nutritional benefits and drawbacks of these dietary changes and their overall impact on early societal development is still debated. Neolithic people in the British Isles built long barrows and chamber tombs for their dead and causewayed camps, henges, flint mines and cursus monuments. The megalithic temple complexes of Ggantija on the Mediterranean island of Gozo (in the Maltese archipelago) and of Mnajdra (Malta) are notable for their gigantic Neolithic structures, the oldest of which date back to c.
It was also important to figure out ways of preserving food for future months, such as fashioning relatively airtight containers, and using substances like salt as preservatives. 2500 BC; originally a sanctuary, it became a necropolis, the only prehistoric underground temple in the world, and showing a degree of artistry in stone sculpture unique in prehistory to the Maltese islands.

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