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Our story for this Buck family begins with the marriage of Davida€™s parents, Thomas Buck and Elizabeth Scott, on 4 May 1738 in Glastonbury, Connecticut [see Glastonbury Vital Records by Barbour, available on the Internet.] The record of this marriage does not provide any additional information about the ancestry of Thomas Buck, but it does tell us that Elizabeth was the daughter of Thomas Scott.
We know that these were the parents of our David Buck as his daughter, Elizabeth Buck Garlick (who we will frequently refer to as a€?EBGa€?) left a record in 1841 (in Nauvoo, Illinois) and again in 1872 (in Salt Lake City in the Endowment House).
Following their wedding in 1738, Thomas and Elizabeth Buck completely disappear from the local records. Fortunately their grand-daughter, Elizabeth Buck Garlick (EBG), lived long enough to be listed in the 1880 US Federal census for Springville, Utah.
The birth-dates are unknown for several of these children, but since there was such a large gap between Thomas, Jr. There was also a John Buck and a Joseph Buck who were closely associated with this family in Bedford County, but we have no document that establishes their relationship to the rest of this family.
With all of the above as foundation for our story we will now present the documented history for our David Buck, Sr.
The very first item we can find for our Bucks in Bedford County is in the 1775 tax list where a Thomas Buck was listed as paying 7 pounds, 6, as a resident of Colerain Township in Bedford Co., PA. In the next yeara€™s tax recorda€”1776, we again find Thomas Buck, along with Jonathan Buck listed in Colerain Township of Bedford County. We have no tax records for 1777 & 1778, but in 1779 there was no Thomas Buck in Colerain Township.
In 1780 we still find David Buck and John Buck paying taxes in Colerain Twp., and Davida€™s brother, Thomas Buck, Jr.
The 6th Company, 1st Battalion of the PA militia was formed from the men of Providence Township in 1781, with George Enslow as Captain. We do not know any details about Davida€™s military service but we do know there were many British inspired Indian-attacks within the county where settlers were killed and their homes burned. By 1784 both David and Jonathan were located in Providence Township in Bedford Co., PA, and their brother Thomas was still in Hopewell, just a few miles north of Providence.
In 1789 Jonathan Buck sold his land in Providence Township and moved to the western side of the County, and from there (in 1793) he moved to Tennessee. Note that most of the purchases above naming Thomas Buck were surely for the Captain Thomas Buck of Hopewell Twp., the brother of our David, Sr.
David Buck, land deeded to him by Benjamin Ferguson and Zilah, his wife, for 45 pounds, that tract of land called Oxford Situate on the waters of Brush Creek also running by the land of Thomas Buck, Esq.
Thomas Buck and wife Margaret, sold to George Myers, land in Providence Twp being rented by William Conners for $2,400., on Brush Creek joining John Allisona€™s survey and running by David Bucka€™s property.
This is a very interesting entry as we know that the Captain, Thomas Buck (brother of our David Sr.) was the man who was married to Mrs. Before we continue with the Buck family, we need to take a sideways step to briefly discuss the Cashman family, as that brings in the wife of David Buck, Sr. This family lived for many years in Berks County, PA, and then in York Co., PA, before moving to Washington County, Maryland in 1777.
We should mention here that by this time the old Germanic family name had seen a number of changes that show up in many of the documents. Martina€™s oldest daughter, Catherine grew up in Pennsylvania and moved with her parents to Maryland when she was about 25 years old. David returned to his farm in Bedford County, PA with a new wife and four little step-children.
While we are talking about close family members showing up in the temple records, there is one more that we should discuss at this point. The 1800 federal census is also a bit bewildering (but then census records are not known for their accuracy). This entry make sense if there was only one Bumgardner boy still living in Davida€™s home and if he was between the ages of 10-16a€”which would be about right. In 1808 there was another tax list which shows David with 247 acres in Providence Twp, with 1 horse and 2 cows.
His oldest son, Thomas, was already married and had been out of the house for about seven years before his father died.
We dona€™t know how long Catherine Cashman Buck lived after the death of her husband but it appears she was still alive during the 1820 census as discussed above. The oldest child of our David Buck and Catherine Cashman (after her Bumgardner children) was Thomas Buck. Very nearby lived the family of Michael Blue, who had a daughter, Elizabeth Blue, born 30 March 1788, in Providence Twp, making her just about two years older than Thomas. Shortly after the birth of their youngest child the family moved to Van Buren, Pulaski Co., Indiana, where they were living in the 1860 census, and where Thomas died on 27 Feb. A number of local residents joined the Church at that same time which resulted in a backlash of hard feelings and persecution ensued, inducing many of them to sell their homes and move to Nauvoo, Illinois where the a€?Saintsa€? were gathering. With the other Saints, the Garlicks were forced to evacuate Nauvoo in 1846 and make their way across the state of Iowa to Council Bluffs. We are not sure when Susannah was born, but her fathera€™s will makes it clear that she was younger than Elizabeth (who was born in 1795a€”according to her own record) and older than Mary, who was born in 1800 (as found in several census records). 50 years old (making him about 12-13 years younger than Susannah, and his wife, a€?Susana€? was five years younger than Solomona€”born about 1815. Whether Susannah died young, or married and changed her last name, is unknown to us at this time. With a large gap between the first two children there could, and probably were, other children unknown to us at this time. In the 1870 census we do find David Jr.a€™s daughter, Catherine Buck living in Providence with her Aunt Mary Buck (both of her parents had died prior to that year). After the birth of this last child the family moved to Columbus, Franklin Co., Ohio where we find them in the 1880 censusa€”except for their son, George, who would have been 13 in that census but does not appear with the family at that time.
This Jonathan Buck remained close to his extended family and traveled back and forth between Pennsylvania and Ohio on various occasions. Note that this particular record does not say that Sarah was the daughter of Mary, but we learn that later on. In the Ancestral File (LDS FHC) Mary has been sealed numerous times to a man by the name of Amos Jones.
In the 1860 census, we find Saraha€™s mother, Mary Buck, living with her son-in-law and his two little girlsa€”Marya€™s grand-daughters. Within the next decade (per the 1870 census) Jacob Foore had remarried and begun an additional family, so Mary moved into a home of her own and also took in her niece, Catherine Buck, with her little daughter, Amanda, who we have discussed above. This concludes the presentation of the documented life of David Buck, Sr., his wife, Catherine Cashman, and their family. Aunt Mary Buck is well, Catharine too, neather one of them lives with me now since last spring. Yours truly, write to me again and tell me all the news and I will give you all the news then. It is with pleasure that I drop you a few lines to inform you we are all well at the present time and hope and trust these few lines may find you the same.
I must tell you where we live, we live near Gapsvill and I thought I would write a few lines to you all.
Times is very dull here now all though there is plenty of everything but fruit, there is none at tale, only what is shipped here.
I can't tell how Aunt or Catharine is gitting along for I have not had a letter from either one for five months or more, I can't tell why it is as I have written to both of them and got no answer.
One of my boys married a girl here and they have gone to keeping house here, so if my letter does not come to hand in time he can lift it and remail. I am boarding, I don't keep house anymore and I received your picture and I thought I had thanked you for it in my letter long ago, if not I am very much obliged to you for it. I did not see Dasey Garlick when I was East, she was away from home the day I went to see her and I had so many places t go I did not get around again. I seen Telitha (Catharine) Garlick two but only to speak to her as met her on the road one day she is married to Wesley Clark, one of Elias Clark's boys. It appears that there is going to be plenty work to do this summer, lots of large buildings to go up this summer.
Temple there was completed, an Endowment House was erected in which sacred ordinances could be performed.
The a€?Joseph Garlica€? listed as a€?heira€? and proxy for the males above, was EBGa€™s son.
Abigail Jones 2nd cousin {Daughter of Capt. Thomas Buck nephew {EBGa€™s brother, Thomas, md. David Buck nephew {EBGa€™s brother, David, Jr. John Buck cousin {Son Thomas Buck & ELiz.
Description: Magellana€™s ship returned to Spain after a grueling sea voyage that claimed his life. This globe, which is 18 cm in diameter, is presented on a separate hand-turned wooden base. Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) was born to a minor Portuguese noble family in 1480 and by the age of 12 had become a pageboy to his Queen, at the Court of King John II.
On the Moluccan expedition of 1511, Magellana€™s friend, Francisco Serrao had been shipwrecked and had taken refuge on the island of Ternate where, despite later voyages there by the Portuguese, he had chosen to remain.
The five ships, San Antonio, Trinidad, Concepcion, Victoria and Santiago were all small, (none above 130 tons), old and somewhat the worse for wear. Also on board was a Venetian, Antonio Pigafetta, a Papal Ambassador at the court of King Charles.
On September 20, 1519 the flotilla of five ships finally sailed off into the Atlantic heading first for the Canaries and then onto South America.
The threat of mutiny by his Spanish captains was also a constant source of concern and he was forced to arrest de Coca for conspiring to release Cartagena from his confinement on the Victoria.
By March 31st 1520 they had reached 49 degrees 15a€™ South, but the ships were taking such a heavy battering in the worsening climate that Magellan put into a sheltered bay named St Julian to wait out the rest of the Southern winter and to make good all the vital repairs that the different ships needed.
However Magellan could not afford to lose such a large number of his company and so he pardoned the lot; they were put to work, chained by the feet, working the pumps, clearing the putrid bilges and undertaking other menial hard labor.
The winter in Patagonia was extremely hard and life very uncomfortable for the crew who had to refit the ships for the voyage ahead. After a two-month stay and unknowingly within 300 miles of it, on 18th October they set off in search of the passage. The San Antonio, was carrying the bulk of the fleeta€™s provisions, had a Portuguese pilot Gomes who was both jealous and disaffected with Magellana€™s command and together with the fleeta€™s treasurer Guerra they took control of the ship from the Captain Mesquita. It is interesting to note that whilst Magellan had always made every attempt to save or rescue his crew when abandoned, the San Antonio made no effort to retrieve the marooned Cartagena at St Julian. Pigafetta describes, a€?We ate biscuit that was no longer biscuit but powder of biscuits swarming with worms that had eaten the good.
On February 28th they had reached 13A? North and sailing west arrived at the island of Guam (having passed by unnoticed the Marshall Islands).
Although the crew were refreshed by new supplies of water, fruit and fish a longer rest was needed before any possible encounter with the Portuguese and so sailing southwest the four ships arrived a week later at the island of Samur in the Philippines.
However there was provision in the Treaty of Tordesillias for discovered unclaimed territory in either half to belong to the discoverer if he could establish trading ports and conclude alliances with the local rulers.


Striking up another friendship with the local native Chief, Magellana€™s fleet was taken on to the larger island of Cebu, where once again Magellan not only became the local rulera€™s (Humabon) blood brother and established trading agreements but also converted him and two thousand of his people to Christianity. Learning that Humabon had several rivals to the rulership of Cebu, Magellan forced other local chiefs to accept Humabona€™s authority. Albo who had been keeping his navigational log since first crossing the Atlantic was able to confirm that the Moluccas were placed in the Portuguese hemisphere.
The two ships laden with their cargoes prepared to leave for Spain on December 18th, but almost immediately the Trinidad sprung such a bad leak that she was forced to remain to carry out extensive repairs.
It is interesting to note that while on the Cape Verde Islands they had discovered that although all the logs on the boat showed that it was a Wednesday, the calendars on land all showed it to be a Thursday.
Cano was received as a hero and, at an enquiry set up into the voyage, condemned Magellana€™s unfairness, thereby lending weight to the arguments of the deserters of the San Antonio.
Meanwhile the crew of the Trinidad under Espinosa had embarked on an equally hazardous and grueling voyage trying to re-cross the Pacific from west to east. The work Magellan had done in the Philippines eventually paid off, as the islands became Spaina€™s largest Pacific colony lasting almost until the 20th Century. Description:A  Magellana€™s ship returned to Spain after a grueling sea voyage that claimed his life.
1787 a€“ Thomas Buck applied for 400 acres including an improvement (house or barn) on the south side of Raystown Branch of the Juniata River on both sides of Brush Creek, adjoining Alisona€™s Survey, in Providence. 1789 a€“ Thomas Buck applied for 100 acres on the southeast side of Warrior Ridge, adjoining a survey of James Hunter on the north and by a survey of Barnard Dougherty esq. And since the times have got so hard in the West I am glad I did not go, but I will come and see you all yet if all goes right but I can't say when. John Buck told me I could write a piece in his letter and I am very thankful to write with him as we have not your address.
I would have answered before now but was still thinking of being closer to you before this time but am about fixing to move back again to the old home place in Pennsylvania.
I have had work all winter in a wholesale house where it is heated with gas, as warm as wood care.
As seen below, Hans Holbein used this globe as reference for the small terrestrial globe in his famous masterpiece painting entitled The Ambassadors. Like many of the younger Portuguese nobility he received his education at Court and could look forward to a military command, a diplomatic post or an administrative position in Portugal or her colonies. He had sent letters back to Portugal extolling the riches of the islands and urging Magellan to visit him. They all needed extensive repairs and renovation to make them seaworthy for such a voyage much to the amusement of Alvarez the Portuguese agent in Spain. Whether he was on board out of a sense for adventure, or on behalf of the Pope should any dispute arise over whose half the Spice Islands were in, or as a spy for his native Venice is unclear. However, the course taken south went along the Coast of Africa until Sierra Leone and then went across the Atlantic was both extremely long and hazardous being susceptible to extreme changes in the wind and weather. Because they were technically moored in a Portuguese colony, albeit one that had not established a proper trading post, they sought to leave as soon as they had recuperated and by December 26th they were sailing out of Guanabara Bay and heading south. In order to survive the winter and still have enough provisions to continue the search, Magellan cut the daily rations in half much to the annoyance of his crew. Capatins Quesada and Cartagena on the Concepcion, Captain Mendoza of the Victoria and the master of the Concepcion del Cano with other Officers plotted to overthrow Magellan and return to Spain.
Of the ringleaders, Mendoza had already been killed by Espinosa on the retaking of the Victoria, but was still taken ashore, decapitated and quartered. Their rations had been cut by half and there was little wild food locally apart from mussels. Three days later they had reached the Cape of the Virgins (named by Magellan) and Magellan instructed the Concepcion and the San Antonio to investigate a small inlet at the far side of the bay sided by high peaks. Persuading the rest of the crew that Magellan was leading them all to certain doom and starvation they retraced their route to the South Atlantic and straight home to Spain, where, despite Mesquitaa€™s testimony, their tales of Magellana€™s injustice were believed.
It was now of paramount importance to Magellan that he succeeded in his mission, as he knew the consequences he must face if he returned to Spain unsuccessful after the San Antonio told her story. From the logs and journals available Magellana€™s course had taken him across the Pacific missing out every one of the large South Sea Island groups.
They settled on the smaller island of Homonhon where they were visited by friendly natives who brought them fresh food, spices, and wine. Sailing on they arrived at the small island of Limosawa where to the delight of all parties concerned, Magellana€™s Malay slave Enrique was able not only to understand the natives but also to be understood himself.
It was clear that Magellan had plans for Humabon and Cebu to become the central base for subsequent Spanish exploitation of the Philippines.
However one, Lapulapu, refused and Magellan personally took charge of a force of both Spanish and natives to subjugate him. Carvalho assumed command, and owing to the loss of manpower to crew three ships, the Concepcion the least seaworthy of the three was scuttled and burnt.
This did not deter the Spanish, however, because the local feeling was strongly anti-Portuguese and with the help of a disaffected Portuguese trader called Larosa, a treaty of alliance was concluded with the Rajah of Tidore.
Thus the Victoria under the command of Cano finally left on her own on December 21st and by sailing southwest to Timor and through the Timor Sea into the Indian Ocean she took a fluctuating course due west two degrees either side of 40 degree parallel. At first they puzzled over the mistake they thought they had made before eventually realizing that by traveling a 360-degree circumference of the globe they had lost a day.
It was not until much later when other crewmembers accounts, including Pigafettaa€™s, became known that Magellana€™s reputation was restored. Departing Tidore on April 6, 1522 after having made the necessary repairs they sailed north east, but lacking knowledge of the northern Pacifica€™s wind system they struggled up to the 44 degree parallel just off the Japanese coast still hoping to get some westerly winds. Although he had died in the Philippines, it is to Magellan that the credit for the voyage belongs. Magellana€™s route, particularly through the straits named after him was attempted many times in expeditions that followed his but with little success. The reason is that the man that was to buy my farm, backed out and I had made sale on the 27th day of March and sold everything to come and then after that man backed out I was to sell to another man and his wife died just two days before the time was for us to start and that knocked me all wrong all that I had and the balance of the company before I could rent again. My wife has been sick nearly ever since we have been in Ohio and is not sadis ficte [sic satisfied] to go any farther west and she now has the agure [ague] and two of my children has got it and I have concluded to take them where the Agure seldom comes any more, that is in Pennsylvania where they was born.
The themometer was at one time 14 degrees below zero, that was perty cold, but they have had two feet of snow on the level back at our old home place this winter. One of the items made to commemorate this feat was a small terrestrial globe; it is possibly an early example of a commemorative souvenir. Because the exact longitude of the Moluccas was uncertain, Magellan thought that their far easterly position might bring them into the Spanish hemisphere as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillias of 1494.
Alvarez did his utmost to sow seeds of doubt amongst Magellana€™s new backers, whilst gauging what potential threat they might pose to the Portuguese possessions overseas.
Whatever his reasons Pigafetta kept a detailed journal of the voyage, describing the weather, wildlife and indigenous people as well as the conditions the crew were forced to endure. Already there was talk of mutiny amongst the Spanish Officers who had plenty of experience in crossing the Atlantic.
After two weeks the ships had reached Cape St Mary where Magellan is reputed to have said of the large hill behind the Cape a€?I see a mountaina€? [Montem Video] thereby naming the place where Uruguaya€™s capital city now stands.
His determination to find a southwestern passage was fuelled by the knowledge that should he fail he faced the choice between a return to Spain in disgrace and with little prospect of further backing, or risking sailing east, south of the Cape of Good Hope, away from the Portuguese shipping lines and onto the Spice Islands. To this end they boarded the San Antonio and took command, so that when Magellan awoke the following morning he found that only his own ship the Trinidad along with the smaller Santiago were still loyal to him.
After an anxious wait of five days the two ships returned with the news that the inlet was not a river but a strait leading into a bay followed by another Strait leading into an even larger bay. On November 28, 1520 after spending 36 days in the a€?Magellana€™ Straits the three remaining ships entered what Magellan called the Mar Pacifico.
Rats were sold for half a ducat each and even so we could not always get them.a€? Magellan realized that if they were approaching the Moluccas they had to find a place to harbor soon, so that the crew could recover before sailing too close to the dangers of Portuguese waters where he knew he might be challenged. Although Enrique was thought to have originally come from Sumatra it was quite possible that he was already a captured slave by then and it has been suggested that only someone from the Central Philippines could have understood the dialect. The crews were refreshed by the abundance of good food and water and were also able to indulge in their favorite pastime of rampant sexual liaisons with the women of Cebu. Whether his success as a great Christian warrior and leader had clouded his judgment or whether he just underestimated the opposition, the fact was the campaign was a disaster and brought about Magellana€™s death. There followed six months of meandering around the Philippines and Brunei, most of it spent searching out fresh supplies.
In fact the Portuguese had apparently been awaiting Magellana€™s ships from the onset of the voyage with two squadrons of warships.
The journey turned out to be a nightmare, probably worse than the crossing of the Pacific as the crew were forced to do arduous work on the pumps to combat the appalling leaks, all on rations of just rice and water as the meat and other fresh produce had spoilt through lack of salt or any other preservative. But with inadequate provisions, a broken main mast and a crew succumbing to scurvy they were forced to retreat south, finally surrendering to a Portuguese force that had been sent to the Moluccas. He had found the western route to the east and had achieved what Columbus had tried and failed to do. Yet despite the overt goals of the expedition being a failure, Magellana€™s personal goal of finding a western route to the east and the knowledge of the globe resulting from that was one of mankinda€™s greatest successes. Buck a visit now, so must bring these few lines to a close by asking you to please write soon as this reaches you. After seven years of distinguished service in India, Malacca (Malaysian peninsula) and the Moluccas (Spice Islands) he returned to Portugal but received little recognition from his King, Manuel I, and no increase in his pension. His plan was to sail west and like Columbus before him to try and find the western route to the east and the Spice Islands. Satisfied that they were as poorly armed as they were fitted, Alvarez thought Portuguese interests might be best served by an opportunist attack on them if they should stray anywhere near Portuguese colonial interests. Throughout the voyage his admiration for Magellan, for his command and character is displayed on every page.
Magellan knew this route was well known for its unpredictable weather and that most ships tried to avoid it, but he was anxious to negate any Portuguese attempts to intercept and destroy his expedition and despite the misgivings of some of his Spanish officers refused to jeopardize his mission by altering his course.
They explored the estuary of the River Plate, ruling out any possible channel and then continued South with the weather growing increasingly colder, the terrain bleaker and the seas rougher before stopping briefly at Bahia de los Patos (literally Ducksa€™ Bay) named after the abundant penguins found there.
This latter option meant the possibility of being intercepted by the Portuguese that would have caused his sponsor the King of Spain great embarrassment and would have further damaged his reputation at both courts. The three mutineersa€™ ships gave them a firepower advantage of two to one and if they had moved with the same decisiveness as Magellan they would have without doubt succeeded.
Cano was spared and put in chains in the bilges with the other mutineers and Cartagena who had been a perpetual thorn in Magellana€™s side for the whole expedition was also spared but later was left marooned along with a priest on the desolate coast when the ships finally departed. Pigafetta made copious notes of the region that Magellan had called Patagonia because the natives had such large feet encased in big leather boots (Patagonia means large foot in Spanish).
Magellan with greatly diminished stores now made the almost fatal mistake of not seeking out new provisions for the journey across the Pacific.
Unfortunately his knowledge of this part of the world was based on third hand travelersa€™ and merchantsa€™ tales and having come from an easterly direction he was not at all sure of the geography, believing that he was quite near the Japanese coast. Both crew and ships were barely functional by the time they reached Guam, but the crew was too ill or weak to consider mutiny and tended to optimism in Magellana€™s belief that they had reached the northern edge of the Molucca archipelago.
If this was so it means that Enrique, a humble Philippine slave was the first man to have circumnavigated the globe. Pigafettaa€™s journal interestingly notes that the men of Cebu pierced their penises with gold or tin bolts that often had small spurs attached to either end. Unable to use the firepower of his ships because of an outlying reef, Magellana€™s men were overwhelmed by superior numbers, and although his own personal resolution and bravery ensured that the majority of his men were able to escape, he himself was cut down and killed on April 27, 1521. On September 21st after fleeing Brunei Carvallho who had never received the full confidence of his crew, and who stood accused of unnecessarily abandoning crew members in tricky situations was deposed as commander being replaced by Espinosa, with Cano the former mutineer, being made Captain of the Victoria. One Squadron had been sent to the Cape of Good Hope should he strike east for the Moluccas, the other to the estuary of the River Plate should he attempt to find the western passage.
With the crew on the verge of mutiny and in extremely harsh conditions the Cape of Good Hope was eventually rounded on May 19, 1522, but the Victoria was badly damaged and 21 of her Crew were to die from starvation, disease or exhaustion between the Cape and the Cape Verde Islands.


Of the 54 Europeans who set off from Tidore only 21 survived, the rest were imprisoned, and only four of them, including Espinosa ever made it back to Spain.
Magellana€™s voyage had given the world its known dimensions, although it would take another three centuries to fill in all the gaps.
A mendacious campaign was mounted that the whole route had been a sham, so difficult was it proving to replicate, that the true worth of his seamanship was recognized. 1843, David Garlick also passed away at the age of 63 and was buried in the old Pioneer Cemetery on the SE corner of that city. Corn up here, the folks that has corn is just pulling the ears off leaving the foder so that stops the work from off the farms hands so there is no work to do. William is clerking in a grocery store and drives a delivery wagon for the store part of his time. Maybe you can mind old Peter Weaverling that used to live east of my father, it is one of his boys she married, sister to Daisy Garlick. None of the original globes have survived to the present day, and only one set of unmounted gores has survived. Worse still he had put all his savings into backing a scheme by a Portuguese trader to ship pepper from India to Portugal. This expedition he hoped would ensure his financial security as well as bringing him the fame and recognition he felt was long overdue.
His interference in Magellana€™s preparations led to Spanish misgivings over the number of Portuguese members of the proposed crews and in the end only 37 of the 270 odd crew were Portuguese with three of the five captains of the individual ships being Spanish. Two other important members of the company were Albo, a Greek pilot who kept a detailed navigational log from the first sighting of the Brazilian Coast until the sighting of Cape Vincent on the return (November 29th 1519 to September 4, 1522) and San Martin an astrologer and astronomer who made calculations on the exact point of longitude the ships had reached; he was also the most accomplished pilot at celestial navigation amongst Magellana€™s crew.
The Spanish Captains, Castilians of high birth considered themselves more knowledgeable and it wasna€™t long before there was open insubordin-ation resulting in the replacement of Cartogena as the Captain of the San Antonio with another Spaniard, Antonio de Coca. The penguins along with sea lions provided the necessary fresh food supplies and after sheltering from tremendous storms they continued southwards. In a resolute speech to his men, he promised them the paradise of the Moluccas if they would honor their commitment, trust his leadership and behave accordingly. However, the mutineers were unable to coordinate their efforts or win the total loyalty of their crews and as a result suffered the consequences. In fact two of the native men were captured to be taken back as presents for the King, but neither survived the journey. Carefully sounding their way through the straits they reached Cape Valentine where Magellan sent the San Antonio to investigate the southeast channel whilst taking the other three ships southwest in what was proved to be the right direction. He still believed that the distance to the Moluccas was not much more than the length of the Mediterranean and therefore it was prudent to push on as speedily as possible.
Magellan was able to re-supply the ships, but constant thieving by the natives including one of the longboats from the Trinidad forced him to use a raiding party that killed seven natives and wounded several others. From measurements made by both Albo and San Martin it became apparent that the expedition had passed beyond the Spanish hemisphere and had already entered the Portuguese domain.
Females from the age of six upwards progressively had their vaginas opened and enlarged to accommodate these penis appendages. The invulnerability of the Spanish had been destroyed and with it Humabona€™s faith in them. Finally on November 8, 1521 the two ships sailed into the harbor of Tidore to a warm welcome. When both failed to locate Magellan, the Indian fleet had been alerted and a small force had been sent to the Moluccas. Desperate to get fresh food and also slaves to man the pumps Cano was forced to take the huge risk of putting into the Portuguese Cape Verde Islands. Larosa, the Portuguese trader who had opted to return with the Trinidad rather than the Victoria was beheaded as a traitor. First the Portuguese with established bases in Southern Africa, India and Malaya were in a far better position to exploit the Moluccas that were after all proven to be in their hemisphere.
Lesser men would have failed and indeed did so, but Magellan was a genuine leader, he had a determined self-belief allied with a stubborn nature that belied his romantic notion of heroism and honor. The merchant had subsequently died and his father had fled the country to escape his sona€™s creditors. To this end he began to study all the maps, pilots logs, charts and journals he could obtain. The remainder of the various crews comprised of Greeks, Italians, French, Flemings, Africans, Spanish, an Englishman and Malays including Enrique, a slave from Malacca who Magellan had brought back to Portugal on his previous expedition East. Most of the crew were probably won over by Magellana€™s stand but certainly not the Castilian Officers and Captains whose resentment of his single mindedness and inflexibility was still growing. The Santiago was the first ship to be repaired and Magellan, eager to find the Western passage as soon as possible, sent her on an exploratory probe along the coast. He kept the South American coastline in sight whilst heading north to about 30A? South before heading northwest and crossing the equator on Feb 13, 1521 at about 160-165A? W longitude, missing both the Tahitian and Marquesas Island groups, where they could have amply replenished their supplies and the crew could have recovered.
Pigafetta recounts that when the natives were hit by crossbow bolts they were so astonished that they promptly pulled them out and as a result died from hemorrhaging. This was slightly awkward for Magellan as he had assured King Charles that the Moluccas lay just within the Spanish half.
Pigafetta confirms a fact that is hardly surprising by noting that the women of Cebu seemed to prefer Magellana€™s men as lovers rather than the locals.
At a subsequent banquet, Serrano and Barbosa, who had assumed joint command (along with a party of men that included San Martin), were ambushed and killed by Humabon.
They had hoped and expected to be met by Magellana€™s shipwrecked friend Serrao but he had died from poison some eight months before as a result of becoming too involved in local native politics (compare with Magellan). This expedition had ended in disaster and death as they had antagonized the local Rajah with their treatment of the local women.
By pretending to be part of a Spanish fleet that had been blown off course in a storm whilst returning from the Americas they were able to harbor and negotiate for new supplies.
The local rajah, with the arrival of the Portuguese force repudiated all the agreements and treaties he had made with the Spanish. Secondly, the Spanish American possessions that at first had seemed largely worthless were now, after Cortes Conquest of Mexico, proving to be abundant in gold and silver.
Intensely proud of his nobility and his own worth, he could be tough when needed, humane and caring when circumstances warranted it and always courageous.
Magellan who had only a meager pension to live on was broke and so he volunteered for a Portuguese campaign against Morocco; where he again distinguished himself with his bravery. He knew that Columbus had failed to find a passage around the Central American coastline, that Cabot had likewise failed in the North, that the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci had possibly reached as far South as the River Plate estuary and Patagonia without encountering a passage and that Balboa had crossed the Panamanian Isthmus and seen a great ocean that was different to the Atlantic. Taking advantage of the mutineersa€™ attempts at negotiation he sent Espinosa, the Trinidada€™s loyal master of arms along with a disguised boarding party and retook the Victoria that same evening. Unfortunately 70 miles south near the Santa Cruz estuary a sudden gale drove her aground and she broke up, leaving the crew stranded. Both food and water were running out and what was left was rotten or putrid, so that the crew was suffering from malnutrition and scurvy. This trouble with the natives caused Magellan to rename the islands, Islas le los Lodrones [Islands of Thieves]. Having journeyed all this way across the Pacific, losing 19 men through scurvy and suffering all manners of deprivation to find themselves already within territory reserved for Portuguese exploitation was a sever blow.
Enrique, who had been promised his freedom should Magellan die and then found that Serrano would not honor this was probably instrumental in helping set up the trap. A few days before the two Spanish ships had arrived in Tidore, the survivors had fled back to Malacca without any knowledge of the Spanish ships imminent arrival. Carelessly one of the crewmembers used some cloves (that could only have come from the Portuguese Moluccas) as part of the transactions and when their ruse was discovered Cano was forced to put to sea immediately, thereby abandoning 13 of his crew (including Pigafetta).
In 1529 Charles signed away any claims for the Moluccas that Spain had in return for 350,000 ducats at the Treaty of Saragossa. He always tried to deal fairly with the natives and his expedition while under his command carried out none of the atrocities that previous and future Colonials seemed to revel in. Garlick was then baptized for John and Jacob Bumgardner and the record calls him a a€?half nephewa€? of those two men. However he not only suffered a severe leg wound which caused him to limp for the rest of his life, he also, whilst in the position of Quartermaster suffered the unjust accusations of dishonesty, theft and treason. He became convinced that a southwestern route was there south of the River Plate, and the scientist, mapmaker and scholar Rui Faleiro, who thought that the likely passage was just below the 40 degree South latitude, shared this belief. They were also able to buy young native women from their fathers for the price of a hatchet or knife.
Two members trekked for eleven days back to San Julian to alert Magellan and an overland rescue party was organized. Fortunately Pigafetta who relished banquets and parties was suffering from a head wound and did not attend.
Fortunately Espinosa managed to keep his own crew from their usual sexual indulgences and apart from signing treaties and purchasing a large cargo of cloves, he enjoyed an amicable relationship with the locals and their rulers. Caro sailed on to Spain with a crew of only 18, arriving September 6, 1522 at the harbor of San Lucar, a circumnavigation of the Earth that had taken just two weeks under three years to complete.
When the Spanish later continued their exploration of the Pacific it was from their base in Panama. From his voyage the new humanists in Europe, the philosophers, scholars, scientists and artists were able to gain a truer understanding of their world and with this information continue to challenge the dogma and medieval beliefs that were still prevalent. Magellan found the charges against him contemptuous and he rashly abandoned his post to return to Lisbon and clear his name. He also assured Magellan that the ocean Balboa had seen could not be more than a couple of thousand miles across and that the Spice Islands must therefore be in the Spanish half of the world as laid down by the Treaty of Tordesillias. Magellan allowed his crew some freedom and many of them set up a€?love nestsa€™ with their women on shore, but he still kept a firm discipline when it mattered - executing the shipa€™s master of the Victoria for sodomizing a young apprentice seaman. It is not known for certain whether Magellan was instrumental in cutting loose the anchors of the San Antonio but the ship did indeed break loose of its anchorage and drifted broadside of the Trinidad enabling Magellan to board and recapture her. It was not until August 24th with Santiagoa€™s crew redistributed amongst the four remaining ships and Serrano the a€?Santiagoa€™sa€™ captain, now installed as the Captain of the Concepcion that Magellan finally left the bay.
He had provided the answer to man's seemingly eternal quest to find the true shape and size of the Earth. With his humiliation at the hands of the Portuguese King fresh in his mind, it was to Spain that Magellan now offered his knowledge and his services. The Concepcion had no choice now but to surrender, so that within 48 hours the mutiny had taken place and been extinguished.
They moved along the coast near to where the Santiago had been wrecked to a better winter anchorage in the estuary of the Santa Cruz where there were plenty of supplies of fish, seals and seabirds to replenish their stores. Magellan returned to face trial and was cleared of all charges but his relationship with his King had deteriorated to such an extent that Manuel I refused all of Magellana€™s requests for financial recognition of his loyal service and told him that he could take his offers of service elsewhere. This plan may have been encouraged by the news of Juan Diaz de Solisa€™ Spanish expedition of 1515 which had reached 35 degrees South before an exploratory landing party led by Solis himself had encountered death and disaster.
This was the principle reason why Magellan came to sail around the world under the Spanish flag. They were attacked by hostile natives, slaughtered, butchered roasted and then eaten in view of the rest of the crew watching from the safety of their ships.
Although many of the crew had participated in the mutiny, forty were found guilty of treason and sentenced to death.
The expedition was aborted but the news from the survivors back in Spain seemed to indicate that with the coastline bearing west at that point, a likely passage through to Balboaa€™s Ocean lay just South of that latitude.
Magellana€™s plan interested the young Spanish monarch Charles I (later the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) and a formal agreement was made between the two in March 1518, whereby Magellan was appointed Captain General of the proposed expedition, given five ships, and the prospective governorship of any new lands he might discover plus one fifth of the profits from the voyage.



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