I’m going to show you a short-cut on how to make your own volcano, invented by my husband. We grabbed several volcano books out of the library, and we own a volcano video, so the kids enjoyed watching lava come out of volcanoes before we erupted our volcano model.
Just so you know, this version of a volcano took 5 minutes of spraying with spray foam (let it dry overnight), plus 5 minutes to chop off and hot glue the foam, plus 5 minutes to smash the terra cotta clay onto the volcano structure. Full DisclosureI am an affiliate for Bright Ideas Press, Ultimate Homeschool Expo, and Amazon.
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If the direct damage and destruction weren’t trouble enough, volcanic ash from the eruption fell as far away as Oklahoma, causing darkness in areas, and power blackouts.
Unfortunately, nobody knows for sure how and why volcanoes occur, nor where the magma comes from. Another common volcano type is the cinder cone volcano in which hardened lava fragments piled up around the vent, forming a mountain.
Published scientific results from the USGS in HTML booklet form includes photos and illustrations.
Set the parameters to build your own volcano and watch it erupt.  Be sure to see the demonstration of a stratovolcano, such as Mount St. Teacher packet from USGS.  Six lessons with activities, printables, and poster.  Very well done! May 18, 2012 · Updated September 4, 2015 Notebooking, Science, Unit Studies« Monthly Art Appreciation Lessons Free {Part 2}What to Do This Summer? Microsoft’s E3 2015 Conference was up first, with a few new reveals, including the announcement of the Xbox One finally getting backwards compatibility with Xbox 360 games, and Xbox Game Preview, an early access program, and a new Elite controller, which features swappable parts.
Minecraft has been updated to 1.4.6 today, adding fireworks, enchantable boots and a Christmas surprise, as well as a few tweaks and fixes! After our switch to cheating via the Not Enough Items interface, I lost interest in building the machines I had started on.. New this time is Adventure Mode, where designers will be able to create adventures for others to explore.. There have been a few changes to crafting, making it a lot easier to use!  The system allows you to navigate through categories and then just click on the item you want to make.. All volcanoes are born when hot magma rises to the surface, infiltrates a weak spot in the Earth's outer crust, and breaks through. The majority of the damage in volcanic eruptions is not from lava flow but from a phenomenon known as pyroclastic flow. Throughout recorded history, pyroclastic flows have caused more death and destruction than any other volcanic hazard.
Volcanic activity and variations in solar irradiance are the two main natural processes producing changes in the Earth's radiative balance on timescales of years to decades. Aerosols in the stratosphere reflect incoming sunlight, producing a cooling effect on global temperatures. In recent decades, observations following the major volcanic eruptions of Mount Agung in 1963, El Chichon in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo in 1991 illustrate the cooling influence of these events.
Volcanic aerosols may also have indirect influences on the climate that are less well understood. In recent times, we regularly hear of previously dormant volcanoes that spontaneously awake and become active again. There are more volcanoes encircling our planet than most people can even imagine with over 600 of these volcanoes currently active.
The following graph displays the annual earthquake activity in the area of the Yellowstone volcano.
According to some volcanologists, Yellowstone volcano, located in the central US, may be on the verge of a large scale eruption.
The image below displays the area of the United States that was affected by previous eruptions of Yellowstone. The image above represents the estimated range of destruction from a large scale eruption of the Yellowstone volcano.
In fact, the pyroclastic flow from Yellowstone will completely destroy everything for hundreds of kilometers in every direction. For more information on volcanoes and past volcanic eruptions in the United States, you may want to look into books, maps, or even visit your local USGS (United States Geological Survey) office.
Now imagine what might occur during a cataclysmic event that hyper-activates the hundreds of already “active” volcanoes, as well as most of the currently dormant volcanoes across the entire planet. Imagine lava, mudflows, flash floods, and torrential rains blocking roads and making mobility virtually impossible. The consequences from such events on human life have been recorded throughout recent history, with a pyroclastic flow incinerating 29,000 people in the 1902 eruption of Mt. In more recent volcanic activity, we've seen volcanoes spontaneously erupting and emerging from the Pacific Ocean along the Ring of Fire, creating the beginnings of entirely new land masses.
In previous material, it was mentioned that our oceans may present the greatest threat of natural disaster to all forms of life. Tsunami and tidal waves will wash inland very quickly causing immediate destruction and loss of life, but after this initial inundation, the water will eventually recede back into the oceans. Volcanic eruptions have an immediate destructive impact on the local region as a result of pyroclastic flows, lava, mudflows, landslides, and toxic gas emissions. The buckling of Earth’s crust during a pole shift would likely cause most active and dormant volcanoes to become extremely hyperactive.
Such an event would certainly send so much volcanic ash into the atmosphere that the sun could be blocked out for months or possibly longer.
The plants would be followed by the herbivores which would probably die a week later and then the carnivores a few weeks after that. As you can imagine, without adequate sunlight, plants would be difficult to grow at best, if not impossible, unless certain circumstances arise. Over time, nature would eventually clean the atmosphere with rain and wind that carry the ash to the ground, a majority of which would be absorbed by the earth and the oceans. If you have problems viewing content or videos on this website, please refer to the following links for any necessary upgrades to your computer software.
We are continuing our study of Earth and Space by Bright Ideas Press, and we are doing the volcano chapter this week. My husband didn’t seem to mind erupting it over and over, and the kids squealed with delight, as you will see in the video.
The orange glow looked really interesting against the dark sky, as I stood on the street in front of my house.


I speak at homeschool conferences, teach creative writing classes, and homeschool my kids using unit studies. As you can see, lava is spewing out of the top of the volcano, and it’s starting to pour out down the sides of it too!
If you decide to play this map on survival mode, then you’ll need to be careful of all of the lava streams that pour down the sides of the volcano!
Scientists knew something was going to give for over a month, but an earthquake had created a landslide, which initiated a chain of events concluding in volcanic eruption. The force of the explosion itself was calculated to be seven megatons of thermal energy, and the total energy from the Mt. It is thought that there are spots of molten rock as close as twenty miles under the surface.
Shield volcanoes are lava flows piled up onto each other forming a relatively short but wide volcano. Saint Helen was just another volcanic eruption, but on a grander scale, with its massive force flattening things as far as nineteen miles away.
This clip has been put together from stills taken by a USGS volcanologist who lost his life in the eruption. Zombies: Garden Warfare 2, Rainbow Six Siege, ReCore, Rise of the Tomb Raider, Sea of Thieves, Tacoma, Terrorist Hunt, The Division, Tom Clancy, White Masks, Xbox Game Preview, Xbox One. With either an abrupt acceleration or deceleration of the Earth’s crust, the buckling affect, and the crust being thrust up and down, there is potential that virtually every volcano on the planet could erupt simultaneously. There are over 600 active volcanoes on Earth that are generally associated with the boundaries of the tectonic plates; the seven great plates that carry the oceans and continents. A pyroclastic flow is an avalanche of ground-hugging hot rock accompanied by a cloud of ash and gases that race down the slope of a volcano. In 1902 on the Caribbean island of Martinique, a pyroclastic flow generated by the eruption of Mt. Other dangers are floods containing a mixture of rock fragments and water (mudflows are one type), landslides, gas emissions, and ash clouds. Strong volcanic eruptions can send particulates and sulphate gas (aerosol) high into the atmosphere, where it can spread out and remain suspended for 2-3 years. The cooling effect lasts until the aerosols are cycled out of the atmosphere by natural physical and chemical processes.
For example, the presence of aerosols in parts of the stratosphere can produce temperature gradients both vertically and horizontally, which could alter the air circulation patterns in the stratosphere, and in turn affect tropospheric air circulation.
In some cases, like the Chaiten Volcano in Chile, which became active on May 2, 2008, these volcanoes have been dormant for nearly 10,000 years.
Over 75 percent of the world’s volcanoes fall within the so-called “Ring of Fire,” circling from South America, to Alaska, to Japan, and on to New Zealand. As you can see from this graph, there has been a measurable increase, but not a significant enough increase for geologists to conclude that a large eruption is approaching. Geological findings indicate that the affected areas from three such eruptions extend some 1,600km to 2,000km in diameter. From this image, you can see that such an eruption will virtually wipe out a large portion of the Mid-Western United States. It’s further hypothesized that when Yellowstone does experience its next full eruption, that such an eruption will be large enough to plunge the entire planet into a cooling cycle and a mini ice age.
Imagine the pyroclstic flows, toxic gases, ash, and hot rocks that would permeate the air and cover the landscape so quickly that it becomes difficult or impossible to see or breathe within hours. And then imagine 3, 6, or even 15 meters of volcanic ash covering all buildings, underground shelters, and vegetation, making survival virtually impossible.
Geologists have recently discovery a bulge in the mountainous landscape of Oregon, in the northwest region of the United States. After reading the potential affect from simultaneous world-wide volcanic eruptions, you may beg to differ.
Of course, it's important to realize that two-thirds of the world population lives within a short distance of ocean coastlines. On the other hand, there is also a long-term impact that can result as the hyperactive volcanic activity could last for months, years, or even decades.
Imagine, if you can, every volcano on the Earth erupting simultaneously and for an indeterminate duration.
Add to this that up to three, 6, or even 15 meters of ash could fall from the sky and completely cover the grass, bushes, and other low lying vegetation. Without food reserves or special growing facilities, famine would set in quickly and humans wouldn’t be very far behind the animals. These circumstances include: being far enough up wind from any erupting volcano, being in a location where the winds are strong enough to clear the air and allow sunlight to hit Earth, or creating an environment that can support the production of vegetation without natural sunlight. However, during this process of cleansing and renewal, the ash would block out the Sun and the planet would cool very rapidly. It’s widely accepted that the eruption of even one or two large volcanoes could create the affect of a global nuclear winter. The hands-on activity is to make your own volcano, and the book tells you what ingredients you need for the eruption. The greatest thing about this map is that it looks as if time has frozen as soon as the volcano erupted, and it the fiery lava is just suspended in mid air. Although it looks like the lava is about to go everywhere, it is actually suspended in mid air, so it’s really cool to look at, and pretty safe to explore too!
Saint Helens eruption and all its effects was estimated to be well over one thousand times that of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Since basalt is the primary rock ejected from volcanoes, scientists have pointed out that there is enough heat twenty miles under the surface of the earth to melt basalt, but only if the pressure around the basalt is reduced. It is merely a mountain of hardened lava, volcanic ash, and other various volcanic debris deposited in layers, sloping away from the center of the cone from which lava issues. Though no one to date understands exactly why they erupt, volcanoes offer extensive opportunities for study of the earth’s surface and what occurs below. They are especially common in subduction zones, which occur when one tectonic plate dips beneath another.
The range of destructive force from a pyroclastic flow is directly proportional to the power of the volcanic explosion.
Ash clouds are a particular problem for aircraft of any kind as they quickly clog the air filters making the aircraft inoperable.
Volcanic eruptions tend to cause a large increase in aerosol concentrations that can have a significant influence on the earth's climate in the short term. In the case of large eruptions or a succession of eruptions such as in the early 1800s, the cooling effect can last several decades.


Aerosols may also interact with chemical processes occurring in the stratosphere, which could affect distribution and concentration of ozone and other trace gases. This information gives greater credibility to the archeological and geological proof that approximately 11,500 years ago, most mountain ranges across the planet either rose or fell 3,000 to 8,000 meters in a single event.
The Chaiten volcano of southern Chile is one of 200 to 300 volcanoes in the "Andean Arc" region of Chile, Peru, Ecuador and Columbia considered “active” by volcanologists. The changes around Yellowstone don't seem to get much media coverage for obvious reasons, but the effects are getting more extreme every year with the water tables becoming highly acidic, deforestation, and increased tremors. To give some perspective, the image also displays the affected area from the 1980 Mount St.
Other resources include videos from such sources as the History Channel and specifically a series entitled “Mega Disasters”.
Imagine the sky filling with sulfuric acid within and contaminating every river, lake, stream, reservoir, and even underground springs making fresh water unavailable within hours. But the true images of suffering and helplessness from such an event can sometimes best be experienced by going further into the past.
There are thousands of artifacts excavated from this event, but it only takes a few to represent the devastating affects on human life. It has been determined that this bulge is being caused by a new volcano pushing upward towards the surface. One method to distinguish between the natural disaster impact caused by tsunami and tidal waves versus volcanic eruptions would be to classify the destructive impact of tsunami and tidal waves as short-term and volcanic eruptions as long-term. This means that two-thirds of the entire world population is the direct path of a tsunami or tidal wave.
Consider that the eruption of a single large volcano, Mount Pinatubo in 1991, lowered Earth’s overall temperature by nearly one degree centigrade. Leaves and branches of trees would be weighed down by this ash, making it difficult for them to absorb any light or nutrients.
Under these circumstances, it’s possible that a majority of people would parish within about two months.
If the result is a nuclear winter, it could also explain why core sample data from Antarctica shows Earth moving into a new ice age at any moment. You’ll have to take a look at the pictures below to get an idea of what I mean, and if you like the map, and want to go and check it out for yourself, I’ll leave a download link for it at the end of this post! As this half-melted rock was exposed to high internal pressures, a devastating volcanic eruption occurred. Another interesting thing to note is that most, but not all, volcanoes occur along the edges of the earth’s plates. A lava dome volcano is formed by vicious lava blowing out and piling up around the volcano’s vent, and then solidifying. As the plate dives into the mantle, it’s gradually heated, producing blobs of molten rock that rise to the surface. This flow can reach speeds of up to 100 miles per hour, and temperatures of nearly 700 degrees centigrade. They can cause engine failure, damage electrical systems, scratch the outer surface of a plane, and contaminate its interior. A reduction in solar output is thought to be primarily responsible for the large-scale cooling experienced during the “little ice age” in the late 1600s, but strong volcanic activity at that time may have also contributed.
There is evidence to suggest that volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere have contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer and changes in the dominant Arctic atmospheric circulation pattern. Is it a coincidence that Chaiten was last active at approximately the same time as the last known cataclysmic event on Earth?
This region has many more dormant volcanoes and is one of the more active regions for volcanic activity in the world. If there are no such resources in your area of the world, you may want to start your own research into local volcanoes that might be near any location where you live or are considering for a community. Into past cultures that may have had little understanding, warning, preparation, or emergency planning for such events. The following photographs are a snapshot into the past and give us a glimpse of the human suffering that occurred at the hands of this ancient volcanic eruption as people were literally mummified into solid stone.
It doesn’t take much imagination to realize the potential global impact from possibly one hundred volcanoes erupting simultaneously in a cataclysmic event. In other words, some plants may survive for weeks, but most plants would be dead within a month. With lower temperatures and increased dust particles in the air, the resulting precipitation could turn from rain to snow in only a few weeks. The real problem will become survival after such an event as food becomes more difficult to grow and the weather in some regions becomes uninhabitable. Rock, gas, ash, and pumice all came blasting out of the zone that the landslide had uncovered, obliterating trees as far as nineteen miles away. There was a time when magma was considered to be molten rock from the earth’s mantle, but the study of earthquake waves shows that the mantle is much too far down to be the source of volcanic eruptions. The molten rock or magma collects in weak patches of crust, in structures called magma chambers.
The devastating mudflow that killed 25,000 people in Armaro, Colombia, after the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano was also triggered by a pyroclastic flow. These figures begin to provide a perspective on the pure number of volcanoes that could easily get thrust into a hyperactive state under extreme circumstances. It also happens to rest on a bed of Uranium, so when it does erupt, the result will be very radioactive. In this day and age, you can often search the internet using the terms “volcano” and “city name”. We are now seeing activity in volcanoes that are considered past due for an eruption, new volcanoes pushing to the surface, and volcanoes becoming active again after nearly 10,000 years of dormancy. The deadly hot gases caused snow, ice, and even entire glaciers on the mountain to melt with astonishing rapidity, creating lahars, or volcanic mudslides, which flowed all the way to the Columbia River, a full fifty miles away! If the pressure in the magma chamber builds high enough, the magma will erupt and a volcano is born. In the year after the eruption of Philippines' Mount Pinatubo, in 1991, global temperatures dipped by nearly one degree.



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