Integrating safety systems together with our electronics and sensing capabilities, ZF TRW creates intelligent systems that help keep pedestrians, drivers and passengers safer.  Delivering the safety everyone deserves. As a leading developer of all major steering technologies, ZF TRW provides systems that enhance vehicle control, increase fuel savings and improve performance precision.  Leading the way in steering feel. As the world leader in foundation brake systems and a pioneer in electronic braking, ZF TRW continues to develop innovative systems that deliver advanced functionality and performance excellence, to meet and exceed fuel economy standards globally while helping to stop vehicles more efficiently. ZF TRW is continually developing advanced solutions to anticipate and react to the many variables of a crash. ZF TRW offers a range of products and services complementing its focus on safety.  Leaders in their own fields, ZF TRW’s other businesses are supporting a wide range of customers and markets. EPHS is a ZF TRW electrically assisted steering solution which combines advantages of electronically controlled on-demand steering with robust hydraulic actuation.
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A full hydro (hydraulic) steering system is one in which no mechanical linkage connects the steering wheel to the steering knuckles. Even though only a few states reference steering systems in their laws, it is important to know that all states require that vehicles be in safe operating condition. Power steering systems must allow for the safe operation of the vehicle in the event of power steering failure. Modified vehicles must have a steering wheel at least 13 inches in diameter that functions with no less than 2 turns and no more than 6 turns lock-to-lock. The maximum allowed vehicle turning radius is 32 feet and there is a minimum steering wheel diameter of 12 inches.
Considering these laws, it is quite possible to design and build a safe full hydraulic steering systems that meets the requirements of all states with the exception of Tennessee. If issued a fix-it ticket, there is a good chance that it could be argued in court (with the exception of Tennessee).
A full hydraulic steering system has its advantages, though it can also be extremely dangerous if it is not installed, used, or maintained properly. Legal:The information found on this site is not legal advice and should not be viewed, used, or accepted as such.

Technology is a fickle friend, nudging us forward with one hand while charging exorbitant tolls with the other. The steering gear's internal cavity is divided into two chambers by a sealed piston attached to the rack. To provide steering assistance, an electric motor mounted to the side of the rack housing drives a ball-screw mechanism via a toothed rubber belt. Makers are moving aggressively to EPS because eliminating an engine-driven hydraulic pump increases gas mileage by about 1 mpg. We divided our test into two segments—a hands-on, purely subjective driving evaluation, followed by instrumented proving-grounds tests. Sophisticated systems utilize an array of electronic sensors to gather and analyze data, enabling intelligent control units to determine how to protect drivers and passengers.
ZF TRW's EPHS is a compact Motor Pump Unit (MPU) connected with a conventional rack and pinion power gear. The system requires comparably low application development costs - an ideal solution for hybrid electric vehicle platforms.
In terms of software tuneability, EPHS delivers a number of benefits to steering feel, such as speed proportional functionality and general customizable steering properties. Our Toyota kit features a 6" X 1.5" stroke hydraulic ram with high temp inner and outer seals for long life and no leaks. The power steering pump pushes fluid through hydraulic hoses into and out of a steering cylinder that then turns the wheels. The following list is a summary of laws for those states that do make reference to a vehicle's steering systems. A steering wheel's lock-to-lock turning count must not be less than 2 or more than 6 revolutions. Although these laws don't specifically prohibit full hydraulic steering, that does not necessarily make it legal. Alternatively, the stock steering system will need to be re-installed to pass a tech inspection.
In the event that someone is injured in that accident, it is likely that their lawyer(s) will inspect the vehicle for modifications to build their case against the driver. This article may be quoted, in part, for free if a link to the full text is provided alongside the quote.

Replacing hydraulic assist with a computer-controlled electric motor seemed like a reasonable idea when it first surfaced. Applying pressurized hydraulic fluid to one side of the piston while allowing fluid to return from the other side to a reservoir provides steering assistance.
Before hydraulic power steering (HPS) goes the way of the buggy whip, though, we wanted to understand the differences so we concocted this test.
The flow of hydraulic fluid is controlled by a steering valve that is connected to the steering wheel. That in mind, the risks of running a full hydraulic steering setup are mainly fix-it tickets and lawsuits.
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A torque sensor attached to the pinion shaft signals a control computer when to provide assistance. BMW conveniently offers both types of assist on 5-series models equipped with four-wheel drive. Hydraulic shined in only the three Feedback categories where it won the on-center comparison by four points and tied with EPS in our middle-of-maneuver and at-cornering-extremes performance ratings.
Anytime modifications are made to a vehicle they should be brought to the attention of the insurance company to make sure that insurance coverage remains in full effect. Electronic stability and traction aids are wonderful except when there’s no way to disable them. Then the two BMWs were handed over to colleagues at Cayman Dynamics, where engineers fit an array of sensors and recorded for analysis the results of various steering-response tests. Beyond the type of steering assistance, the notable differences are six cylinders in the 535i xDrive versus four in the 528i xDrive, 143 pounds more weight on the more expensive BMW’s front axle, and 19-inch 40-series tires (535i) versus 18-inch 45-series rubber on the 528i. The basic run-flat, all-season tire design and 245-mm ­section width are common to both.

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