A current measuring instrument employing the transmission of high frequency acoustic signals in the water. A submerged or emerged embankment of sand, gravel, or other unconsolidated material built on the sea floor in shallow water by waves and currents. The measurement of depths of water in oceans, seas, and lakes; also information derived from such measurements. A deep ocean current, especially along the western part of the oceans, characterized by sudden changes in temperature and salinity.
A wave whose velocity of propagation is controlled primarily by the surface tension of the liquid in which the wave is traveling. The short-crested waves that may spring up quickly in a moderate breeze, and which break easily at the crest. The littoral current in the breaker zone moving essentially parallel to the shore, usually generated by waves breaking at an angle to the shoreline. The change waves undergo after they leave a generating area (FETCH) and pass through a calm, or region of lighter winds. Downward movement of surface water caused by onshore Ekman transport, converging currents, or when a water mass becomes more dense than the surrounding water. Practice of excavating or displacing bottom sediment from one location to another in order to maintain water depth, or aid in beach restoration, construction, flood management and erosion control.
Electronic instrument used to determine the water depth by measuring the time interval between the emission of a sonic or ultrasonic signal and the return of its echo from the bottom.
Resultant flow at right angles to and to the right of the wind direction (in the northern hemisphere) referred to as UPWELLING and DOWNWELLING. Warm equatorial water which flows southward along the coast of Peru and Ecuador during February and March of certain years.
Region near a river mouth in which the fresh water of the river mixes with the salt water of the sea, and which receives both fluvial and littoral sediment influx.
The area in which SEAS are generated by a wind having a fairly constant direction and speed.
The theoretical determination of future wave characteristics, usually from observed or predicted meteorological phenomena. Database of information which is geographically referenced, usually with an associated visualization system. In wave prediction, the retrospective forecasting of waves using measured wind information. The description and study of seas, lakes, rivers and other waters and the description of the physical properties of those waters; also the science of locating aids and dangers to navigation. Waves with random wave periods (and in practice, also heights), which are typical for natural wind-induced waves.
On open seacoasts, a structure extending into a body of water, which is designed to prevent shoaling of a chanel by littoral materials and to direct and confine the stream or tidal flow. The quality, state or condition of peakedness or flatness of the graphic representation of a statistical distribution; or the measure of the peakedness of a frequency distribution. A sand ridge or ridges, runing roughly parallel to the shoreline and extending along the shore outside the trough, that may be exposed at low tide or may occur below the water level in the offshore. The average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of the tide over a 19-year period, usually determined from hourly height readings. The study of the sea, embracing and indicating all knowledge pertaining to the sea's physical boundaries, the chemistry and physics of seawater, marine biology, and marine geology.
The WAVE DIRECTION at the frequency at which a wave energy spectrum (WAVE SPECTRUM) reaches its maximum.
The WAVE PERIOD determined by the inverse of the frequency at which a wave energy spectrum (WAVE SPECTRUM) reaches its maximum. A structure, usually of open construction, extending out into the water from the shore, to serve as a landing place, recreational facility, etc., rather than to afford coastal protection.
That part of an incident wave that is returned seaward when a wave impinges on a steep beach, barrier, or other reflecting surface. Number of grams of salt per thousand grams of sea water, usually expressed in parts per thousand. Superelevation of the water surface over normal surge elevation due to onshore mass transport of the water by wave action alone.
A statistical term relating to the one-third highest waves of a given wave group and defined by the average of their heights and periods. The quality, state, or condition of being distorted or lacking symmetry; the quality or state of asymmetry shown by a frequency distribution that is bunched on one side of the average and tails out on the other side.
Also a measure of asymmetry of a frequency distribution; specifically the quotient of the difference between the arithmetic mean and the mode divided by the standard deviation. Acronym for sound navigation and ranging, a method used in oceanography to study the ocean floor.
A rise above normal water level on the open coast due to the action of wind stress on the water surface.

Irregular oscillations of the nearshore water level with periods on the order of several minutes. The zone of wave action extending from the water line (which varies with tide, surge, etc.) out to the most seaward point of the zone (breaker zone) at which waves approaching the coastline commence breaking, typically in water depths of between 5 to 10 meters. A layer in which the temperature decreases significantly (relative to the layers above and below) with depth. The periodic rising and falling of the water that results from gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun and other astronomical bodies acting upon the rotating Earth. A sample area, cross section, or line chosen as the basis for studying one or more characteristics of a particular assemblage. A long-period wave caused by an underwater disturbance such as a volcanic eruption or earthquake.
A condition of a liquid due to fine visible material in suspension which may not be of sufficient size to be seen as individual particles by the naked eye but which prevents the passage of light through the liquid; also the measure of fine suspended matter in liquids. The process by which water rises from a deeper to a shallower depth, usually as a result of offshore surface water flow. In ocean wave studies, a graph, table, or mathematical equation showing the distribution of wave energy as a function of wave frequency.
The horizontal distance between similar points on two successive waves measured perpendicular to the crest. 2012-09-20 Kathleen Ritzman and Julie Thomas met with Office of Management and Budget, Energy and Water. 2012-09-20 Julie Thomas and the National Federation Regional Association Executive Committee met with Dr. 2012-09-18 Julie Thomas attended the Ocean Observing Initiative Operations and Maintenance meeting, Washington DC.
2012-09-05 Julie Thomas attended the Interagency Ocean Observing Committee Data Management Steering Team meeting, Washington DC. 2012-08-22 Julie Thomas and Danielle Williams (SCCOOS) visited Ocean Institute to discuss further collaboration, Dana Point, CA.
2012-07-19 Randy Bucciarelli hosted Birch Aquarium Summer camp for a tour of facilities. 2012-06-27 Darren Wright attended the Google IO conference (and brought home some great swag!). 2012-03-15 Grant Cameron attended National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC) ISO metadata standards webinar. 2012-03-01 Grant Cameron attended National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC) ISO metadata standards webinar. 2012-01-25 CDIP hosted meeting with USACE Program Managers, Bill Birkemeier and Bob Jensen.
2011-12-07 Corey Olfe presented on wave measurement and surf forecasting at Qualcomm to members of their surfing listserv. 2011-08-19 CDIP hosted visit by Toni Atkins, State Assembly in California's 76th District.
2011-04-29 Julie Thomas, Kathleen Ritzman and Bill O'Reilly presented to the USACE Institute of Water Resources at Ft Belvoir . 2011-04-25 Julie Thomas attended multiple meetings regarding the maritime industry in Washington DC. 2011-04-07 Julie Thomas and David Castel met with Senator Murray's office, and Rep Beutler's offic. 2011-04-06 Julie Thomas attended multiple meetings with the Portland NWS, Astoria Coast Guard and the Columbia River Bar Pilots.
2011-03-02 Julie Thomas met with Jim Eckman and fellow co-workers at the Sea Grant office.
2011-02-22 Julie Thomas attended the Alliance for Coastal Technologies workshop in St Petersburg, FL.
2011-02-03 Julie Thomas and David presented to Clean Seas and other interested parties at their Carpenteria Office.
2010-12-07 Julie Thomas and Amanda Dillon visited USC Sea Grant to discuss further collaboration.
2010-11-09 Julie Thomas participated in a meeting at Sausalito, hosted by Robin Blanchfield with the Coastal Commission. 2010-11-03 Julie Thomas participated in a visit to Camp Pendleton, hosted by General Jackson. 2010-10-23 CDIP participated in Bob Guza's outreach and education day of hosting students from the Ocean Institute at Scripps. 2010-10-14 Julie Thomas and Heather Kerkering attended the San Francisco Harbor Safety Committee meeting in Hercules. The current is determined by a Doppler shift in the backscatter echo from plankton, suspended sediment, and bubbles, all assumed to be moving with the mean speed of the water.
An ocean wave has an amplitude equal to the vertical distance from still-water level to wave crest.

CDIP's buoys are equipped with sensors so that, in addition to floating, they can measure climatological variables such as wave height, swell direction and water temperature.
In the process of decay, the significant wave height decreases and the significant wavelength increases.
When a part of a train of waves is interrupted by a barrier, such as a breakwater, the effect of diffraction is manifested by propagation of waves into the sheltered region within the barrier's geometric shadow. It is caused by poleward motions of air and unusual water temperature patterns in the Pacific Ocean, which cause coastal downwelling, leading to the reversal in the normal north-flowing cold coastal currents. The waves of a fully developed sea have the maximum height possible for a given wind speed, FETCH and duration of wind. Department of Defense, by which the location of a position on or above the Earth can be determined by a special receiver at that point interpreting signals received simultaneously from several of a constellation of special satellites.
Usually the vertical motions are low; but when oscillations are excited by a tsunami or storm surge, they may be quite large. The height may be solely due to the periodic tidal forces or it may have superimposed upon it the effects of prevailing meteorological conditions. Magnetic inclination varies from 90 degrees (perpendicular to the surface) at the magnetic poles to 0 (parallel to the surface) at the magnetic equator. Jetties are built at the mouths of rivers or tidal inlets to help deepen and stabilize a chanel.
For shorter periods of observations, corrections are applied to eliminate known variations and reduce the results to the equivalent of a mean 19-year value. It is customary to consider water of depths less than one-half the surface wavelength as shallow water. Experience indicates that a careful observer who attempts to establish the character of the waves will record values which approximately fit the definition of the significant wave. In spectral analyses (like those applied by CDIP), significant wave height is often estimated as Hmo, 4 times the square root of the total energy ( Hm0 = 4(m0)^.5 ). It results from lack of coincidence of the mode, median, and arithmetic mean of the distribution. Positive skewness is defined for the longer slope of the plotted distribution in the direction of increasing variate values (mean greater than mode, or coarser particles exceed finer particles in a particle-size distribution); negative skewness is defined for the longer slope of the plotted distribution in the direction of decreasing variate values (mode greater than mean, or finer particles exceed coarser particles in a particle-size distribution). Storm surge resulting from a hurricane also includes that rise in level due to atmospheric pressure reduction as well as that due to wind stress. Swell characteristically exhibits a more regular and longer period and has flatter crests than waves within their fetch (SEAS).
Although the accompanying horizontal movement of the water resulting from the same cause is also sometimes called the tide, it is preferable to designate the latter as TIDAL CURRENT, reserving the name TIDE for the vertical movement.
It is most prominent where persistent wind blows parallel to a coastline so that the resultant Ekman transport moves surface water away from the coast. Rober Staffin, the Director for Basic Research in the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Laboratories and Basic Sciences, for tour of facilities. Among those attended were the American Pilots Association, Commercial shipping, Coast Guard, Marine Transportation System and Public Port Authorities. In the afternoon, Julie Thomas participated in an event for Sally Yozell, Chief of Staff for Jane Lubchenko. October 18, 2010 Julie Thomas and Darren Wright met with Debbie Zmarzly at the Scripps Aquarium to discuss a future ocean energy exhibit. We have crewed charter boats in the favourite yachting hotspots in the Mediterranean and Caribbean as well as worldwide locations. Time gating circuitry is employed which uses differences in acoustic travel time to divide the water column into range intervals, called bins. Particle motion resulting from surface oscillatory waves attenuates rapidly with depth, and practically disappears at a depth equal to a surface wavelength.
Waves longer than 2.5 cm and shorter than 5 cm are in an indeterminate zone between capillary and gravity waves. During many El Nino years, storms, rainfall, and other meteorological phenomena in the Western Hemisphere are measurably different than during non-El Nino years. Waves longer than 2.5 cm and shorter than 5 cm are in an indeterminate zone between CAPILLARY and GRAVITY WAVES.
Tides are now considered to be seiches induced primarily by the periodic forces caused by the Sun and Moon.
Strictly speaking this term applies to those progressive GRAVITY WAVES whose velocity depends only upon the wavelength. The bin determinations allow development of a profile of current speed and direction over the entire water column. In the latter configuration, it is nonobtrusive in the water column and thus can be deployed in shipping channels.

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