The '''stern''' is the back or aft+-most part of a ship+ or boat+, technically defined as the area built up over the sternpost+, extending upwards from the counter rail to the taffrail+. Sterns on European and American wooden sailing ships began with two principal forms: the ''square'' or ''transom'' stern and the ''elliptical'', ''fantail'', or ''merchant'' stern, and were developed in that order.
In 1817 the British naval architect Sir Robert Seppings+ first introduced the concept of the round or ''circular'' stern. The stern of a classical sailing ship housed the captain's quarters and became increasingly large and elaborate between the 15th and 18th centuries, especially in the baroque+ era, when such wedding-cake-like structures became so heavy that crews sometimes threw the decoration overboard rather than be burdened with its useless weight.
The flat surface of any transom stern may begin either at or above the waterline+ of the vessel. The visual unpopularity of Seppings' circular stern was soon rectified by Sir William Symonds+. As ships of wooden construction gave way to iron and steel, the cruiser stern—another design without transoms and known variously as the ''canoe'' stern, ''parabolic'' stern, and the ''double-ended'' stern—became the next prominent development in ship stern design, particularly in warships of the latter half of the 20th century. None of these three main types of stern has vanished from the modern naval architectural repertoire, and all three continue to be utilized in one form or another by different sets of designers and for a broad spectrum of uses.
The reverse stern, reverse transom stern, sugar-scoop, or ''retrousse'' stern is a kind of transom stern that is raked backwards (common on modern yachts, rare on vessels before the 20th century); the vertical transom stern or plumb stern is raked neither forward nor back, but falls directly from the taffrail down to the wing transom.
Some working boats and modern replicas have a similar form of counter, built to be water tight as described in the "transom stern" section above. A bustle stern refers to any kind of stern (transom, elliptical, etc.) that has a large "bustle" or blister at the waterline below the stern to prevent the stern from "squatting" when getting underway. Stern+ The stern is the back or aft-most part of a ship or boat, technically defined as the area built up over the sternpost, extending upwards from the counter rail to the taffrail. Contact us with a description of the clipart you are searching for and we'll help you find it. The square stern had been an easy target for enemy cannon, and could not support the weight of heavy stern chase gun+s.

Those not reaching all the way to the taffrail+ are called ''short stern timbers'', while those that do are called ''long stern timbers''. In this revised stern, a set of straight post timbers (also called "whiskers", "horn timbers", or "fan tail timbers") stretches from the keel diagonally aft and upward.
The intent of this re-design was to protect the steering gear by bringing it below the armor deck. Variations on these basic designs have resulted in an outflow of "new" stern types and names, only some of which are itemized here. It is a compromise between the 'spoon-shaped' stern usually found on ocean liner+s, and the flat transom, often required for fitting azimuth thruster+s. Sternum+ The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone shaped like a necktie located in the center of the chest.
Originally, the term only referred to the aft port section of the ship, but eventually came to refer to the entire back of a vessel. But Seppings' design left the rudder head exposed, and was regarded by many as simply ugly—no American warships were designed with such sterns, and the round stern was quickly superseded by the elliptical stern. If the stern had transoms above the wing transom, they would no longer be affixed to the sternpost. The two outermost of these timbers, located at the corners of the stern, are called the ''side-counter timbers'' or ''outer stern timbers''. It rests on the top of the sternpost and runs on either side of the rudder post (thus creating the "helm port" through which the rudder passes) to a point well above the vessel's waterline.
The stern now came to a point rather than a flat panel or a gentle curve, and the counter reached from the sternpost all the way to the taffrail in a continuous arch. A double ended ship with a very narrow square counter formed from the bulwarks or upper deck above the head of the rudder is said to have a pink stern or pinky stern. Stern Review+ The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change is a 700-page report released for the British government on 30 October 2006 by economist Nicholas Stern, chair of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment at the London School of Economics (LSE) and also chair of the Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP) at Leeds University and LSE.

The United States began building the first elliptical stern warship in 1820, a decade before the British. It is the stern timbers collectively which determine the backward slope of the square stern, called its rake+-- that is, if the stern timbers end up producing a final transom that falls vertically to the water, this is considered a transom with no rake; if the stern timbers produce a stern with some degree of slope, such a stern is considered a raked stern.
It was soon discovered that vessels with cruiser sterns experienced less water resistance when under way than those with elliptical sterns, and between World War I and World War II most merchant ship designs soon followed suit. The torpedo stern or torpedo-boat stern describes a kind of stern with a low rounded shape that is nearly flat at the waterline, but which then slopes upward in a conical fashion towards the deck (practical for small high-speed power boats with very shallow drafts). The larger the vessel, the more numerous and wider the transoms required to support its stern.
Sternoptyx diaphana+ Sternoptyx diaphana, the diaphanous hatchetfish, is a species of deep sea ray-finned fish in the family Sternoptychidae.
Though a great improvement over the transom stern in terms of its vulnerability to attack when under fire, elliptical sterns still had obvious weaknesses which the next major stern development—the iron-hulled cruiser stern—addressed far better and with much different materials.
Stern John+ Stern Christopher James John CM (born 30 October 1976 in Trincity, Trinidad and Tobago) is a Trinidadian football player who recently came out of retirement to play for WASA FC. Sternotherus odoratus+ Sternotherus odoratus is a species of small turtle native to southeastern Canada and much of the Eastern United States. Stern–Gerlach experiment+ The Stern–Gerlach experiment showed that the spatial orientation of angular momentum is quantized. It demonstrated that atomic-scale systems have intrinsically quantum properties, and that measurement in quantum mechanics affects the system being measured. Sternoptychidae+ The marine hatchetfishes or deep-sea hatchetfishes as well as the related bottlelights, pearlsides and constellationfishes are small deep-sea ray-finned fish of the stomiiform family Sternoptychidae.

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