Description: During the thirty years after Columbusa€™ first voyage, the Spanish, British, and Portuguese were actively exploring the New World. In Lyon a well-entrenched enclave of Florentine bankers and merchants imported luxury goods from the Orient.
The solution was to search for a sea passage that allowed its discoverer to control trade with the Orient.
These people go altogether naked except only that they cover their privy parts with certain skins of beasts like unto martens, which they fasten onto a narrow girdle made of grass, very artfully wrought, hanged about with tails of divers other beasts, which round about their bodies hang dangling down to their knees. After passing Cape Fear and Cape Lookout, Verrazzano sailed the long reaches outside the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The people are almost like unto the others, and clad with feather of fowls of diverse colors. The Abnaki shot arrows at the French when they tried to land, but they could still conduct some meager trade through baskets, let down on a line from cliffs at the shore by the Indians. They returned to Dieppe six months later after a fast Atlantic crossing, reaching Dieppe on 8 July after an extraordinary cruise that changed the maps of America and affected the direction of exploration for decades to come.
The original of this map, about 102 by 51 inches, a sea chart of the world on parchment, much faded and stained, is in the Museo Borgia, Propaganda Fide, Rome.
The large reproduction (approximately same scale as the original), entitled Verrazano Map, 1529, is from a photographic copy of the original made for E. The Atlantic coastline of this map, which extends northeastward as far as Labrador, is of the Sevillan type (so called because the first maps of this type were made at Seville), and the Pacific coastline is of the type of the Maggiolo Map (#340). The most dramatic feature of the Verrazzano map is this vast nonexistent protuberance of the Pacific Ocean that appeared as the Sea of Verrazzano on maps and globes over the next sixty years.
This concept was taken up by various cartographers back in Europe and, subsequently, a great indentation along the western coast of America starting just north of California was a common characteristic of many early maps of the continent. Wishful thinking no doubt impelled Verrazzano to place this enormous waterway in the middle of North America, contained on the east by the narrow isthmus of the Carolina Outer Banks. The Verrazzano brothers, Giovanni the explorer and Gerolamo [Hyeronimus] the mapmaker, combined to create an image that persisted to the end of the century.
On Giovannia€™s third voyage in 1528, while searching for a strait through Panama to the Southern Ocean, he again crossed the Atlantic (exploration and the cutting of logwood being the joint goals of the expedition), landing in Florida, then following the chain of the lesser Antilles.
The coastal nomenclature given by Verrazzano differs from the Ribero (Sevillan) type (#346) and, unlike his Sea of Verrazzano, was not widely followed by later cartographers. The Strait of Magellan is indicated but not named, to the south of which stretches an extensive but nameless continent. The map is large enough that, unlike other maps of the period, does not avoid the issue of the areas north and south of Eurasia and the New World. This is part of a large undated, unsigned manuscript map, oriented with South at the top, approximately 4 x 8 feet, which derives its name from a former owner, Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford. Detail: North America from the Harleian map, 1547 showing the mythical (unnamed) Sea of Verrazano, the St.
Description:A  During the thirty years after Columbusa€™ first voyage, the Spanish, British, and Portuguese were actively exploring the New World.
The most dramatic feature of the Verrazzano map is this vast nonexistent protuberance of the Pacific Ocean that appeared as the Sea of Verrazzano on maps and globes over the next sixty years.A  This now famous western sea that bisects present-day North America has no name or inscription actually on the Verrazano map itself, nor is it mentioned in Giovannia€™s letter to King Francis I.
The coastal nomenclature given by Verrazzano differs from the Ribero (Sevillan) type (#346) and, unlike his Sea of Verrazzano, was not widely followed by later cartographers.A  The cartographer has introduced the name Norumbega (here, in the form Noranbega, applied to a river), by which the New England region was known throughout the 16th century.
The map is large enough that, unlike other maps of the period, does not avoid the issue of the areas north and south of Eurasia and the New World.A  The mapmaker clearly believed that Asia was separate from the new discoveries. When checked, Shutterstock's safe search screens restricted content and excludes it from your search results. Chinese paintings, and may also be of some assistance even to the more sophisticated scholar or collector of Chinese paintings in bridging some of the diverse gaps that still exist in our collective assessment of individual works. Chinese ethnicity, and generally trained through the traditional private master-pupil relationship. This approach to learning by copying was the standard method by which all Chinese artists learned to paint.
Taipei Xiaozhong xianda album, does add some credence to the notion that the Taipei album may in fact be by Wang Shimin himself. Based on the theories of scholar painters of earlier periods, chiefly Su Shi (1036,1101) and Mi Fu (1051-1107) of the Song, Zhao Mengfu (125-1322) of the Yuan, and Dong Qichang (1555-1636) of the late Ming, the Qing dynasty literati painters, who generally were also connoisseurs and collectors, established an orthodoxy of correct models, techniques of painting, and most important, standards for brushwork. A A A  This approach to learning by copying was the standard method by which all Chinese artists learned to paint. A A A  In a remarkable set of twelve hanging scrolls, now in the Shanghai Museum, painted in 1670, Wang Jian transformed these compositions once again, but this time into full~size vertical scrolls of uniform dimensions. A A A  Based on the theories of scholar painters of earlier periods, chiefly Su Shi (1036,1101) and Mi Fu (1051-1107) of the Song, Zhao Mengfu (125-1322) of the Yuan, and Dong Qichang (1555-1636) of the late Ming, the Qing dynasty literati painters, who generally were also connoisseurs and collectors, established an orthodoxy of correct models, techniques of painting, and most important, standards for brushwork. France, however, the fourth European maritime nation, remained uncharacteristically quiet regarding overseas exploration until 1523 when an Italian brought the French flag to North America. They knew the traditional overland routes of European trade with Asia through the Levant could not bear the competition of Portuguese imports coming by sea around the Cape of Good Hope. A group of powerful and wealthy Florentine Lyonnaise agreed to sponsor a voyage westward in search of a route to Cathay [China]. Verrazano had been provided with four ships, but two of them shipwrecked shortly after depart, while a third one was sent home carrying the prizes from privateering on the Spanish coast, so only the flagship La Dauphine actually made the crossing of the Atlantic.
He sighted Cape Hatteras and continued northward, traveling the 150 miles around Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds. They came towards us very cheerfully, making great shouts of admiration, showing us where we might come to land most safely with our boat.
Because the natives were very friendly, for once he decided to break his habit and anchor near the coast. What displeased the French even more were the Abnakia€™s disdainful manners when the Europeans left, such as exhibiting their bare behinds and laughing inmoderately.
This is the first Italian map on which the designation a€?Americaa€? appears on the northern part of South America.
The name of the author of this map is found in the inscription at the top: Hycronimus de Verrazano faciebat. Even in the 1670s, when John Lederer made his famous explorations of Virginia and North Carolina, most colonial settlers believed that the Western Sea was only about 10 or 15 days inland from the coast. It must have been the same motivation that caused European mapmakers to accept this delineation for many years.
In 1527 his men mutinied and ordered him to return to France, but Verrazano, using their incompetence in navigation, nonetheless reached Brazil, cut logwood (a red dye wood then named brazil wood) and his backers made good profit from it. On one of the islands (probably Guadeloupe) his habit of anchoring away from the shore became fatal. It is worthy of notice that the latitudes given in a column on the map, just west of Africa, are inaccurate and do not correspond with the two latitudes mentioned in the letter sent by Giovanni da Verrazzano describing his voyage.
This inscription is particularly important as it records the opinion prevalent in 1579 that the landfall of the Cabots was far to the north in Labrador. Sailing along North Carolinaa€™s Outer Banks in 1524, Verrazano saw the sound on the eastern side of the isthmus and postulated that it must be the Pacific.
An early spring snowfall had dumped 2 feet of wet snow on Irish Hill making the going tough, but as founder of the cemetery Mary had been there many times before. Following the model of the calligrapher, the best painters sought to master the styles and techniques of a number of different artists and gradually to synthesize the results into an individual personal style. 4 In either case, the album embodies the attitudes of early 17th century literati towards the artistic process. The assumption was that a skilled artist was capable of capturing the essence of each large-format model and recreating the essential stylistic features and spirit of the original through his scaled-down copies. In the case of the literati scholar-painters, the student not only mastered the techniques of painting but also aligned himself, through the selection of appropriate models to copy, with the great masters of the past.
7 Wang ]ian probably painted this series, or other versions of the compositions depicted in this album, many times. The same composition could be ascribed to different artists, even by the same copyist, but this did not lessen the value of either the original or the copy. Using calligraphy as a model, the Qing literati reinforced the notion that brushwork should be the principal criterion for judging quality in painting. It is crucial, therefore, that the visual templates themselves are accurate representations of the categories they purport to represent.


It is for this reason that it is useful to study copies and forgeries in addition to original works, using the former to chart the evolving image of early masters down through the subsequent ages. Today, we fly all over the world to view blockbuster exhibitions in Shanghai, Beijing, Tokyo, New York, London, and Taipei.
Wai-kam Ho, editor, The Century of Tung Ch'i.ch'ang 1555-1636, volume 2, Seattle and London, 1992, p. Furthermore, if Spain reached the Far East by sailing directly westward to China, the Florentine merchants at Lyon would lose their trade altogether. They engaged Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine pilot, to lead the enterprise, but needed the authorization of the King of France, Francois I, who had been occupied in regional warfare and in developing a brilliant court, found his treasury in need of immediate funds.
Of the crew of 50, the only one who is known apart from Verrazzano himself was his brother Girolamo da Verrazzano, who was a mapmaker. The people are of a color russet, and not much unlike the Saracens; their hair black, thick, and not very long, which they tie together in a knot behind, and wear it like a tail. The large body of water inside the Outer Banks was visible from the ship but no inlet was found. We entered up the said river into the land about half a league, where it made a most pleasant lake [the Upper Bay] about three leagues in compass; on the which they rowed from the one side to the other, to the number of 30 in their small boats, wherein were many people, which passed from one shore to the other to come and see us. These Wampanoags showed him an even better sheltered harbor, present day Newport, and Verrazano stayed there for two weeks, waiting for better weather conditions. Their food, as far as we could perceive, often entering their dwellings, we suppose to be obtained by hunting and fishing, and of certain fruits, a kind of wild root. Stevenson, Maps Illustrating Early Discovery and Exploration in America, 1502-1530, New Brunswick, 1903-1906, map No. On latter 16th century maps such as Michael Loka€™s in 1582 (#419), it is called Mare de Verrazana 1524. Richard Hakluyt, Elizabethan propagandist and promoter of British overseas enterprise, included a map based on Verrazzanoa€™s in his influential Divers Voyage, Touching Discoverie of America published in 1582.
Giovanni was going ashore in a boat to greet the natives, wading the last part while the boat, with his brother, remained at sea. The islands of Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica are also incorrectly located north of the Tropic of Cancer.
The islands of Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica are also incorrectly located north of the Tropic of Cancer.A  The Gulf of Mexico is too far north. Lawrence River shows the discoveries of Jacques Cartier on his second voyage of 1535; it may be based on Cartier's own map, now lost, of that expedition. They attempted to transform the methods of their predecessors and use them for their own creative ends. The copyist hoped to penetrate the internal essence of the original artist's creation and transmit the spirit of the large compositions through his small copies that duplicated the external forms of each composition. Many artists of the same aesthetic persuasion as Wang Shimin produced versions of the same compositions featured in the Xiaozhong xianda album. 13) is a highly attenuated version of the now-familiar composition elsewhere ascribed to either Wu Zhen or Juran. Ming scholar painters, such as Shen Zhou (1427-1509) and Wen Zhengming (1470-1559) had modeled their styles primarily after Zhao Mengfu and the Four Yuan Masters.
The connoisseur must constantly update his visual database as new discoveries are made and new evidence is revealed.
Moreover, connoisseurship in general has been increasingly de-emphasized in art history programs worldwide, in favor of less object-oriented approaches to art.
His 1529 world map was one of the two first maps to show Verrazanoa€™s discoveries (the other was Vesconte de Maggioloa€™s 1527 map of the western hemisphere, #340.
Verrazano believed that the sea that lay behind it, in reality Pamlico Sound, was the Pacific. Sailing further north, he missed the entrances to Chesapeake and Delaware bays, because until New Jersey he kept quite far from the coast. And behold, upon the sudden (as it is wont to fall out in sailing) a contrary flaw of wind coming from the sea, we were enforced to return to our ship, leaving this land, to our great discontentment for the great commodity and pleasantness thereof, which we suppose is not without some riches, all the hills showing mineral matters in them. The degrees of latitude are along a line passing through the Canary Islands, which may have been intended for a prime meridian. The relative excellence of the delineation of the region of the Isthmus of Panama is worthy of note.
Few geographical errors so confused the minds of explorers and mapmakers for a century as this belief in the nearness of the Western Sea (see also #340, 351, 357, 367, 371, 373, 377, #418; maps by Maiollo, Sebastian MA?nster, Battista Agnes, the Ulpus Globe, the Harleran, Baillya€™s Globe, the Wooden Globe, the single cordiform mappamundi of FinA¦us, Jacques Le Moyne, Michael Lok, Dr. Sir Walter Raleigha€™s colony at Roanoke was established on an island in Pamlico Sound presumably because it would be a strategic location on the main route to Cathay when the passage was discovered.
Unfortunately, the natives were not a friendly tribe that wanted to trade, but cannibalistic Caribs.
The eastern coast of North America trends too much to the northeast, as on most all early maps. She knew it was a fine line between spinning out and reaching the summit.A A Tiffani Jones (name changed) was being buried today. 960~980) and Wu Zhen i??(1280-1354) in the album on paper, but curiously assigned to Wu Zhen and Xu Ben (d. Although Wang had to manipulate the proportions of the landscape elements in order to fit the vertical format, he retains all of the basic forms and compositional relationships among forms. In other words, a painter's individual personality was discernible and significant, but only within the context of a relatively narrow range of acceptable conventions of brushwork techniques and compositional modes. By adapting large vertical compositions on silk to smaller, less vertical formats, often on paper, the early Qing literati were able to expand the pantheon of acceptable models to include a broad range of artists from remote antiquity who worked in styles as diverse as those of Fan Kuan (c.
We can exchange information twenty-four hours a day with colleagues halfway across the world by telephone, fax, and e-mail. 960~980) and Wu Zhen (1280-1354) in the album on paper, but curiously assigned to Wu Zhen and Xu Ben (d. Francois had no inhibitions over poaching on the Portuguese or Spanish preserve; in fact, he was incensed at the arrangement between those two nations and at the Pope who had divided the world between them. Thus North America at this point seemed nothing more than a rather long, extremely narrow isthmus. Verrazano next discovered New York harbor, and anchored in the Narrows, later named after him and now spanned by the Verrazano Narrows Bridge. The delineation of Verrazanoa€™s discoveries is one of the most important features of the map.
They expertly killed Giovanni and ate him while still fresh, under the eyes of his brother. Lawrence too small; thus indicating that possibly the maps from which they were drawn may have been of different scales.
1403) in the silk versions, were most likely part of a complete album on silk, or perhaps silk and paper.
The harsh, raw strength of the brushstrokes and the intimidating angularity of the forms in the original are entirely lacking. Chinese paintings are sold at public auction and in galleries, and are available for study in museums throughout the world.
As this area appeared impenetrable, they proceeded northeasterly in their search for the passage through to the Orient. This mistake led mapmakers, starting with Maggiolo and Girolamo, to show North America as almost completely divided in two, the two parts just connected by a narrow piece of land on the east coast. The coastline of Africa and of India reveals a surprising knowledge of the Portuguese discoveries.
The older assumption that the central figure in the group below the river is an actual portrait of Cartier is now disputed. 6 In any case, Wang Hui's version reflects the same attitude of reverence towards the ancients and similarly attempts to faithfully convey the spirit and form of the original compositions. 1046-after 1100), and Gao Kegong (1248-1310), as well as the Four Yuan Masters and Zhao Mengfu. We have the tools to elevate connoisseurship to an unprecedented level of accuracy but, in order to do so, we must match the diligence, sensitivity, and passion of our predecessors.
The inset, which omits many details, is from a map based on photographs of the original and published in H. Previous encounters with cruel Spanish conquerors had obviously affected the Indiansa€™ protocols of hospitality.


The coastline from Cape Briton to the south of Cape Cod is probably based upon a copy of the lost pardon generalA  of Alonso de Chaves, 1536. Mary was glad Tiffani was local -- from the hardscrabble village at the base of the hill -- because after five years, she was a little tired of Greensprings being seen as a groovy, hippie alternative to traditional burial.
So strong was the hope among European merchants and sovereigns that a convenient passage be found connecting an easy sea route from Western Europe to the Spice Islands and Cathay, we find the cartographer of the Harleian map obliging this desire by going beyond previous representations by Maggiolo (#340) and Gerolamo da Verrazano of a false Verrazanian Sea.
From all accounts Tiffani was a hard-drinking, hard-partying woman and many of her mourners were cut from that same cloth. The Harleian map provides the belief that an actual strait had been discovered cutting through the north isthmus to the broad waters of an unnamed gulf recognizable as the aforementioned Verrazanian Sea (another false strait had appeared on earlier maps, farther to the south, on the Darien peninsula). They stood shivering in thin leather jackets pulled tight around their bodies while the wind blew, making it seem colder than 28 degrees.
The strait on this map carries the legend, Gofanto mer osto, which may be freely translated as a€?Gulf before [or leading to] the South Seaa€?.A  Another manuscript map, La Virgenia Pars, by John White in 1585, shows a similar strait (#370).
Historical differences in scale, function, and artistic intent were subordinated to the promotion of a universal aesthetic based on brushwork. I was sure itA was either someone who worked at the Borders bookstore coming in early orA perhaps an Asian student who lived in an adjacent apartment complex. Sometimes there were none and I wasA surprised at how disappointed I was when that was the case. Often there wereA just one or two standing and I made it a habit to carry my camera so I couldA take pictures of them.
If they didna€™t, they didna€™t.A And the ephemeral quality of the perched rocks was somehow thrilling. Youa€™dA expect to find something like this on a beach or maybe a river bed but a mallA parking lot?
I also buy a new pen before a journey that I slip through the elasticized band that encircles the journal.
This is my traveling kit a€“ one in which I make notes in longhand and draw sketches to illustrate what Ia€™m seeing. A --A A modest low-slung metal building, set in the woods off a dirt road, is home to the world-famous Thistle Hill Weavers, workplace and studio of textile historian and weaver Rabbit Goody. Approaching the building a muffled thwack-thwack-thwack mechanical sound created by power looms can be heard. When the door is opened, the noise spills out along with the smell of fibers mixed with machine oil. Lawrence River leaves the confines of its banks and flows into the ocean, one of the biggest draws for me was the night train from Montreal to Gaspe.
Trains have always held a fascination for me, drawing on some part deep inside that really wants to live in the 19th century (although Ia€™m not so much of a sentimentalist that I dona€™t know that 19th century train travel also involved lots of soot and hard seats).A (Click here to read more .
The young man beside me with a modified mohawk and earlobe plugs thanked me for pushing some hot air his way. At that moment, the SufferJets were skating two players down because jammer Sarabellum and blocker S---- a€?N Gigglz sat in the penalty box (an area adjacent to the track with metal folding chairs surrounded by shower curtains). A My boat, hired for a week, was steel, sleek, and low-slung, and painted maroon with yellow and green trim and a knotty-pine interior. Mid-Lakes Navigation built these self-skippered canal boats to be both rugged and comfortable. He was an agricultural economist and a speechwriter for President Roosevelt during the Depression but by the time I knew him, he spent his days painting pictures and researching local history.
He was a quiet man with strongly held opinions and although he died when I was very young, my aunts say I'm an awful lot like him. A When I was young, my sisters and I roamed the Spiritualist campgrounds on our Spyder bikesa€“a€“sticking to the narrow gravel drive.
During the summer, when the camp was full, there would be a message service in the auditorium on Thursday nights and we'd often sneak into the back of the hall to listen. But I didn't really think much about the psychics and mediums and healers and the messages they were giving to the believers on those humid summer evenings. On one side of the fjord, abandoned low-slung gray apartment buildings almost blended in with the low hills.
On the other side, someone had painted many of the occupied buildings in blazing colors: pink, yellow, and minty greena€”a jarring sight in the washed-out landscape. A This is the part of Russia that Sarah Palin could see if she had super-binocular powers; it lies just across the Bering Strait from Alaska.
He was a quiet man with strongly held opinions and although he died when I was very young, my aunts say I'm an awful lot like him.
During the summer, when the camp was full, there would be a message service in the auditorium on Thursday nights and we'd often sneak into the back of the hall to listen.
But I didn't really think much about the psychics and mediums and healers and the messages they were giving to the believers on those humid summer evenings. I would be riding in either a hovercraft or have a jet pack strapped to my back as I made my way to the grocery storea€”wait, there would be no grocery stores because all of our food would be in the form of little pellets that expanded to glorious dinners when put in some kind of rehydrating device. I think that everything I imagined about the future I got from watching a€?The Jetsons.a€? (click here to read more .
He doesna€™t live on an island in the Caribbean or even within spitting distance of an ocean. Rather, his farming takes place in 100-gallon saltwater tanks in the basement of his neat and tidy house the color of a warm Sargasso Sea in upstate New York.
In college, he learned to scuba dive and began collecting corals from the temperate zones around the world. Less than half an acre and only, at its highest point, about 30 feet above the crashing waves, the islet is a godforsaken bit of rock stuck in the Atlantic Ocean off the eastern edge of Bermuda and one of four secret nesting sites for one of the rarest seabirds on earth, the Bermuda petrela€”known locally as the cahow because of its eerie cry. Madeiros, Bermudaa€™s terrestrial conservation officer, is a small, soft-spoken 47-year-old with a mustache, tortoiseshell glasses, and a penchant for Australian army hats.
Carefully working his way across the isleta€™s stony surface, he makes the rounds to specially designed artificial nest burrows built to protect petrel chicks from the danger of tides and rough seas. The burrows are marked by wooden baffles that guard the entrances and have a very precisely measured oval cut into thema€”big enough that an adult petrel can get in to feed its chick but a hair too small for a white-tailed tropicbird to squeeze through and take over.A (click here to read more . I know if I ever smell yak butter again Ia€™ll be back in Lhasa, Tibet, in the days before the first train was scheduled to arrive from China.Last summer, my daughter, Railey, and I went on a journey, and although I wasna€™t sure what we were looking for, somehow I thought we might find that indefinable thing in Tibet.
My prior knowledge of Tibeta€”a beautiful, mysterious, and remote countrya€”came from the movies and from my local grocery store.
Ronald Colman from Lost Horizon and Brad Pitt from Seven Years in Tibet were my spiritual guides, and the monksa€”small, brown men in long maroon and yellow robes who I periodically ran into in the produce sectiona€”shaped my notion of Tibetan culture.
I would steal glances at them as they smelled the cantaloupes and picked out oranges, and if they caught me looking, theya€™d flash wide smiles and their eyes would almost disappear, and I would get all embarrassed. Ithaca, New York, is home to the Namgyal Monastery, the Dalai Lamaa€™s personal monastery in North America, so you get used to seeing the Tibetan monks around town.
In winter, their maroon and yellow robes hang below puffy down jackets as they trudge through the snow and slush of upstate New York in hiking boots.
It might have been the weather--it was hot and rainy and foggy all at once creating a misty landscape that looked an awful lot like those painted scrolls of the humpbacked mountains you see hanging in Chinese restaurants.
Or it might have been that I felt like I was looking at shadows, for much of what I saw was doomed and would soon disappear beneath the muddy river water. In early summer, the Yangtze--the longest river in China and the third longest in the world--is a swift flowing muddy brown mess of a river.
We were on a boat about 200 kilometers upstream of the Three Gorges Dam and the landscape we passed through was going to be flooded with sixty more feet of water in a couple of months.
The Chinese are maniacs about their building projects and, true to form, were rushing to finish the dam and start generating electricity well ahead of schedule. As a result, the water level in the gorges was going to rise sooner rather than later.A (click here to read more .



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