The relationship between UK pilots and towage goes back to the 1830’s when the concept of attaching a specially designed small vessel to tow bigger ships was first introduced into Britain. These first tugs were steam powered paddle tugs which, rather than being used to manoeuvre vessels alongside berths or into locks (which was still mainly undertaken using winches, capstans and manpower) were generally used to tow vessels up and down rivers and estuaries which considerably reduced the delays resulting from having to wait for favourable tides and winds. The wonderful resource of the Internet reveals that the tug was the wooden hulled Monarch which was built by Edward Robson of South Shields in 1833. Despite the advent of screw propulsion in the 1840’s the world of towage was very conservative and paddle tugs were still being commissioned as the tug type of preference late as 1899.
Even in the 20th Century some paddle tugs were still being constructed and the last one to be built for civilian use was the  John H Amos which was launched in 1931.
The Soviet Union continued to build paddle tugs up until the mid 1980’s and some of these are still in use, their shallow draught enabling them to work in shallow rivers where conventional tugs are unable to operate. The single screw tug eventually replaced the paddle tug as the preferred towage vessel type around 1900 and this design remained the tug of choice right up until the 1960’s .
Another continental invention that enhanced propeller efficiency, especially for tugs and small craft, was the Kort Nozzle.
A typical single screw tug was the Sun XXV11 operated by London’s Alexandra Towage Company. Here, your crusty old editor has a personal nostalgic moment since during the early part of my career with the PLA the majority of the tugs were conventional single screw. The Voith Schneider propulsion system is based on an invention by Ernst Schneider, an Austrian who designed it for use as a hydro-electric turbine.
The manner in which the system works is too complex to detail in this article but  basically vertical blades mounted on a rotating plate are angled to generate thrust which can be directed in any direction.
The advantages of VSP came to the attention of the Southern Railway Company who had Britain’s first VSP vessel, the MV Lymington constructed by William Denny and Bros in Dumbarton in 1938. Fitted with twin Voith units this vessel served on the Lymington – Yarmouth service between the Isle of Wight and the mainland between 1938 and 1972. Despite the evident advantages for manoeuvrability, tug companies were slow to adopt the Voith propulsion system with, so far as I can ascertain, the first Voith tug being the Stier constructed for German owners in 1955. In the 1980’s the twin Voith configuration enabled more power to be delivered and thus facilitated their use on larger tugs and they rapidly started to replace the traditional screw tug as the tug of choice for ship handling and they also serve well as sea towage tugs. In London I was  still a junior pilot when the first Voith tug (Waterloo) arrived to join the Alexandra fleet in 1992, closely followed by the Sun Anglia in 1993. I recall that when their impending arrival was announced there were mutterings from some of the old pilots that they would never be any use on the Thames because of the strong tides.
For us pilots, the capability to put a tug on a single line on a centre lead aft and move it from one quarter to the other in a few seconds made for safer and  easier ship handling so we were all delighted when  more Voith tugs appeared and by 1995 we were normally allocated at least one Voith tug for manoeuvring. Also known as Z-pellor tugs and sometimes “reverse tractor”, this type of tug is currently a very popular model due to its efficiency and economy when compared to the Voith. With twin drive units that can be rotated through 360 degrees ASD tugs are very manoeuvrable and, at first glance, seem to represent a return to the traditional tug format. Also referred to as Azimuth Tractor or Azimuth Forward Drive tugs, this design is basically a twin Voith tractor tug fitted with twin azimuthing drives instead of the Voith Schneider units.
As can be seen from above this is a variation on the Azimuth Tractor design with twin azimuthing units located forward but in a less vulnerable position being protected by the skeg and presumably this makes them a shallower draught than the ATD tug.
You wait a whole career for a tandem propulsion tug to be designed and then two turn up together! This quarter’s feature on tugs was collated from various sources and I hope that it has helped to update readers on the various types of tug, their advantages and limitations. Thank you for a most enjoyable article, taking in many aspects of tug development in a well-balanced and good-humoured style. Thanks John what a great Article I love reading up on other design and berthing practices that are used around the world.
GenslerOnWork examines the modern workplace and how design can help us become more engaged and productive as we earn our livings.
2013 Workplace Survey (2) 33D Printing (1) 3D Printing (1) A Take on Tech (1) Augmented Reality (1) bathrooms (1) Big Data (1) Branding (1) Cafeteria Design (1) Collaboration (10) Commercial Office Buildings (16) Consulting (19) corporate campuses (3) Corporate Office Buildings (11) corporate real estate (2) coworking (1) Creative Media (2) Distractions (3) drawing (1) DSD (1) Federal Government (3) Financial Services Firms (4) Fitness (1) Focus Work (17) Furniture (1) Gensler D.C. A tug of war between history and tradition and the future and innovation is being played out in Londona€™s storied insurance sector, and the industry is feeling the reverberations worldwide.
Even the face of The Triangle is changing as aging building stock and high real estate costs drive site redevelopment, leading to increasingly newer, modern architecture being woven into the existing historic contexts. No one doubts that technology will continue its rise in prominence, but the human element has an importance in insurance that is proving tenacious. To read more about this issue and others impacting the insurance industry, please read the longer paper which can be found here.
Ross Naismith is a leader of Genslera€™s Financial Service Practice Area and works at the firma€™s London office. Judy and Dave Jones of Kalamazoo own this 32-foot Nordic Tug, which is one of 21 such vessels that sailed into the St.
The Mackinac Bridge seems high when driving across it, but when sailing under it, he said, “That's when you appreciate how big that bridge is. Other boaters have vacationed in the North Channel along the Georgian Islands in Canada, said 37-foot tug owner Ben Kraft, and told of wildlife encounters. About 85 Nordic Tugs sail in the Great Lakes and about 800 can be found around the country, with the majority in the Northwest, said Mr. During the weekend event, the group holds seminars on boating designs, how to make the vessel more like a home, engine information, and demonstrations.
During the week commencing the 11th August it is planned to sail the Kerne along the River Mersey and the Manchester Ship Canal to Salford Quays and moor on the public quay adjacent to the Lowry Centre and Media City. We are fortunate to have a record of this era in the form of the painting of the warship Fighting Temeraire ( apparently referred to as the Saucy Temeraire by her crew!) by JMW Turner which depicts the towage of the vessel from Sheerness to Rotherhithe for scrapping in 1838. This was despite the evidence from what must be the most famous “tug of war” in maritime history between the screw propelled HMS Rattler and the paddle wheel driven HMS Alecto in 1843 which proved conclusively that screw propulsion was more efficient with the Rattler pulling the Alecto astern at 2kts! She has survived (just!) and is currently undergoing restoration by the Medway Maritime Trust.


Their versatility for harbour, barge and deep sea towage work means that many of these tugs are still earning their keep around the World.
Originally invented by the Italian aeronautic engineer Luigi Stipa to enhance aircraft performance in 1931, it was Ludwig Kort who adapted the design for marine use and who produced the first “Kort Nozzle” in 1934. Checking on the history of  a couple of these, the 1965 built Sun XXV1 and the 1968 built Sun XXV11, owned by the Alexandra Towage Company were typical of the tugs operated by towage companies around the UK. Although it proved to be no improvement on existing turbines for hydro-electric generation, a  chance meeting with the Voith company  led to it being developed as a propulsion system where its enhanced manoeuvrability potential was realised and then proven by trials on Lake Constance. In 1974 she was purchased by the Scottish Western Ferries company and renamed Sound of Sanda serving on the Hunter’s Quay to McInroy’s Point run until 1989 when she was switched to ferrying cement lorries to the Faslaine naval base until 1992. The UK was then quick to realise the advantages of the VSP with several companies commissioning them in the 1960’s. By 2000 all the Thames tugs were Voith tugs but currently, the new tugs being introduced by Svitzer towage (who currently manage the main Thames tug fleet) as the older Voith tugs are replaced  are Azimuth drive tugs. Although the azimuthing drive was developed by the Schottel company in the 1950’s it was the British company JP Knight who were the first company to introduce an ASD tug in Europe in 1981 with the Japanese built tug Kinross which is still in service at Invergordon.
However, the difference is that on this type of tug the towing winch is fitted forward rather than aft. We have two ATD tugs in London and the tug Skippers’ like working with them and confirm that they handle very much the same as a Voith. I don’t have much operational information on this class of tug but from the promotional data they are basically and ASD tug with the wheelhouse moved aft and reversed, the advantage of this being that they can work closer under the flare of a ship’s bow than an ASD. I must admit that I only learned that such a tug design existed a couple of years ago but have discovered that the design dates back to 1999 when a Kotug engineer came up with the concept in response to a tender for tugs from Milford Haven. The answer is not just that they are obviously extremely manoeuvrable but also flexible as result of the three engine configuration. EDDY stands for Efficient Double-ended Dynamic’ tugs and features two azimuthing drives, one at each end of the tug.
Like the EDDY concept, the RAVE (Robert Allen Voith Escort) has a drive unit fitted at each end of the tug but in this design the units are Voith propulsion rather than azimuthing drives. Henk Henson provided me with some useful contacts but a particularly valuable resource was a presentation on tugs by the well known tug expert and author, Jack Gaston, who kindly gave me permission to plagiarise his work* and to use the above picture . Three of Svitzer’s tugs moored nearby were quickly on the scene and joined the fire brigade in tackling the blaze. I work in Port Hedland Western Australia where the older ASD tug & Zech ASD design tug where our first choice for the past 25 years here. The a€?Lloyda€™s Trianglea€™ a€“ a section of the City bounded by Leadenhall, Fenchurch, and Bishopsgate Streets a€“ remains an important geography for insurance companies to have a presence. Insurance companies are conducting more and more business online; hitting a return key increasingly does what was once done with a handshake. Jones and his wife, Judy, originally are from London, England, and now hold a duel citizenship and live in Kalamazoo.
Ignace City Marina last weekend came from Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, Minnesota, Indiana, Missouri, and Canada. Members said they appreciated the marina design, the friendliness of the community, nearby shops, the boardwalk, and views of Mackinac Island. You're looking up and you can see the two main supports and this bridge just towering above you.
With a draft of a mere four feet of water, boats can get into really shallow water and can be docked along the shoreline. Bay Breeze Yacht Sales of Traverse City, the mid-American dealer for the vessels, sponsored the gathering.
The boats are designed for stability and are completely self-contained with a generator, large water and fuel tanks, heat, and air conditioning. Down three steps from the helm is the main salon area, and going forward from the helm and down three steps are the sleeping berth and bath.
Jones said he and his wife often are in six- or seven-foot seas when sailing on the Great Lakes. All on the other hand, watches really are for making use of, not just for keeping on the closet, so certainly even some of the most careful keep an eye on enthusiast find himself or possibly herself experiencing a scraped watch gem. A male is without a doubt unfinished without wearing just the right view round his particular wrist. Widely regarded as Turner’s greatest work it was voted Britain’s favourite painting in a BBC Radio 4 poll in 2005. The Monarch was acquired by John  Watkins & William Ogilby in 1834 and served the port of London until she was scrapped in 1876. Here again though, Britain lagged behind the rest of the World because despite the Diesel engine being widely installed in European  tugs from the 1930’s onwards the UK tug owners continued to commission steam powered tugs right up until the 1950’s !
It appears that Stipa never received any credit for the maritime application and unfortunately his aeroplane prototypes were never successful although the principles were later used in both turboprop and turbofan engines.
Since then, despite attempts to restore and preserve her, she was stripped of her engines and abandoned as a hulk on mooring buoy. One of the major advantages of this type of tug is that with the drive units being placed forward, the risks of “girting” and capsize were dramatically reduced. This is the normal steaming mode for the Voith tugs in the river since the wash is less than that generated when steaming ahead. These craft rapidly proved themselves to be not only excellent tugs but also they were popular with the tug skippers, a factor that cannot be overlooked when considering safe tug operations!
The Svitzer Anglia only left London last October and is currently for sale, laid-up on the Tees. The increased efficiency is revealed in the bollard pull which is 60 tonnes for these tugs compared with 52 for the similarly sized Voith tugs in use. I have no information as to whether they experience similar problems to the ASD when working as a bow tug at speed but the large skeg would seemingly offer good directional stability. The ability to operate on one, two or three engines not only  makes them extremely safe in the case of an engine failure but also offers considerable fuel savings.


Baldo Dielen Associates Ltd (BDA Ltd) created the design and SMIT has participated in the development and model testing program.
It is interesting to see a new design using Voith units but in recent years a fundamental re-engineering of the units has resulted in an increase in efficiency and the advantages of more precise control of thrust and faster redirection of thrust make it competitive for certain applications. Jack is a skilled model maker and he explained that his daughter presented him with the, originally static, duck display model as a challenge to transform it into a remote controlled model, which, as you can see, was achieved without problem much to the delight of Jack’s grandsons and, no doubt, all the onlookers at the local pond!
Local Fire Officer Jamie Ashby was very grateful for the tug assistance and said that at least another two warehouses would have gone up without the impressive power and volume of the tug’s water cannon.
Strong personal relationships and in-person interaction remain critical elements in insurance exchanges, and using increasingly well-appointed offices with prestigious addresses to host these interactions remains a strategic necessity. Several tug owners have been visited by curious bear and moose making unexpected appearances. Also, the boat owners conduct tours of their vessels to see what other owners are doing, said Mr. They were modified in the 1980’s and fitted with Kort Nozzles and these modifications resulted in an increase in bollard pull from around 25 tonnes to 35 tonnes from the same hull, thus proving the efficiency gains achievable by the fitting of Kort Nozzles on tugs.
Firstly they protect against girting and capsize and secondly they can rapidly change from pulling to pushing mode when made fast alongside on the hull making them ideal for handling tankers and bulk carriers.
Harbour tugs are fitted with very powerful and fuel hungry engines but this power is only used for a small percentage of the time when involved in manoeuvring ships.
Although no EDDY tugs have yet been commissioned the designers claim that the design will offer superior safety, performance and economy.
The RAVE is a big tug of around 37m and, as its name suggests it’s designed for escort work.
As with any new additions to a fleet of tugs there is a bit of adjustment in thinking and in driving styles.
The 32-foot boat was picked up from the Washington factory, sailed up the coast of Alaska, back down and through the Panama Canal to Florida, up the eastern seaboard, through the St. Contemplating this specific require and moreover need through those people, many makers at present conserve a number of high-class watches. The latest  information that I can find is that both these tugs are still working as port tugs in Trinidad under the names of Saga Moon and Saga Sun. For the majority of the time, harbour tugs’ engines are idling on stand-by so being able to run on one engine when not actually engaged in towing is a major economy, an important factor given the increasing cost of bunkers. There is a portfolio of several different sizes but it’s probable that the standard model will be a general purpose tug 30m long and around 60 Tonne BP. The versatile design of both the Zech and Rotor Tugs means they can be driven as a ASD or in Tractor mode it all come down to the Vessel your berthing, thanks for a great publication Regards Brad. Jones organized the fourth annual Great Lakes rendezvous for Nordic Tug owners, which brought the unusual boats to St.
Ignace Car Show and took advantage of the parade, downtown car display, and Saturday night fireworks. The big drawback with this type is in their restrictions for use as a bow tug made fast on a centre lead forward. Being double ended it is anticipated that the handling will be entirely intuitive and independent from the direction the tug master is facing.
There have been several incidents involving the loss of control of an ASD tug whilst operating in the “bow to bow” mode and pilots operating with ASD tugs should all read the MAIB report into the Thorngarth – Stolt Aspiration incident. Each end classifies as bow and tank trials indicate that the tug performs well in either direction in all conditions. The problem for an ASD tug operating in this mode is that if the tug is allowed to drift more than a few degrees of the ship’s heading alignment when the ship is moving at speed through the water it can become impossible for the tug Master to recover the alignment and the tug will be swept around under the flair of the bow. A central skeg is designed to provide good directional stability and a substantial increase in line force when operating in the indirect towing mode.
The Nordic Tugs look like working tug boats, sort of -- yet on second glance the vessel that tops out at about 20 knots also looks like a traditional recreational fishing or sailing yacht. There is a very dramatic photograph of this happening to the tug “Fairplay 21” on the Internet. The proposed towing arrangement is a double-drum towing winch with two towing fairleads, one for close quarters ship handling and one for (indirect) escort towing.
Having stated that, there are some ASD tugs with skegs which provide enhanced directional stability when running astern which enables them to operate at higher speeds but generally the maximum recommended speed for these tugs to operate in the bow to bow mode is 4 – 5 kts and some tug companies won’t permit their ASD tugs to operate in this mode at all. The single deck level accommodation is designed to offer better clearance when working under the flare of large ships.
The consequence of these restrictions is that this can make their use with container ships largely impractical when made fast anywhere other than on a centre lead aft. Running “light”, an economical, low wake, 12 knot speed is designed to be achieved using a single drive unit. The reason for this is that container ships are designed to go fast between ports and the large engine and propeller configuration can result in “dead slow ahead” speeds as high as 11 knots. It can generate push and pull forces in any direction, with minimum delay.  When assisting under speed, high dynamic forces of up to twice the tug’s bollard pull can be generated both by the stern and the bow tug since they are designed to be as effective at the bow as at the stern which is aimed to address the need by tug operators to standardise their fleets without the need to choose between ‘ASD’ or ‘tractor’ type tugs. Also the hull design has a large flare on the bow and also a cut away on the stern which results in a very small section of parallel body for a tug to push up on thus making it very inefficient   to use tugs in the “push-pull” mode on these ships. This is especially the case for the forward tug which frequently has to move so far aft to be in a position to operate that it’s frequently aft of the pivot point!
The other problem with these containerships is that they often have no towing bollards fitted on the main deck aft of the fo’c’sle!



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