DESCRIPTION: With the develop-ment of Portuguese seafaring in the 15th century and the subsequent widening if the southern horizon, the problem of a€?harmonizinga€™ or reconciling the traditional world views laid down by Pliny, Ptolemy, Aristotle and Ambrose with that of the new discoveries became increasingly acute. Beyond the equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius [Mela] and many others as well raise a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India; [nevertheless] they say that many have passed through these parts from India to Spain . This rather refreshing disposition towards agnosticism is exemplified again in the configuration of South Africa. Also typical of maps of the period, the anonymously compiled Genoese map is covered with legends in Latin, castellated towns representing major population centers, princes on their thrones, and loxodromes from the portolan tradition.
This map is now the property of the Italian Government, and is to be found in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence, being catalogued Sezione Palatina No. The Genoese map became the center of controversy in the 1940s when the Italian scholar Sebastiano Crino, suggested that this was a copy of the map that Paolo Toscanelli sent to the Portuguese court in 1474 and later but less certainly to Columbus, was a copy of it, touting the possibility of a sea route to India via the Atlantic. A Genoese flag in the upper northwest corner of the map establishes this mapa€™s origin, along with the coat of arms of the Spinolas, a prominent Genoese mercantile family. The map is elliptical in shape, having a major axis measuring 81 cm and a minor axis measuring 42 cm.
Ptolemy is cited by name in several inscriptions, and there is evidence of his influence in the representation of Africa (Ethiopia, the source of the Nile), an enclosed Caspian Sea (Mar de Sara), the southern coast of Asia, and the Golden Chersonese, not named but identified by a legend noting that it is particularly rich in gold and precious stones.
Paradise does not appear on the map, and an inscription in southeastern Africa tells us why: a€?In this region some depict the earthly paradise. Of course, the cosmographers had no objection to monsters - even Ptolemy mentions a few, although he did not put them on his maps.
Although its cartographer explicitly disapproved of fantastic narratives in a legend in the Atlantic (frivolis narracionibus rejectis), Chet Van Duzer points out that the richly decorated map contains a number of fantastic illustrations, and the legends, many of which come from the travel narrative of Niccole dea€™ Conti (c.1395-1469), do not shy away from fantastic subjects. In the eastern Indian Ocean there is an imposing creature with a humanoid head and upper body, but with large horns and ears and wing-like red membranes joining its outstretched arms to its torso, and a fish-like tail. Turning first to Europe for a consideration of the details of the map, it will be noted that the contour of this continent is drawn with a nearer approach to accuracy than is true of the other continents, our cartographera€™s greatest errors appearing in the regions which were beyond those recorded by Ptolemy and the portolan chartmakers. The only mountains indicated in Europe are the Alps, which are made to sweep in a somewhat irregular curve around the north of Italy and the head of the Adriatic. In the northern part of Europe we find sketched a polar bear Forma ursorum alborum, and an ermine or sable, animals whose valuable pelts were obtained by the Hansa of Novgorod and sold by them in Bruges to the Italians. Many regional names appear and many cities are made prominent in each of the continents through the sketch of a building, which building sometimes is a castle, sometimes is a church or cathedral, sometimes is a monastery. England, Scotland, and Ireland are represented as on the portolan charts of the period, over each of which flies a pennant. In France appear the names Gascona, Lengadoc, Normania, Baiona, Bordeaux, Tolosa, Nar-bona, Montpellier, Arguesmortes, Avenio, Massillia, Lion, Dijon, Bourges, Renes, and a few undecipherable names.
In Italy we find Italia, Masca, Calabria, Si-cilia, Sardinia, Corsica, Niza, and Venezia, which last our author has made especially prominent, while Genoa itself has been omitted altogether. In central and eastern Europe we find Bavaria, Boemia, Prutenia, Bruges, Dancic, Famosura [Frankenburg?], Poana, Praja, Ratisbon, Inbrunch, Vienna, Pruna, Potavia, Ungaria with Juanin (Raab), Burgaria, Polonia, Carcovia, Rossia, and near this last the classic names Sormatia prima and S. We also find the region Zichia designated on the north and northwest slope of the Caucasus, and, on the Black Sea, Savastopoli, Kaffa, Pidea, Flordelis, Turlo and Moncastro. On the Hellenic-Slavic peninsula we find the names Sclavonia and Albania, which had but recently withstood an attack of the Turks; here also are Macedonia, Grecia and Morea. But it is perhaps in respect to the islands of the southeast that the map is of greatest interest. It is not easy to determine the significance of a gulf that extends far into the east coast of Asia north of Borneo and Java. The name Sine, or Sina, which was never used in the middle ages, and which in all probability the Genoese map-maker took from Ptolemy, suggests that the gulf is likewise from Ptolemy, and in order to find space for the new discovery it has been placed farther north.
The northeast coast of Asia is in part determined by the form of the map, and in part is arbitrarily drawn, as are also the numerous islands, not one of which we are able to identify.
The Genoese map abandons the northeastern quarter of Asia to the apocalyptic peoples: surrounded by impassible mountains and in the north and east by the ocean is a large territory in which are placed trees and fortresses. In addition to the usual medieval depiction of the mythical Gog and Magog the Genoese map also contains a large number of drawings of zoological interest. The main African interest lies in the fact that, as a departure from Ptolemya€™s conception, the Indian Ocean, as is also shown on the Vesconte, Bianco, the Catalan-Estense, Leardo and Fra Mauroa€™s maps (#228, #241, #246, #242, and #249), is not landlocked, and, significantly, the southern extremity of Africa does not run away eastwards, as on the Catalan-Estense map.
The southern coast of the continent, from Arabia and the Persian Gulf to Further India, exhibits the Ptolemaic influence in particular, though our Genoese gives evidence of possessing a good knowledge of some of the most recent reports of travelers.
The peninsula Guzerat is better drawn than by Ptolemy, and the Bay of Cambay appears as a deep inlet of the ocean into which a broad rivera€”perhaps the Mahia€”empties. In the interior of Ceylon a lake appears which may owe its origin to a statement made by Pliny or maybe an attempt to represent some one or more of the numerous artificial reservoirs or tanks for which the island is famous. In their outlines there is a certain similarity between the islands Ceylon and Sumatra as represented by our Genoese mapmaker and the same islands as they appear on the maps of Ptolemy. The name Sumatra, which our cosmographer, together with Conti, considers to be the native name, seems first to have become a more or less familiar one in Europe in the 14th century.
The long southern coast which, according to Ptolemy, makes of the Indian Ocean an enclosed sea, and which in part appears in the Idrisi and the Sanudo maps (#219, Book II, #228), has been omitted here, and the great gulf of Ptolemy on the east of the peninsula becomes in the Genoese map an open sea, corresponding to the account of Conti and other travelers, which sea had been found difficult of navigation because of continually unfavorable wind. Concerning the two large islands lying off the east coast of Asia, a legend gives the following information: These islands are called Java, of which the greater in circumference is three, and the other two thousand miles. Marvelous beings are represented in parts of the Indian Ocean, such as an animal with the body of a fish and the head of a woman, that is, a siren; also a fish with a humanlike head and large fins with sharp spikes thereon. Of particular importance are the other legends in the Indian Ocean apparently derived from Conti.
We find on other world maps similar information concerning the construction of ships which sailed the Indian Ocean, as well as information concerning trade routes, such as the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235). Ibn Batuta also describes them minutely, making mention of ships that could carry a thousand mena€”six hundred seamen and four hundred soldiers. A river taking its rise on the east side of this mountain quadrangle, and emptying through two mouths into the Indian Ocean, cannot be identified, as the chart here contains numerous errors. It is of special interest that in a region so significant by reason of its physical features, where the Pamir Highlands, the Hindu Kush, the Himalaya and the Quen Lun unite, our cosmographer represents a second Iron gate where Alexander imprisoned the Tartars, or a wall with a strong gateway. In the interior of Southeast Asia there is a large lake with the legend: The waters of this lake are very pleasant and sweet for drinking.
Marco Polo relates a similar story, but adds, as does Conti, the simple facts that he himself observed, that is, that diamonds are obtained in India through mining and through the washing and the sifting of the sands.
No rivers are represented by the Genoese cosmographer in Northeast Asia, but we find twice inscribed the legend Inaccessible mountains. On their appearance, the Mongols were thought to be the descendants of the Ten Tribes who had departed from the Mosaic law; and even in the Mohammedan world their coming was regarded as a sign of the approaching end of the world. As a characteristic representation of the animal world, we find sketched in Southeast Asia a snake with a human head. The geographical nomenclature in the interior of Asia is very numerous, including the names of cities, countries and topographical features. The cities represented on the frontier of Asia Minor are probably Angora, Burssa and Philadelphia.
In Arabia Arabia Deserta is distinguished from Arabia Felix, and the extreme southeast part of the peninsula, that is, Oman, is called Fenicea et Sabba, suggesting that the Phoenicians once occupied the basin of the Persian Gulf.
On the east side of the Caspian Sea, in Turkestan, there are only two cities represented, Testango and Organzin. Conti, as before stated, divided India into three parts, but the Genoese cartographer, following the ancients, refers to two only, representing therein numerous cities and legends, most of which apparently he has taken from Conti.
Of the several regions only Maabar is especially designated in a legend reading: This province is called Mahabaria. Among the cities, Cambay is especially distinguished, which at that time was the most important commercial city of India, and which the Genoese cartographer calls combayta, making use of the Spanish term instead of the Italian Camcaia or the Latin Combahita.
West of the Ganges delta, on a mountain, lies the large city Bizungalia, which Conti called Bizenegalia, and which seems to have remained a city of importance well into the 16th century. The land north of the Ava River (Irawadi) as far as a great parallel mountain range, including apparently the entire Irawadi region, the Genoese cosmographer calls Macina, inscribing the legend: This province of Macina produces elephants. Turning to the continent of Africa, we find its Mediterranean coast, as on the portolan charts, well represented; likewise the Atlantic coast as far as Cape Bojador, which had recently been reached by the Portuguese.
On the west coast, in about the position where one should look for the Gulf of Guinea, a gulf having one large and two small islands extends into the mainland, as is represented by Sanudo, Leardo and Fra Mauro. In about the latitude of this gulf on the west coast we also find one indicated on the east coast which appears to be the Bay of Zanzibar. In the representation of mountains of Africa we find the Atlas range, which stretches along the north coast eastward to the Great Syrtus, a second range west of Egypt, stretching in a southerly direction.
The hydrography of Africa is likewise Ptolemaic, especially that which pertains to the Nile.
A monastery, or a city, with numerous towers over which a cross is drawn, is located in the lake and bears the name Maria of Nazareth. That the Christian Abyssinians made use of the elephant in war during the middle ages, Marco Polo relates, who, in his travels, had gathered considerable information concerning that region of Africa.
On the Catalan world map of 1375 (#235) a war elephant is also represented in Nubia, and the same picture appears again in India with the addition of a driver. Not only does there appear to be some confusion relative to the representation of the Nile River, but the hydrography of other parts of Africa is very confusing. The reference to the character of the land in Africa and its different products is very full, attention being drawn particularly to the animals.
The extreme southeastern part of Africa has the following legend: In this region certain ones have depicted the paradise of delights. A sea monster illustrating a passage from Bracciolini's Facetiaea€”the ultimate source of the demon-like sea monster on the Genoese world map of 1457a€”in Sebastian Branta€™s 1501 edition of Aesopa€™s Fables. Does the Genoese World Map represent an intermediate step between a heterogeneous medieval conception of space and a more modern homogeneous one? He shows a critical approach in dealing with his sources, backing up his decisions or listing information, which is a very innovative feature. As shown above, social customs and spatial perceptions are connected, and the mapmakera€™s intent to provide a near-natural depiction of the world might be related to the Christian faith.62 It is problematic to presume a homogenous conception of space is operative in the later Middle Ages or the Early Modern period, just because a mapmaker painted a mappa mundi using coastlines drawn from portolan charts, since geography is but one dimension of a mapa€™s content. These continuities could perhaps explain why, as Evelyn Edson and Emilie Savage-Smith write, [the medieval cosmological modela€™s] a€?overthrow in the 17th century caused a profound spiritual and psychological disorientation from which we have yet to recover.a€?63 Studying conceptions of space in mappae mundi reveals how these conceptions change over time.
The Santa Fe River valley was used by all peoples who entered the area and an important concentration of thousands of ancient petroglyphs are found along a volcanic escarpment formed by lava.
San Felipe is one of the most culturally conservative of all the Keresan speaking tribes and passionately retains their traditional religion and customs despite relentless pressures from the outside world.
Join Southwest Seminars and David Grant Noble for an archaeological journey on the scenic Yampa and Green Rivers through Dinosaur National Monument. Trip Description: Meeting in Vernal, Utah on May 20, we will visit the Dry Fork Creek Petroglyphs near Vernal, one of the most famous rock art sites in the Southwest. In Echo Park wea€™ll hike to two Fremont petroglyph panels and along the way cool off in Whispering Cave. On our final day, wea€™ll emerge from the canyons for a leisurely float through Rainbow Park followed by an exciting ride through Split Mountain and its series of rapids. Santa Anaa€™s original location is unknown as all the members of the Pueblo either left or were killed during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. Join Southwest Seminars for the experience of a lifetime led by Geologist Wayne Ranney, author of a€? Carving Grand Canyona€? and featuring 7 days rafting the Colorado River through the legendary Grand Canyon and 7 nights camping under the stars. Learn the story revealed in the thick sequence and variety of rocks exposed in the walls of the canyon which provide a record of the Paleozoic Era (550-250 million years ago). Wayne Ranney is the author of a€?Carving Grand Canyona€? and a€?Ancient Landscapes of the Colorado Plateaua€?, which he co-authored with Ron Blakey. Trip Details: The trip will be in 37 foot motored raft as they are the preferred mode of transportation for this kind of river excursion by Wayne, being more comfortable and safer for this kind of expedition.
Enter Grand Canyon and within the first few miles begin our descent though the geologic layers, traveling 78 miles by river to the bottom of this great stack of rocks. Float deeper into the Marble Canyon section of the river and see lush green spring of Vaseya€™s Paradise stopping at Redwall Cavern, a vast alcove that J.W. The canyon is truly Grand Canyon as we float downstream to the turquoise blue waters of the Little Colorado River, the spiritual birthplace of the Hopi Fourth World. Raft the notorious Lava Falls in the depths of the Grand Canyon near the end of our journey. Arriving at Whitmore Wash, we board a helicopter for a scenic flight out of the canyon, followed by charter flight returning us to Marble Canyon for farewell dinner with Wayne and those often dreamt about beds.
We have learned more about the Coronado Expedition in the past 25 years than has been pieced together in a century of prior work. Located on Ute Mountain tribal lands, this park was a 1911 compromise: between the United States taking tribal lands and the visionary leadership of Jack House, son of the Ute Chief Acowitz, who in the 1880a€™s tipped off the legendary Wetherill brothers to the existence of fantastic ancient Pueblo sites in Lion and Johnson Canyons in the Southwest. Step back in time to the late 19th century as we ride the train from Lamy, to Las Vegas, NM on the tracks of the old Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad to visit three historic hotels: Castaneda, Plaza, and Montezuma. Join us for a special visit to San Ildefonso Pueblo, one of the best-known New Mexico Pueblos because of the famous black-on-black pottery, which originated there and was revived in the1920s.
Join Alan Osborne and attend Candelaria Day festivities at both San Felipe and Santo Domingo Pueblos, both Eastern Keres villages on the banks of the Rio Grande, where traditional and culture are closely held and tenaciously kept.
We have been invited to the Acoma Sky City Governora€™s Feast Day where we will feast at the home of the governor and his family and witness celebratory observances of this important event where tribal members renew their culture, language and native religion.
The juxtaposition of young lava and old sandstone makes for a wonderful geologic setting and story.
When sixteenth-century Spanish explorers first set foot in what is now Arizona and New Mexico, they encountered people who lived in large multistory apartment buildings of stone and adobe enclosing communal plazas. Join John Ware, Porter Swentzell (Santa Clara), and Connie Eichstaedt for a seven day tour of the Ancestral Pueblo world to visit the sites highlighted in Warea€™s new book from the SAR Press, A Pueblo Social History. Our 3-day 2-night visit will be centered at the Chaco National Park campground, where our outfitters will provide a luxury and restful camping experience, including catered delicious food and shelter on-site under the stars and the night skya€™s pantheon of other heavenly bodies.
Eighteen giant calderas, or a€?supervolcanoesa€?, erupted in southwestern Colorado between 30-25 million years ago, forming much of the modern San Juan Mountains. Visit an early 18th Century Comanche camp, a site which encompasses where lodges were erected as well as ritual sacred areas beyond the dwellings. Journey to sacred sites in northern New Mexico, which are spiritually significant to different traditions, which have made a mark on New Mexicoa€™s cultural and religious landscape. This excursion will visit the remote site of Tsipinga€™uinge, an ancestral Tewa village on the northwest edge of the Tewa world. Attend the Jemez Pueblo feast day dances and witness an age-old religious ceremony, one of the only occasions outsiders may visit the Jemez Pueblo village of Wallatowa. Following our cultural orientation we will drive to the village of Santo Domingo for the occasion and spend the balance of the day watching the dances and ceremonial activities.
Frontiers a€?the leading edges of contact and change between culturesa€? and boundaries are important because they recognize that social systems are open and provide perspective on the more intensely studied central places, such as Chaco Canyon, Mesa Verde, and the Mimbres River. This important cultural area embraces the entirety of the Rio Alamosa drainage, from its headwaters at the Plains of San Agustin to its mouth on the Rio Grande including its tributary drainages and was the home of Ancestral Puebloans for more than 800 years.
What could be better than a spring float down the mighty San Juan River, legendary cultural resource in the heart of the Four Corners region? Our expedition outfitter is Wild Rivers Expeditions with its staff of expert and well-informed river guides, who tell the local stories, row the rafts and prepare all our river meals, and also furnish our camping equipment and supplies. After a hearty breakfast on Thursday, we will board our rafts for a 3-day float down the San Juan River.
Float through the fabulous Upper Canyon of the San Juan with its stunning geologic formations and fascinating stop to see fossils. Includes 3 full days of floating and 2 nights of camping on the river, 2 nights lodging at Desert Rose Inn, (the evenings before and after the raft trip), with tents, and sleeping bags for the camping nights.
Laguna Pueblo is seen by literally thousands of travelers who pass along Interstate 25 heading west of Albuquerque, but few are aware of its history, legacy, or traditions. The next morning, we drive to Bisti Badlands area, where we will marvel at the hauntingly beautiful scenery and enjoy a (requiring good walkers) 4-mile round-trip hike on relatively flat grounda€¦a gourmet picnic luncha€¦followed by more spectacular scenery and outdoor geology classes as Dr.
Nestled between the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the Sandia Mountains, While much attention has been given to the important archaeology of the Galisteo Basin, much less has of the public interest has been devoted to the geology of this rich resource area, until oil and gas exploration was proposed recently before our Governor imposed an important moratorium on extraction industries in this beautiful area just south and east of Santa Fe located along the Rio Galisteo. El Malpais National Monument offers many learning opportunities for us, including a presentation by Dr. We will drive over the continental divide through a lovely, ponderosa forest setting amid volcanic flows, cinder cones, and scenic sandstone bluffs landscape to El Morro National Monument.i?? This prominent high rocky promontory sheltered a large fresh-water pool, which attracted wildlife, as well as ancestral Pueblo, Spanish and Anglo-American travelers seeking water at the base of the bluff.
Georgia Oa€™Keefea€™s Beloved White Place: A Geo-Walk Through the Rocks at Plaza blanca with Dr. Located in the Sierra Negra Badlands, Our special day trip to Plaza Blanca (White Place) with our wonderful and favorite vulcanologist and Fulbright Scholar, Dr. You will also have the extraordinary blessing of spending a day with Sunny Dooley, a traditional Dine storyteller from the Chil Chi Tah area south of Gallup, who will guide us through her rural homeland. Make a memorable visit to the Crownpoint Navajo Rug auction, a significant monthly cultural event held in the Crownpoint Elementary School auditorium, where you will see many traditional weavers, as well as appreciate the opportunity to view a stunning collection of 200 or more weavings of all sizes, regional styles, and prices. Tour participants will visit three recently discovered (2008) Apache petroglyph sites along the upper Rio Grande, near Pilar, with noted Ethnobotanist and archaeologist Dr. Visit some of the most important Archaic era petroglyphs in the U.S, estimated at 4,000-6,000 years old or more.
The charming town of El Rito, north of Santa Fe on El Rito Creek, is situated along the margin of both the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift. For those of you that have explored the eastern half (the part you see from State Highway 4 out of Los Alamos), of the Valles Caldera, this tour will provide new insight and understanding to the amazing geologic and natural history of the Valles Caldera. Join Alan Osborne, Southwest Cultural historian for a day trip to Zia Pueblo for feast day dances. Spend an enlightening day with noted archaeologist, scholar, author and professor emeritus Dr. Arroyo Hondo was composed of 1,000 rooms arranged in 1 and 2-story room blocks and was originally investigated and partially excavated by Nels Nelson of the American Museum of Natural History. Tijeras Pueblo is on the east side of the Sandia Mountains and was occupied, like Arroyo Hondo, from about 1300 to 1425 AD.
While neither Arroyo Hondo nor Tijeras Pueblos remained occupied into the mid-1400's, settlement did continue at a pueblo in the modern village of San Antonio. Paa-ko Pueblo also began in the 1300's AD as a plaza-oriented adobe-walled compound of several hundred rooms. Journey into the magical Canyonlands and Arches National Parks of southeast Utah and the spectacular Red i??Rock Country of the Colorado Plateau for an unforgettable five-day experience with Dr. Something extraordinary happened a thousand years ago in a shallow canyon in the heart the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. Saturday, April 7, 2007 The many layers of geologic history unfold as we spend a fascinating day hiking among the sacred landscape and spectacular i??formations of the new Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument.
This one-day hiking adventure will explore the geologic story of the Abiquiu area, including rock formations and vistas that inspired Georgia Oa€™Keeffe. With Deputy Director of the OAS and Chaco scholar, Wolky Toll and cultural historian Alan Osborne, we'll leave Santa Fe early in the morning and drive along a scenic route through lands of the Santa Ana and Zia Pueblos and the Jicarilla Apache Reservation on our way to Chaco Culture National Historic Park.
This six day tour of the Rio Grande Pueblos will include visits to Taos, Picuris, San Ildefonso, Pojoaque, Cochiti, and Zia Pueblos, as well as tours of important and seldom visited Eastern Pueblo archaeological sites, including Tsankawi, Hanat Kotyiti, Guisewa, Kuaua, Pecos, and the world famous rock art panels of the Galisteo Basin. Departing Santa Fe, we will travel to EspaA±ola, then turn west onto Forest Road 144 (also known as 39-mile road), winding our way up into the northern Jemez Mountains.
The evidence is purely circumstantial, though the map would have been more encouraging to anyone hoping to circumnavigate Africa, and Crinoa€™s thesis has had no other advocates. Oddly, there is no city view of Genoa [Janua], while Venice is represented by an impressive set of buildings. Much scholarly ink has been spilled over the meaning of this caption, particularly cum Marino. It therefore indicates the longitude of the habitable world as about twice that of the latitude.
Hugh of Saint Victor had described the world as being the shape of Noaha€™s Ark, and Ranulf Higden world maps were oval (#232).
It is interesting that the maker of the Genoese map mentions peculiar customs (cannibalism, people who have no names) but no a€?monstrous races,a€? that is, people with aberrant physical characteristics, other than the pygmies. Gog and Magog are enclosed in northeast Asia, Noaha€™s Ark rests on a mountain range in Armenia, and the Red Sea is red, though there is no text about the passage of the Israelites through its waters. There are four prominent sea monsters in the Indian Ocean, which ocean thus remains a venue for exotic wonders.
The legend says that the creature sprang out of the water and attacked some cows pasturing on the shore, and then was captured and mounted and exhibited in Venice and elsewhere.
By reason of the limited space, the geographical details inserted in this section of the map are not numerous; indeed, of no part of the map can it be said that the author has crowded it with details. The Rhone, the Rhine, the Po and the Danubea€”the latter with an extensive deltaa€”have been inscribed in a manner which leaves no doubt as to their identity, while into the Black Sea, which with the Sea of Azov is well drawn, flow the rivers Don and Dnieper, and into the Caspian Sea flows the Volga, though no names are affixed. Here we also find the representation of a ruler, Lordo Rex with genuine Mongol features, the chief of the Golden Horde. To the south of Ireland, in the ocean, we find the following legend: Concerning Ireland two [stories] are told.
The names of nine cities in addition are given in northern Italy: Florentia, Ravenna, Ancerra, Borletta, Bor[i], Rana, Galta, and Napoli, with one illegible.
After the Alexandrian, the second main authority for the eastern portion is Nicolo Conti, the Venetian traveler, who reached the East Indian islands and perhaps southern China, returned to Italy in 1439 and whose narrative was written down by Poggio Bracciolini shortly after 1447. In the extreme east are two large islands, Java major and Java minor, and to the southeast two smaller islands Sanday et Bandam. In this enormous prison, labeled Scythia ultra Ymaum montem [Scythia beyond Mount Ymaus], is the word MAGOG in large letters (perhaps in Ezekiela€™s sense as a country?).
The remarkably strong ebb and flow of the waters in the Persian Gulf at the mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, observed by Conti, is thought by the Genoese cartographer worthy of mention: Sinus persicus in quo mare fluit et refluit velut oceanus [The Persian Gulf, in which the sea ebbs and flows as in the ocean]. This section of the coast could not well remain unknown to travelers coming from the mouth of the Indus River. The legend on the Genoese map relates in part to the Chinese junks, in part to the trade with India, which in the 15th century was in the hands of the Arabians, from whom the Portuguese seized it. Near the Persian Gulf in Arabia a mountain is represented, out of which flows a river, emptying north of Mecca, which doubtless is the Betius of Ptolemy. This is doubtless one of the passes lying somewhat to the west, where Scythia on the north joins with the highlands of Iran, and is probably the Khyber.
This lake, mentioned in the fabulous stories concerning India in the middle ages, is, again, derived from Conti. In the extreme northwest, in genuine medieval fashion, a leopard and a griffin have been sketched.
In this part of Asia the cosmographer places the land of Magog, whence Jews, Mohammedans, and also Christians of the middle ages, expected the coming of the destructive races at the last day. In Armenia appears Azerum, and to the southeast of this, in an incorrect position, Sauasto. In the interior, Jerusalem, Damascus, placed far to the north; Antioch and, less accurately placed, Tiberias.
Among the cities Media Arabie appears most conspicuous, and the tower decorated with a flag, and lying on the coast, is undoubtedly Dschidda, Contia€™s Zidem. In the interior are Tauria, a center of trade with remote Asia and India; and Ragis, the ancient Rhagas, a residence of Mohammedan princes, and, since the destruction by the Mongolians, a vast ruin, out of which in part the neighboring Teheran is built. Testango, which Pizigani calls Trestago, is Tysch-kandy on the Mertwyi-Kultuk Bay, whence the commercial highway led from the Caspian Sea over the Ust-Urt plateau to Organzin, the ancient capital city Chowaresmiens on the Darjalyk. By this we are to understand Coromandel, lying on the east coast, since it appears evident the legend refers to Meliapur. Meliapur is distinguished by a Christian church with a cross and the legend, Here lies the body of the apostle Saint Thomas.
The Genoese cartographer appears to have known the trend of the coast even to Cape Verde, although his representation of the coast southward of Cape Bojador is far from correct in its details. These last-named cartographers call this gulf Sinus Aethiopicus, while the Genoese cartographer, the name being repeated many times, designates the mainland as Ethiopia, and his legend here reads: Contrary to the tradition of Ptolemy, this is a gulf, but Pomponius speaks of it with its islands. Before this bay, that is, in the open waters of the Indian Ocean, is represented a fish with a swinea€™s head.
In the extreme south of the continent the Mountains of the Moon are represented as snow-covered, with the following explanatory legend: These are the Mountains of the Moon, which, in the Egyptian language, are called Gebelcan, in which mountains the river Nile rises, and from which, in the summer-time, when the snows melt, a very large stream flows. It was the Abyssinian Christians whom the cosmographers, at the close of the 14th century, had to thank for information concerning their country. Marco Polo ascribes the use of war elephants to the inhabitants of Zanzibar, while Masa€™udi expressly states that their land was rich in elephants, which, however, were neither tamed, nor were they used in any manner. A river empties in the Syrtus west of Masrata, which comes from a lake in the neighborhood of Wadam, and which is called by Idrisi Palmenoase, a river five daysa€™ journey south of the Great Syrtus.
In addition to the elephant and the crocodile, a camel is represented in the southwest, and near it a mythical animal, which may be a dragon or a basilisk, and which, according to tradition, inhabited Africa in antiquity and in the middle ages. For instance, the name Ethiopia appears six times, and in addition, in Western Europe, Ethiopia interior, and in the east, Ethiopia Egypti. To tackle this question, it is necessary to hypothesize on the mapmakera€™s intentions and study the way he handles the space on his map. Just as important are the various dimensions of meaning on the Genoese World Map relating to faith and social life. Today, in character with the preferences of our own culture, we are persuaded to live our everyday life in a homogeneous, absolute space, neatly separated from time, notwithstanding that Albert Einstein disproved this notion. Compare, for instance, this Catalan-Estense map (#246), the Walsperger world map (#245) and this Genoese world map, all of approximately the same date, ca.
Our special visit to the southwest Santa Fe petroglyph site of La Cieneguilla features one of our favorite study leaders: David Grant Noble, noted and celebrated editor, photographer and archaeology writer and author.
Although the Pueblo is not more than thirty minutes from Santa Fe, the fact that outsiders are not encouraged to visit has made it possible for them to maintain their individuality and resist the influences of modern life. The 4th edition of his Ancient Ruins of the Southwest: An Archaeological Guide is due to appear in 2015, as his a new edited volume, Living the Ancient Southwest. We float through the beautiful canyons of the Yampa River for three days, reaching the confluence with the Green River in Echo Park, so-named by John Wesley Powell on his famous 1869 expedition. The Yampa is the only remaining free-running, undammed tributary of the Colorado and its flow level depends on the winter snow pack and spring runoff. Our outfitter will be Dinosaur River Expeditions, family owned and locally operated in Vernal Utah staffed by experienced and knowledgeable river guides that love sharing the beauty, the history and the wildlife of the mighty Yampa River of Colorado and the crystal clear waters of Utaha€™s Green River of the Flaming Gorge. Three nights lodging at Landmark Suites in Vernal, Utah (2 nights before the rafting trip and 1 night after).
1300-1600) by visiting four important Classic Period Ancestral Tewa sites in the Ojo Caliente Valley northwest of Santa Fe.
Following the 1692-4 Spanish Reconquest, Old Sana Ana Pueblo (Tamaya), was founded 8 miles NW of Bernalillo. We raft into the Canyon beginning at Leea€™s Ferry and exit the canyon via scenic helicopter and charter air. He holds a mastera€™s degree in geology at Northern Arizona University and leads tours for the Museum of Northern Arizona, The Grand Canyon Field Institute and the Smithsonian, including round the world trips by private charter.
Our 190-mile trip between Leea€™s Ferry and Whitmore Wash has been selected by Wayne as covering the most scenic and geologically significant sites within the canyon in just the right balance of time on the river and off site exploration. Jane Coulter in 1922 as a tourist camp, ita€™s style was later adapted to most National Park Service locations.
Explore the relationships between settled Puebloan villages along the Rio Grande and early Spanish-led expeditionaries.
This led to a race for claimants to the treasures, the search and disappearance of artifacts along with the creation of a brisk trade in antiquities looted from these sites before federal laws were enacted to preserve them. After a warm welcome by a Harvey Girl we will get a detailed description of what railroad passengers experienced as they will bring back the deep appreciation of those magnificent days when the customer was king and the Harvey Girls, a€?those respectable young womena€™ and Couriers were ambassadors of impeccable service and local culture.
We will visit friends who have invited us to feast with them as they observe this important sainta€™s religious day in the Pueblos. It was extensively studied and researched by School of Advanced Research (SAR) in the 1970a€™s and has been the subject of nine monographs and numerous scholarly articles. These two parks are geologic showcases for the Jurassic Navajo sandstone, the largest petrified dune field in the world.
We then travel to Zion National Park where we will stay in the park at the renowned historic National Park Service Lodge cabins, Zion Lodge for 3 nights. The Spanish referred to these people as Pueblos (Spanish for a€?townsa€?), no doubt to distinguish them from the regiona€™s rancherA­a dwellers and nomads. Wea€™ll visit the contemporary Eastern Pueblos of Cochiti and Jemez, the Western Pueblos of Hopi and Acoma, and Ancestral Pueblo sites in Chaco, Mesa Verde, the San Juan River Gorge, and Canyon de Chelly. Scott Ortman will lead us on a very special tour of the Santa Clara Tribal Park at Puye Cliff Dwellings. We will hike the 3.6 miles South Mesa Trail Loop to Tsin Kletsin, (3 hours) on the South Rim with a visit to the important great kiva at Casa Rinconada. With less driving back to town for overnight lodging in a town, we will see morea€¦nature, birds, plants, landscape, the skya€¦basically the full day and night Chaco experience. Kirt Kempter for a 4-day geologic exploration of the Creede and Lake City and Pagosa Springs, region of Southern Colorado, where four of the massive supervolcanoes eruptions occurred. Visit the scenic North Clear Creek Falls and the spectacular Slumgullion landslide en route to Lake City.
Zia achievements in pottery and other arts and crafts, their storied history as well as spiritual tenacity are legendary. Our purpose will be to enhance our appreciation and understanding of these special sacred places and the spiritual traditions which hold them dear. We will also visit the Jemez State Monument, a 17th century Spanish Mission church, and the ancient village it was built near, now operated by the New Mexico State Monuments Division, as well as a delightful lunch at Deba€™s Deli in Jemez Springs, a resort community in the beautiful valley of the Jemez River.
Joe Suina, former Governor of Cochiti Pueblo and Professor of Education (ret.), for the renowned Santo Domingo Feast Day, an annual ceremonial held in one of New Mexicoa€™s most colorful Pueblos on the Rio Grande. Suinaa€™s home in Cochiti Pueblo for an informative cultural education presentation on the ceremonialism of Pueblo dances and Sainta€™s day feast celebrations in theEastern Keres villages of Cochiti and Santo Domingo.
Tuition of $90 includes Study Leader honorarium, transportation, meal, and donation to the Keres Language Project in which Dr. Steve Lekson and Karl Laumbach for an archaeology and history field study trip to visit important sites of the Canada Alamosa, located in southwestern New Mexico.


Studies suggest that the Pueblo populations of the CaA±ada Alamosa were at times strongly linked to a central place(s) and at other times were reorganizing in an independent effort to adapt and survive. Rio Alamosa is fed by a perennially flowing warm spring (Ojo Caliente), home of the Warm Springs Apache, the hot springs are located three miles northwest of the ranch headquarters.
Enjoy an educational and relaxing 3-day trip down the scenic San Juan River between Montezuma Creek, Utah and Mexican Hat.
Shortly before our river trip ends, we will pass the amazing balancing rock known as the Mexican Hat, which is near our river put-out. All meals: 4 breakfasts, 4 lunches and 4 dinnersa€¦2 at a€?Bluffa€™s besta€™ and 2 a€?round the campfire.
Visit one of the traditional western i??Keres villages of the Lagunas, Paraje, with Southwest cultural historian Alan Osborne where we will attend the annual Feast Day honoring Saint Joseph, patron saint of the Pueblo. Containing some of the most spectacular and b bizarre geologic formations in New Mexico, including gravity-defying hoodoos and multi-hued shales, the stacked layers, or formations within this 45,000 acre wilderness area show a continuous record of ancient environments, formed between 160 million and 40 million years ago, with episodes of uplift and erosion, inland seas, shorelines, estuaries, large forested river deltas, meandering steams, bogs, and numerous fresh-water lakes leaving evidence of early mammal fossils, dinosaurs, petrified wood caches, and periodic volcanic ash showers.
Its subtle natural beauty, with wooded hillsides, dramatic volcanic dikes, and wide, open grasslands has drawn many noted contemporary artists to settle there and has attracted attention from those seeking easily accessible but less traveled areas containing important sites of natural history, including those who specialize in flora and fauna, as well as geology and vulcanology. Kendrick on the many archaeological sites found El Malpais and recent discoveries, as well as current preservation projects in which Dr.
Taylor, an 11,301-foot volcano, which figures prominently into native cosmology, life here has been longstanding, adaptive, and enriched by the landscape. We will a chance to see some of the most exciting and interesting ancient and historic petroglyphs (more than 2,000) in North America, including the Onate inscription of April 1605, (15 years before Plymouth colony in Massachusetts) most of which are accessible by a scenic paved walking trail. Kirt Kempter, who will feature his a€?wise and well-considereda€™ thoughts and research on the geology between Santa Fe and Abiquiu, including a few roadside stops to look at important landscape features, rocks, scenic overlooks, and geologic field maps.
Paul Zolbrod, Research Associate, Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe, Professor of Literature, Dine College, Crownpoint, Professor Emeritus, Allegheny College, Pennsylvania, and Author, Dine Behane.
Sunny is a scholar for the New Mexico Endowment for the Humanities and travels widely sharing her culture through stories. Included is transportation, lodging at legendary El Rancho in Gallup on Route 66, most meals, special presenters and Study Leaders honoraria, and donation to Chil Chi Tah Elementary School, and celebration dinner. We will take you to seldom visited sites in northern New Mexico That are spiritually sacred and significant to different traditions which have made a mark on New Mexicoa€™s cultural and religious landscape.
These western-Keres speaking and traditonal people have occupied the scenic hilltop village and this rugged region NW of Albuquerque for centuries.
Linda Cordell, with whom we will be visiting four archaeological sites on the edge of the Galisteo Basin: Tijeras Pueblo, Paa-ko Pueblo, Arroyo Hondo Pueblo, and San Antonio. Intensively studied by Douglas Schwartz for the SAR, it sits at the margins of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains just outside Santa Fe. It is located above a seep, it is bisected by 2 arroyos, and was excavated by UNM field schools in the late 1940's, and again in the 1970's, directed by W. Kirt Kempter, vulcanologist, geologist, former Fulbright scholar, and Alan Osborne, Southwest cultural historian. Not only spectacular vistas, but also wildlife, including bighorn sheep, are always a possibility for sighting and photographing on this memorable day.
Puebloan peoples constructed over a dozen elaborate Great Houses of stone reaching three to four stories above the desert floor.
Wea€™ll first arrive at the Chaco Visitora€™s Center on the north side of the canyon, which features exhibits and interpretations of recent archaeological research as well as historic excavations, and artifacts revealing ancient life at Chaco.
However, the map is not well preserved, a fact due in part to careless handling, in part to its peculiar mounting which evidently is very old. The map was made not for practical use but for display, probably in the library of the Spinola family. It has been read to refer to Marino Sanudoa€™s map, to the knowledge of sailors (though ungrammatically), and to Marinos of Tyre.
It is, however, but mere conjecture to assert that our draughtsman had a Marinus map before him while working out his sketch, though it conforms to the geographical notion of that ancient cartographer.
A standard way of describing the earth, from Bede to the Catalan Atlas (#235), was to compare it to an egg.
But since this is a description of the cosmographers, who make no mention of it, it is omitted from this narration.a€? Who are the cosmographers, who also appeared in the caption cited above but in a more negative context? Angelo Cattaneo has identified the source of this legend as Chapter 18 of Pero Tafura€™s Andancas e viajes de Pero Tafur por diversas partes del mundo avidos, written c. Between the Dniester, at that time the western boundary of the Mongol empire, and the Dnieper is the city Lordo, a name that often appears in references to treaty relations established between the Mongols and the people of the Occident.
Here we also find Lisbona, Sibilla, Taragona, Barcelona, Saragosa, and a few other names which are illegible.
From the names given which so frequently appear in the history of the period that of Constantinople is omitted.
All these are taken from the Conti narrative: Java major is thought to be Borneo, and Java minor the island now known by that name.
West of the Golden Chersonese is an animal with the tail of a fish, a humanlike head and large horns and ears, with outstretched arms so attached to the body as to make them serviceable in flying or swimming. Heinrich Wuttke (Karten der seefahrenden Volker) provides a transcription of the captions in the margins and in the figure. In the place of Ptolemya€™s Taprobana two islands are represented, the larger of which, though appearing in outline to be Taprobana, is rather to be taken as a representation of Sumatra, while the smaller bears the name Ceylon. The inhabitants of this Taprobana, which in their language is called Ciamutera, are barbarians, having large ears in which they wear ornaments, and they dress in linen clothes.
According to a conjecture of Yule, the name Sumara, which appears in a manuscript of Marco Polo as the name of one of the kingdoms of the island, is only a corruption of Sumatra. The other legend, near the picture of a three-masted ship, reads: The Indian Sea is filled with many islands, rocks and sand-banks. Chinese junks, after an interval of five hundred years, again sailed the Indian Ocean at the end of the 13th century.
In addition to the sails, which were made of bamboo matting and attached to four or more masts, these Indian ships had rudders, which were handled by from ten to thirty men. Marco Polo called it the Sea of Ghel, or Ghelan, since Gilan, the city whence silks came, was to the Italians the best-known city on its shores. A mountain range farther eastward, and stretching in a northeast-southwest direction, is the east Iranian mountain range, along which flows the Indus. Here was a national highway over which, immediately preceding this period, the wild people of central Asia so frequently came into southern Asia. In these rather remarkable sketches we probably have a reference to the lakes of Udaipur and Dbar on the southern highlands of Mewar, which lakes in fact lie between the Indus and the Ganges. Yule refers to it as one known in the fourth century of the Christian era, in which allusion is made to the hyacinth or jacinth. In Turkestan is the legend King Cambellannas, son of the great Khan, by which legend is probably meant Timur, who reunited the numerous small kingdoms into which, about 1350, Dschagati had fallen.
On most of the early maps of the middle ages this land of Gog and Magog is represented, but with the advance of knowledge of Asia the names were given to lands further northward.
Of the cities which are here most distinguished there may be named Sinope, which is adorned with a Genoese banner. Of the cities of Parthia only the name Yier appears, by which perhaps Dschordschan is meant. Maabar, it should be noted, is not to be confounded with Malabar, or Melibar of Marco Polo.
There was scarcely a Christian traveler from the time of Montecorvino and Marco Polo, returning with information concerning the so-called Thomas Christians, who had failed to visit Meliapur near Madras, since the place of Saint Thomasa€™ burial was a sacred spot not only to Christians but also to Mohammedan pilgrims. The Arnona Civitas of the Genoese cartographer seems to lie in about the position of Contia€™s Cernove, reached by him in a fifteen daysa€™ journey from the mouth of the river. The southern coast of Africa is made to extend in a flattened curve toward the east, which representation is similar to that on the world maps of Sanudo, of Leardo, and of Fra Mauro (#228, #242, #249).
A legend here reads: This animal, called the sea hog, gathers its food with its snout like the land hog.
This legend gives us the Arabic name for the Mountains of the Moon as Gebelcan, which is doubtless the same as Gebel Camr.
The Blue Nile, however, is represented according to most recent information from Abyssinia; this river, uniting with the Atbara, forms one river which flows out of a large lake, in which an island is represented. It may be noted that even today the banks of this lake, as well as its islands, are the site of numerous churches and monasteries.
There can be no doubt that in the lands on the west side of the Red Sea elephants were captured by the Ptolemies in great numbers, tamed and made use of in war, as Ptolemy Euergetes testifies in the inscription from Adulis that he employed Troglodytic and Ethiopian elephants against those from India. It is difficult to determine whether by this Wadi Schegea or Wadi um el Cheil is to be understood.
One here recalls the description which Idrisi gives of a dragon living on an oasis to the east of Sahara, so enormous in size that it was often mistaken for a mountain.
But since that is a representation of cosmographers who have given no description of it, therefore an account of it is here omitted. What is clear is the mapmakera€™s declaration of intent, his striving for accuracy and a near-natural depiction of the world, all of which make his map look rather modern. Using these histories, he concentrated his attention on certain regions, emphasizing especially Asia, distinguishing certain locations through different forms of depiction, thereby creating a hierarchical space.
Perhaps in answering certain questions one should not look too hard for historical transitions or changes in cartography, as this tempts one to privilege current representational conventions.
Therefore, although this study focuses on maps that are centuries old, it just might enhance our understanding of the current conflict between our daily experience and our theoretical knowledge of space and time. We will learn about the history and theories relating to Ancestral Puebloan rock art, migration of Tewa Pueblo peoples, Colonial Spanish exploration and settlement along El Camino Real (Royal Road). Individual interests are subordinate to community values and responsibilities so that the strong ceremonial structure and the traditional rituals have kept the people as a vital and distinctive tribal entity with a proud heritage of ancient origin. Along the way, wea€™ll see the remains of a pioneera€™s cabin, a series of pictographs in the Barrier Canyon style, and Serviceberry Shelter, where Archaic hunter-gatherers camped millennia ago. See architecture, agricultural fields, and ritual features in the context of some of the largest and best-preserved ancient Pueblo sites in the region. Tribal members usually maintain two places of residence, one in the farming community along the Rio Grande and the other a traditional home on the north bank of the Jemez River several miles away. The trip includes hotel lodging and dinner the night before the excursion as Wayne sets the stage for our grand adventure and another night and dinner after the trip wraps up as we celebrate our amazing journey through this vividly colored canyon, a nine day study tour on the most coveted raft trip in the world.
Discuss the origin of the canyon and how the complexity of erosional features of the Colorado River and precipitation created and continue to shape the canyon.
We begin our journey with slow moving rapids, which increase in intensity as we travel further into the Canyon. Our highly recommended outfitter, Colorado River & Trail Expeditions (CRATE) has been in business since 1971 and features knowledgeable, trained and experienced river guides, who are excellent outdoor chefs, enthusiastic river companions and certified in CPR, Wilderness Medicine and River Rescue. Protecting these lands from Anglo incursion, touristic curiosity and the federal government has created a seldom visited trove of four well-preserved canyon cliff dwellings requiring three miles of hiking and climbing five ladders when accompanied by a Ute tribal guide. We will learn about Fred Harvey, the Englishman who founded the hotel and restaurant chain.
They have a strong sense of identity and retain ancient ceremonies and rituals and dances tenaciously.
The site was occupied in two separate and distinct phases more than six centuries ago, and at its height was comprised of approximately 1,000 rooms.
Over 2000 feet of Navajo Sandstone form massive cliffs within Zion Canyon, creating one of eartha€™s grandest geologic settings.
Our days at Zion will include visits to more remote corners of the park, such as Kolob Canyon in the northwest, and the more central Kolob Terrace Road, where we will hike the scenic Northgate Peaks Trail. Classifying people by settlement pattern and architecture, the most visible of cultural expressions, may be a natural thing for explorers to do, but i??the label a€?Puebloa€? glossed over considerable cultural variability. Participants will be regaled with stories of the Pueblo past from an archaeologist (Ware) and Native Pueblo scholar (Swentzell), and view the spectacular landscapes of the Southwest 4-Corners from the comfort of a modern coach (with on-board restroom!).
These ancestral Puebloan sites figure prominently in his ethno genesis research on Tewa Pueblo origins, migrations, settlement patterns, and history. This study tour is designed to experience 2 backcountry trails while still visiting Great Houses within the central a€?downtowna€™ area of Chaco Canyon Culture National Historic Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Their mission church and plaza and the village and surrounding hills and mountains are powerful spiritual forces. Visits include (subject to change): Upaya Buddhist Zen Center, Sikh Dharma in Sombrillo, Plaza Blanca and Dar al Islam in Abiquiu, and Christ in the Desert Monastery overlooking the Chama River, the Sikh Dharma in Somlbrillo, Our day will be filled with opportunities for reflection and awareness on the different paths for restoring balance and harmony in our world. 1312-1350 and is possibly one of the places where immigrants from the Four Corners region entered and settled the northern Rio Grande region. In the centuries before the Apache (Athapascan) migration in to this area, it was the setting for two large-plaza Pueblos, a migrant Mesa Verde village, a huge 500-room Tularosa town, the northernmost Mimbres village, the southernmost Socorro site, and a sizeable earlier Ancestral Puebloan pithouse community, all located on the Monticello Box Ranch. Wea€™ll camp for 2 nights, learning about the cultural history and archaeology of the region with David Grant Noble. Comfortable overnight motel lodging the night before and after our 3-days and 2-nights on the river at Desert Rose Inn, a log lodge recently built on the edge of the town of Bluff, Utah. This scenic stretch of the river is especially noted for its Puebloan ruins and Basketmaker rock art panels and many are only accessible from the river. Honorarium for our exceptional Study Leader and river guides, all fees for permits and services.
You will have the opportunity to be part of this important ceremonial day and by your silent observation both give and receive the blessings of the Lagunas.
The area is filled with multi-colored ash created by iron, manganese and crystal-forming silicates, and has been described as a paleontological treasure trove! Kirt, offering plenty of time for on-site educational lectures, photographic moments, and awe-inspiring sacred landscape. Drive back to Santa Fe that afternoon for evening arrival with a stop at our favorite Cuba, NM dinner spot, Brunoa€™s for some home-style cooking before our Santa Fe evening return. Many myths and legends abound about this remarkable area, including oral tradition never written down.
For an optional energetic uphill hike, those interested may visit the ancestral Zuni village of Atsinnaon top of El Morro. Along the way, we will Santa Rosa de Lima, the historic site overlooking the Chama River and original site of the Abiquiu Valley settlement.
We visit her local Chapter House and to the Chil Chi Tah School, where you will meet Navajo teachers and students.
Our purpose will be to enhance our appreciation and understanding of these various sacred places and the spiritual and religious traditions which hold them in esteem.
Ford who serves as Arthur Thurnow Professor of Anthropology and former director, Ethnobotanical Laboratory, University of Michigan. Zia, located beside the Jemez River, is near the Nacamiento Mountains and red rock foothills of the Pajarito and Jemez Plateaus. Each of these is representative of different ways Ancestral Puebloans built 14th century communities. In the 1970's, portions of the ancestral pueblo village and the historic San Miguel de Laredo were excavated by the Museum of New Mexico and scholars conducted important ethno historic research. By the 1500's, a smaller, mostly stone-masonry pueblo was built on-site and occupied into the 1600's AD.
Wea€™ll spend all four nights at the new and beautiful Red Cliffs Lodge, featuring a popular restaurant and on-site winery and vineyard, as well as beautifully appointed riverside timber lodges with private patios overlooking the Colorado River.
Within just a few generations, masonry Great Houses were built by Pueblo communities throughout the San Juan Basin and beyond to eventually encompass portions of four adjacent states. Following lunch we will take the short hike to the nearby-unexcavated Una Vida site, as well as an optional scramble up to the petroglyphs overlooking Una Vida.
To prevent the crinkling of the parchment, as would appear, it has been mounted on four boards of suitable width and of about half an inch in thickness, which boards have been adjusted to fold. In support of the last idea, it is noteworthy that the map appears to extend 225A° by 87A°, the extent of the habitable world, according to him.
This abandonment of the more common circular form enabled the cartographer to show features that were increasingly squeezed on 15th century mappaemundi. The main purpose of the analogy seems to have been to describe the various spheres surrounding the earth (egg white, shell), but the idea of an egg shape could have been derived from these works. In the Indian Ocean are shown a mermaid and a fish with a devila€™s head, while on land nearby is a snake with a human head.
Prester John is represented behind a wall, protecting him from the future rampages of Gog and Magog.
This monster is said to attack the ships of the Indians, usually breaking them immediately, but its crest can get stuck in the ship's wood and as a result the creature, unable to escape, kills itself.
Sara was the capital of the Kipchak, and in the 14th century was a city of great importance, but in 1395 was destroyed by Timur. Though the names Sanday and Bandam have not been satisfactorily explained, the reference in the legend to spices and cloves makes it fairly certain that they are islands of the Moluccas group. If we have here an attempt at a representation of the Gulf of Siam, the city Pauconia is probably Bangkok. A legend gives the following information: This species of fish, recently [caught?] in Candia, feeds upon the meadows of the shore like cows.
A legend near this reads: The island of Ceylon, having a circumference of three thousand miles, is rich in rubies, sapphires, and cata€™s-eyes, and produces cinnamon from trees similar to our willow tree. Marco Polo, the first traveler from the west who seems to have brought definite word from Sumatra, called it Java the Less, under which name, however, according to the Genoese cartographer, we are to understand Java or Borneo. Their ships, therefore, are constructed with many compartments, to the end that if they are broken in any part, the remaining parts may be sufficiently strong to complete the course. Marco Polo, who, on his homeward journey, sailed in one of them as far as Malabar, gives us a detailed picture of these boats. The larger vessels also carried small boats, which were used, as Marco Polo states, a€?to lay out the anchors, catch fish, bring supplies aboard, and the like. Mons Synai, near the northern border of the Red Sea, is represented, on the summit of which is the Convent of St. Aside from the Volga and the Ural, two other rivers are here represented, rising in a range of mountains that extends in an east-west direction. This river forms through its four outlets a conspicuous delta, and receives from the neighboring mountain range two tributaries. Indeed, from the most ancient times this important highway was the connecting link between northern and southern Asia, and its architectural ruins a€”the fortifications erected by the different peoples at different timesa€”point to its significance. It was one known to the Byzantines, to the Arabs, and to the Chinese, but it seems to owe its origin to India. King Cambalech, that is, the Great Khan, is represented in a picture as ruling Cathay, and the King of India is represented on horseback with sword in hand.
Here the cosmographer seems to rely in the main on Arabic sources, and especially on Idrisi. On the Persian Gulf lies Ragan, by which Arragan is probably to be understood, whose ruins are found in the vicinity of the present Babahan, with Fars on the Ab Ergum. Destroyed first by Genghis Khan in 1221, and again by Timur, this great Asiatic frontier commercial city in the time of Conti was in ruins. The tradition that the holy Thomas preached Christianity in India, suffered martyrdom, and was buried in a mountain had its origin in very early times.
Conti gives a vivid description of this part of the Ganges River, up which river, as he states, he sailed for the space of three months; and from his description one might conclude that he had passed entirely through Hindustan, and that after he had made the desired commercial observations he turned about to make a long sojourn in Maharatia, perhaps one of the four important cities to which he refers.
The southern continental boundary of the Indian Ocean appearing on Ptolemya€™s world maps, reduced to a long and narrow peninsula by Sanudo and Fra Mauro, is still further reduced by the Genoese cartographer. The name Djihal-alqamar, Mountains of the Moon, according to a conjecture of Kiepert, was derived in Ptolemya€™s time erroneously from Djibal-qomr, Blue Mountains. Meroe, however, does not, as with Ptolemy, lie on a river island, but on a river peninsula.
The large island Dek, or the Holy Daga Island, dedicated to Saint Stephen, is now inhabited by hermit monks, and to it the outside world is not admitted. In Tunis a river is made to empty into the Mediterranean, which is probably the Medscherda, with one branch emptying on the north side of the Gulf of Tunis, and with another into the Gulf of Hammamet. It had the form of a snake in that it crawled on the ground, but had large ears extending forward.
Professor Fischer thinks this is to be understood as signifying that the Genoese cosmographer based his information on pre-Christian authors, that is, Pliny and Ptolemy, while omitting his own view concerning the position of the earthly paradise. The mapmaker saw apparently no inconsistency in depicting different times simultaneously or one element in multiple locations, melding time and space seems to be effected unconsciously.
In studying cosmological models of the Middle Ages, it would be more constructive to look for continuities that might even expose our modern understanding of homogeneous space as an illusion. At certain times of the year, however, they welcome visitors and the Green Corn Dances in May are the main attraction to outsiders and other Pueblo people as well.
We will learn about the archaeology of the Desert Archaic and Fremont cultures through Davida€™s lectures and hikes.
Wea€™ll also hike to Mantlea€™s Cave, a huge rock shelter where Fremont Indians stored an astonishing array of specialized items in storage cysts, now in the collections of the University of Colorado, Boulder. Set among towering red cliffs and ancient ponderosa pines, we may see a variety of wildlife, deer, eagles and big horn sheep along the shoreline. Learn Tewa history and how we use different techniques, archaeological review and Tewa oral tradition, to better understand their past.
Learn about the variety of species of mammals, reptiles, fish and birds that make the Grand Canyon home, including many threatened and endangered species and plants that have found a refuge in the Parka€™s protected lands. There is plenty of whitewater excitement, including some of the most famous a€?drops and fallsa€? in the world: Horn Creek, Hermit, Crystal and Lava Falls. While millions visit Mesa Verde National Park, which borders Ute reservation lands, these are seldom seen and striking sites that have not been stripped of their ancient presence and essence. Wea€™ll tour the famed Castaneda, newly purchased and under renovation by its new owner, Allan Affecldt (or resident partner), who also restored La Posada, the Harvey Hotel in Winslow, Az. The significance of Arroyo Hondo is that it was one of the earliest large, aggregated pueblos built during a period when settlement patterns throughout the northern Rio Grande were evolving in the direction of large towns located near dependable sources of water.A We will have an archaeological tour of this important cultural site, owned by the Archaeological Conservancy, with site steward and noted author, and archaeologist, Dr. Several easy to moderate hikes will be offered within Zion Canyon, including Echo Canyon, Weeping Rock, and the Riverside Walk.
Coral Hills Best Western will serve as our base for two nights to explore beautiful Snow Canyon.
The people the Spanish called Pueblos spoke at least seven mutually unintelligible languages (six are still spoken today) from four different language families, and their linguistic diversity was mirrored in many of their social, economic, and religious practices and institutions.
He is able, using linguistics, metaphors, architecture, and material culture, to follow ancestors on their long journey south from Mesa Verde and the San Juan River Basin. Between them, wea€™ll learn about the history and theories relating to ancestral rock art, migration of Tewa Pueblo peoples, Colonial Spanish exploration and settlement along El Camino Real (Royal Road), plus fascinating concepts of earth science, significant geographic landscape and visible volcanic features young and old we see in this region, as well as the causes of the rise of the majestic Sangre de Cristo Mountains.
Wea€™ll be like trees: silent observers, important witnesses, participants in the continuing strength of Keres Pueblo culture here today.
Wea€™ll explore the sitea€™s well-preserved architecture, cliff dwellings, artifacts, rock art and trails, and the world-quarter shrine all while overlooking the stunning Piedra Lumbre made famous by Georgia Oa€™Keeffe. Suina will share with us aspects of culture, history, spiritual underpinnings, and ritual observances which are tied to the rhythms of nature in the native world of the Eastern Keres Pueblos.
The area has been extensively studied by scholars for several years in recognition and interpretation of frontiers and migrations of peoples in the archaeological record. Lekson and others have made a strong case that the Canada Alamosa was the destination for a migrant community from the Mesa Verde culture area. He has guided educational and archaeological groups down the San Juan River for more than twenty years.
Learn the history of the Keres world and its influence from both the ancestral Puebloan and European traditions.
Kirt Kempter, will use this outdoor classroom as an educational opportunity to explain and discuss the earth history of this beautiful basin in our own backyard.
From them, you will learn about the magnificent natural and cultural history of this scenic area, called a€?the evil countrya€™, or the badlands, by chroniclers on the Coronado Expedition of 1540, as a result of their extreme difficulty in crossing through lava flows by the expeditionaries and their horses along the legendary Zuni-Acoma Trail. The mythology of El Malpais will be discussed as well as the many different native cultures in the area, including Acoma, Zuni, Dine (Navajo), and others, which have made their home in the region for centuries and in some cases, millennia.
All will have access to the modern Visitor Center, featuring rangers, interpretive exhibits, and books and literature.
Departing Santa Fe, we will travel through EspaA±ola, turn west over the Rio Grande, and on the north side of town turn west again onto a dirt road which we will travel for several miles on a scenic forest road, where we wind our way up through the Pajarito Plateau and into the scenic Jemez Mountains. Zolbrod will escort us to an important ancient Chacoan outlier, Kin YaA­a (Tall House), where he will help us understand the importance of Chaco Canyon culture. You will have an opportunity to interact and learn about Dine culture in education from the teachers and students and tour the school. Our Study Leader is a specialist on sacred spaces and places, and this will be a unique opportunity to share in his wisdom and insights. After scenic drive up the northern Rio Grande valley to Pilar, we will access the petroglyphs by hiking to view some of the most exciting images on stone.
Forest Service and members of the American Rock Art Research Association, as well as Arizona State University scholars, these areas (Sites #006 and #147) are filled with over 600 known rock art carvings, which are astronomically aligned to Summer solstice and equinox sunrise and sunsets. These lands were the site of hunting gathering and farming communities for many millennia, as this region was populated by different peoples over long periods of time who came together to become those who were encountered by Spanish conquerors, missionaries and settlers. All four pueblos were constructed of adobe and noted scholars excavated each to different degrees during the 20th century and today visitors see low mounds of earth.
Pottery traditions of the village were shared with other puebloans of the Tewa Basin and Pajarito Plateau but Arroyo Hondo appears not to have participated in much broader networks of exchange. While much smaller than Arroyo Hondo, with about 250 rooms, it experienced 2 different construction episodes during which the community completely reorganized its space.
This is one of Americaa€™s recent national monuments and is an important area sacred to Keres and other Pueblo peoples.
In certain parts the colors are yet brilliant, though softened with age; in other parts they have almost disappeared, and nothing has contributed more to this destruction than the nibbing of part-on-part. Without an expert and minute palaeographical investigation, it is impossible either to accept or reject the attribution to Toscanelli, but Crino presented a case which requires further examination.
What we now know about Marinos is mostly from Ptolemya€™s criticism of him, but the Arab geographer al-Maa€™sudi reported in the 10th century that he had seen Marinusa€™ geographical treatise.
Jerusalem does not appear in the center of the map but is considerably to the west of a center located south of the Caspian Sea. Another possibility is that the oval form represents the mandorla, or nimbus, which surrounded Christ in many medieval works of art.
The title of Ptolemya€™s work, as it circulated through Italy in the 15th century, was usually given as Cosmographia rather than Geography, a less familiar Greek term.
As we might expect from a Genoese map, good use has been made of the nautical chart as well.
Van Duzer adds that Tafura€™s account derives from Poggio Bracciolinia€™s Facetiae, written between 1438 and 1452, which describes a very similar monster that attacked some women by the seashore, and was killed and exhibited in Ferrara. Between the Dnieper and the Don the author has made a suggestive reference to the custom of that migratory folk of transporting their houses about with them on wagons drawn by oxen, a custom also attributed to the early Teutons and the Huns.
Saratellis, if this is a correct reading of the name, is probably the Saracanco of Balducci Pigolotti.
We may have in this gulf one of the earliest cartographical representations of the Yellow Sea and the Gulf of Petchili. In this island there is a lake, in the middle of which is a noble city whose inhabitants, given over to astrology, predict all future events. Conti gives to the island a circumference of about two thousand miles, as does Marco Polo, which is very nearly correct. These, moreover, are supplied with several masts, from three to ten, and having sails made of reeds and palm-leaves joined together, they pursue their courses with great rapidity. When the ship is under sail, she carries these boats slung to her side.a€? Many of the vessels had as many as four decks, and even the smaller ones, fifty or sixty cabins.
Catherine; and we also find here the highlands of Armenia, out of which flow the Euphrates and Tigris, these highlands being especially distinguished by a representation of Noaha€™s Ark. From the mountain range on the northern border of Parthia, a great range stretches diagonally across the entire Asiatic continent, to the gulf indicated on the east, to which gulf reference has been made.
Very properly, the name of Alexander is associated with it, since through his founding of Alexandria ad Caucasum the southern region was secured against the attack of the northern barbarians, the Scythians, who, in the language of the middle ages, were called Tartars. They owe their origin in part to artificial dams, and serve the purpose of reservoirs for artificial irrigation. Northern Asia is properly made to appear as a region covered with pine forests, a representation which is to be found on no other early world map, and which seems to suggest that the Genoese mapmaker was in possession of somewhat detailed information concerning the character of the region. He places Magog north of the mountain range stretching entirely across Asia, Gog south of the same, and on the border range several towers are indicated. In the highlands of Iran appear the names Media, Zilan, Parthia, Aria, Aracosa, Gedrosia, Cormania and Persis. This place, incorrectly located on the coast, is not referred to by Conti, nor is it to be found on any other map.
The name Machin seems clearly to be a modification of the Sanskrit Maha Chin, that is, Great China, a name which the Persian and the Arabic writers frequently used for Manzi, the southern part of China.
Legends are here inscribed on either side of a broad scroll, wherein the author refers to his work and gives the date of its composition, which legends are almost illegible. This seems to refer to the snow-peaks of the Kilimanjaro and Kenya, as seen from a great distance, which mountains send their waters toward the interior of the continent. Even the irrigation canals, which lead out from the Nile in Nubia and Egypt, are represented by the Genoese cartographer. About the time that the Genoese cartographer produced his map he could well have received excellent information concerning Abyssinia.
A similar river, dividing into two branches near its source, empties into the sea in Algeria east and west of Algiers, and a smaller one east of Ceuta. Medieval cosmographers place this now in East Africa, now in East Asia, but more frequently in the latter. Taking his stated aim for truth seriously would imply that all of these features were part of his truth.
Our hike will include some relatively flat trails on the mesa top, some rough uneven terrain along the boulder slope where the rock art is located, but will also include the short but steep rocky talus access to the mesa top, so please come prepared for this rugged landscape on the outskirts of Santa Fe which overlooks the important riparian stream banks of the beautiful Santa Fe River downstream from the city now featuring beaver dam ponds.


Hundreds of men, women and children dance throughout the day, accompanied by a male chorus, in the huge sunken bowl of the Plaza worn down by the centuries.
Ann features Corn Dance, a colorful spectacle which draws the entire Pueblo together as most of its population, nearly 700 people, return to the Old Pueblo (normally not open to outside visitors) for traditional ceremonies and visiting native arts and crafts vendors. Discover more about the 5000 year human history presence and importance of the canyon to ancestral Puebloan, Hopi, Havasupai, Navajo, Hualapai, Paiute and Zuni.
As importantly wea€™ll hike beautiful side canyons with cascading waterfalls, turquoise pools, and the cooling shade of hidden grottos and enjoy stargazing at night. Wea€™ll enjoy dinner, a lecture, and overnight at the historic Old Plaza Hotel, built in 1889. It is with anticipation that we look forward to spending time with our dear friend, Dora Tse Pe, the legendry potter and San Ildefonso resident as well as her family who have invited us to share a feast meal with them on this important occasion. George, Utah, just a few minutes from Snow Canyon State Park, where geologically young volcanoes poured dark basalt lava through spectacular canyons of red and white Navajo sandstone. The close proximity of Snow Canyon and Zion will allow us to spend significant quality time in both parks, with less highway travel.
On Day 3 we begin our exploration of Zion, lodging for three nights in individual historic cabins right in the heart of Zion National Park, a very special opportunity indeed. They were not, in other words, a monolithic culture, but several different peoples who shared cultural practices. On this day trip, we will see remains of Tewa houses dating from the 14th century, much evidence of pottery as well as other artifacts in situ. We will also review the local hydrology and understand the presence of many natural springs nearby.
It is with anticipation that we look forward to spending time with legendary potter and Zia native, Dora Tse Pe and her family who have invited us to visit and share a feast meal with them on this important occasion.
He will also share information on the important Keres language preservation project for which this study tour is organized to support.
In addition to providing commentary on each site visited, he will offer us interesting facets of Puebloan and Dine (Navajo) history. Wea€™ll also visit the beautiful Laguna Mission church, operated by the Franciscan order, built in 1699 and containing beautiful native paintings, colonial reredo (altar screen), and traditional adobe architecture. We will travel through the historic ghost town of Waldo and along the railroad tracks laid through the area in the late 19th century to the picturesque village of Cerrillos, then travel across the Galisteo Basin heading east on the backloads through this scenic area. Visit a small rural family-owned Trading Post, rarely seen by outsiders, which helps bridge cultures and maintain community.
Special visits and tours of Dar al Islam Mosque in Abiquiu, Christ in the Desert Monastery, the Sikh Dharma and community in Somlbrillo near Espanola, the Buddhist stupa in Santa Fe, plus special presentations by representatives at these very special locations.
In addition to petroglyphs, there will be spectacular views of the Rio Grande gorge, birds, possibly early wild flowers, important Apache cultural shrines and their campsites.
These types of carvings from this era are often associated with nomadic hunter-gatherer societies. While conquest is an important chapter of Pueblolan history, a€?survivancea€™ is its modern reality. Why did ancient Puebloans build monuments whose construction required the quarrying and shaping of thousands of tons of sandstone from canyon walls and the hauling of over 200,000 pine logs from mountain slopes 60 miles away, all to build a dozen 300-600 room edifices that housed only a handful of people? The trail is well marked and follows along a small arroyo and enters an elegantly carved slot canyon, then climbing to a scenic overview of the spectacular Rio Grande valley where we will enjoy a gourmet picnic lunch. A short walk down the canyon will lead us to Kin Kletso, an important part of the developmental history of the area. On the question, of main interest here, as to the correspondence between the letter of 1474 and the map of 1457, it is possible, however, to form some opinion.
The highly pictorial character of this well-preserved map leads us to think of it as more traditional than it actually is. In the 14th century didactic poem, a€?Il Dittamondoa€? Fazio degli Uberti, described the inhabited world as long and narrow (a€?lungo e strettoa€?) like an almond (mandorla), with no apparent religious significance. Certainly, neither Ptolemy, Pomponius Mela, nor Pliny had given a location for Paradise, save for fantasies about the Fortunate Islands, and the Genoese mapmaker appears to associate classical with scientific geography. These fantastic creatures join other wonderful but real animals, such as a giraffe, a leopard, a crocodile, two monkeys, and a swordfish. Illustrations of the monster which are very similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map accompany excerpts from the Facetiae which are appended to various 15th and 16th century editions of Aesopa€™s fables. Such a wagon with driver and oxen, rather crudely sketched, is represented moving eastward, near which appears the legend, Ubi lordo errat. The other [story relates] that certain of their trees bear fruit which, decaying within, produces a worm which, as it subsequently develops, becomes hairy and feathered, and, provided with wings, flies like a bird. According to Pigolotti, Sara could be reached in a day by water from Astrakhan, Saracanco in eight days by water or by land. Longer legends take material from Conti on the funeral practice of wife burning (a€?if they refuse out of fear, they are forced to do ita€?), the cultivation of pepper, the collection of human heads in Sumatra, the sea-tight compartments of Chinese junks, the practice of tattooing, and the availability of spices and multicolored parrots. Sanday sends saffron, nuts, muscatas, and maces to the Javas, Bandan an abundance of cloves. Magog (Gog is missing), the Tatars, the Ten Lost Tribes, the Antichrist and the Alexander story are mixed as though they naturally belonged in the same place - as they by then did, at least in the literature and exegesis directed to the literate but not learned. The position of Ceylon was now well known, being here placed to the east of a peninsula that we can recognize as the southern point of India. In its outlines Further India, UltraIndia (Southeast Asia) is Ptolemaic, a fact which is especially noticeable in the very prominent peninsular character.
And these [ships], loaded in particular with spices and other aromatics, sailing rather often to Mecca in Arabia, trade with the Western merchants through an exchange of their goods. South of the Caspian Sea we find a quadrangle framed by mountains that appears to be Parthia, according to the representation of Ptolemy. The Genoese cosmographer must have had information concerning the numerous towers scattered here and there over this pass. They are remarkable for their natural surroundings, and for the palaces of the rulers of Mewar erected on their banks. In the extreme north appears the figure of a man casting himself into the sea, whose act is explained in the following legend: It is the custom of these people, as old age comes on, to cast themselves from the steep precipices into the sea.
The people Gog appear as a group of dwarfs covered with a shield, who are attacked by two cranes. On the Sea of Marmora is Palolimen and Diascinolo which on English charts is represented as Eskel Bay, a semicircular harbor with a very good anchorage twelve kilometers east of the mouth of Susurulu Tschai.
Including in part Indo-China, the name Machin may also include Southeast Asia, for which there is support in certain 15th century references, as there are people of Southeast Asia among whom the custom of tattooing prevails; this being particularly true of the Laos and the Burmese. One of them seems to read: This sea is called the ocean which, according to cosmographers, stretches out infinitely in every direction, covering the earth except about a fourth part here laid down.
It was doubtless through Arabic merchantmen that the Alexandrian geographer derived his information, on a visit to the east coast of Africa. On an island in a lake of Abyssinia there appears to be a floating house, and near it the legend: In this lake there is an island, Tana by name, which contains forests and groves and a great temple of Apollo. In 1439 Pope Eugenius IV named an apostolic delegate to that region, and sent a letter to Prester John, the ruler of Abyssinia; and we also learn that an Abyssinian ambassador appeared at the Council of Florence in the year 1441.
If the Genoese cosmographer, in the well known regions, represents somewhat arbitrarily his watercourses, we can certainly expect to find this in the less known regions.
Three human figures are introduced to represent the political and ethnographical situation, one a turbaned Mohammedan ruler of Egypt, with the inscription Dominus; the other a crowned head with black hair, carrying a banner, on which is a cross with the inscription, Presbyter Johannes Rex, denoting the Christian ruler of Abyssinia. The north coast of Africa embraces Mauretania, to which Regnum fesse and, in part, Regnum Trenecen belong. Calata is probably Idrisia€™s Al Cal, near Msila in the highlands of the Schotts, a significant city before the rise of Bougie, the capital city of the kingdom of the Hammaditen. The trip inclui??des all lodging, meals, river and rafting arrangements and quality time with David Noble. Experience the soothing comfort of a quiet river valley and nearby pond, a welcome oasis in the heat of the summer. Visit interesting historical sites only accessible by the river, study unique geological features, and gain a comprehensive educational perspective on the geology and natural history of this majestic canyon. We will take a short hike to Piedras Marcadas Canyon, where the first petroglyph of a horse known in the United States is found amid a rich concentration of petroglyphs, most of which were created a century before European contact.
On the next day, accompanied by our modern Harvey Girl we will tour the legendary Montezuma Hotel, now part of the United World College campus. Featuring gas log fireplaces and a private porch at each cabin, we promise a bit of quiet time to enjoy the majesty of one of our favorite U.S. The wealth of data on Pueblo culture, from three thousand years ago to the present day, provides an ideal laboratory for the study of culture change.
Those who have accompanied Ware and Governor Joseph Suina on past Pueblo World Tours will visit many of the same destinations but see many new sites, and youa€™ll be able to follow along with Warea€™s commentary on Pueblo social history with an advance copy of his new critically acclaimed book.
The site contains lots of petroglyph panels, spectacular views and a large important ancient Santa Clara village that includes a reconstructed kiva. Sam Duwe, assistant professor in the Department of Anthropology and Applied Archaeology and Director of the Tewa Basin Archaeological Research Project at Eastern New Mexico University.
David is the author and editor of many books relating to Southwest archaeology and culture, including Ancient Ruins of the Southwest: An Archaeological Guide and most recently, In the Places of the Spirits.
A short but interesting hike (one mile round-trip) will illustrate the fascinating earth history of the Cerrillos Hills, Ortiz Mountains and the beginning of rifts in the Santa Fe area.
In El Malpais are found ancient jagged lava flows, volcanic cinder cones and rims, pressure ridges, lava tubes, ice caves, and other landscape features, as well as prehistoric ruins and cairns, rock structures, and homesteads, plus important cultural sites where ancient pottery and other material artifacts have been discovered. Paul Catholic Church in Crownpoint, where Navajo spirituality coexists with Roman Catholic Christianity.
The glyphs follow the contours of the rock and incorporate natural features, such as nodules, bumps, and cracks, into the carving.
Some have said the Zia people have retained most of their traditional beliefs and thus absorbed very little influence of our dominant society.
Cordella€™s interpretation, we will walk each of the sites to understand their similarities and differences. Their kivas were of 2 different shapes and construction techniques, and the village maintained 2 different traditions of painted pottery, while participating in extensive trade networks. Why did ancestral Puebloan communities over a geographic region the size of New England build community centers that emulated these monumental structures?
Learn the fascinating geologic story of how these dramatic columns have eroded as you appreciate the power of Mother Naturea€™s forces: wind, water, and time. Wea€™ll visit smaller habitation sites, small farming settlements surrounding Casa Rinconada, Chacoa€™s massive great kiva.
Kimble, there are at least three distinct influences, in addition to the portolan [nautical] chart tradition, that can be detected in these examples: Classical, Christian and Arab. Oversized crowned or turbaned kings, monstrous and simply exotic animals, an elephant bearing an elaborate howdah, and scary sea monsters associate with more scientific signs, such as flags and city symbols. Ptolemya€™s maps, while not exactly oval, were wider from east to west than they were high (north to south). A partially finished network of rhumb lines appears on the map, and on the right are two scale bars, though they are more a sign of intention than reality. One such edition is Sebastian Branta€™s Esopi appologi sive mythologi cum quibusdam carminum et fabularum additionibus (Basel: Jacobus de Phortzheim, 1501), in which Bracciolinia€™s text about the monster is cited and accompanied by an illustration of the monster quite similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map.
A good picture of a Mongol appears on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, and also one west of the Black Sea, being drawn about the time of the destruction of their rule. The reference appears to be to a marine animal, perhaps the dugong, which, resembling a cow and accustomed to graze in the fields along the seashore, was captured in the East and brought to Venice.
In this as well as in other parts of extreme southern Asia the Geonoese cosmographer seems especially to exhibit an acquaintance with the record of the distinguished Italian traveler Nicolo di Conti who referred to Ceylon as Zeilan. Cannibals inhabit a part of this island, who, continually waging war with their neighbors, make a collection of human heads as treasures, and he who has the most heads is the richest.
It stretches toward the south, terminating in a prominent Golden Chersonese, a name which the legend suggests: Here gold is found in abundance with jewels and precious stones. In the Gulf of Iskanderun a river empties, flowing out of the northeast, recognizable as the Dschihan, on which lies the city Antioch.
These mountains clearly are the Taurus, Paropamisus and the Emodas of Ptolemy, the continental axis of Asia, that is, the Hindu Kush, the Quen Lun, the Nan Schan, and the other border mountains of eastern central Asia today, which in their spurs reach almost to the Gulf of Petchili. As in questions relating to the Nile, Ptolemy showed himself to be better informed than were geographers of later date, even to very recent times, so it also appears that his representation of the mountain systems of Asia, though somewhat altered by our author, was remarkably well done in the larger general features. This statement concerning the lakes as represented on our map is supported by the fact that a mountain appears to the southwest, from which a river flows to the south, at the mouth of which lies Cambay. A legend gives the following explanation: These are of the generation of Gog, who do not exceed the height of a cubit, who do not attain the age of nine years, and who are continually molested by cranes. On the same strait, but farther to the southeast, lies a second city, Caila, near which is the legend, Caila, where they use the leaves of trees instead of papyrus.
The Genoese cartographer clearly considers Burma a part of Machin, which since the 13th century had belonged to China. This sea, disturbed by the force of the moon, ebbs and flows around the earth every lunar day, as Albertus says in his Natural History. In support of the statement that the Genoese cosmographer was well informed concerning Abyssinia may be found the representation of a war elephant carrying a tower filled with armed men. A third figure, unmistakably a negro, in the southwest, holds a ball (?) in his hand, and is described in the following legend: These are the people who live degenerate lives, among whom there is no distinguishing name, who behold the rising and the setting sun with direful imprecations. Charming casitas, comfy beds and organic samples from the garden will round out our archaeological day excursions.
Appreciate the context, and underlying meanings of this powerful ritual and sacred cultural landscape. Our mission is to arrive before dawn so we witness the entrance into the village of the deer and other animals.
Few places in world provide so much historical information, over so many centuries, on cultures that thrive today. On the Saturday following the tour wea€™ll visit Cochiti Pueblo for a tour of the community by this yeara€™s Cochiti Governor, Dr. We begin to learn how Tewa people understand their own unique history and become witness to the kind of collaborative work Scott and tribal members have been doing to link the native understandings to Southwestern archaeological research.
Our afternoon will conclude with a relaxed social Happy Hour, including a glass of wine and appetizers at Conniea€™s Casa, the owner-built, passive solar traditional home to Southwest Seminars Director, Connie Eichstaedt. Includes transportation, 4 meals, overnight accommodations, entrance fees and Study Leadersa€™ honoraria. You will also need long pants and hiking boots, hat, water, and hiking sticks (poles) if you use them. They are typically deeply incised and may represent the only remnants of conscious communication left by these early peoples. The Zia achievements in pottery and other arts and crafts, as well as spiritual tenacity is legendary.
Was it political hegemony, economic imperialism, or religious fervor that inspired the architects of Chaco and their emulators?a€?a€?Amerinda€™s spring tour to the northern Southwest will spend two days in a€?Downtown Chacoa€? in search of answers to these questions. 3-mile roundtrip hike, 400 feet elevation gain Includes: Study leader honorarium, transportation and a lovely picnic lunch included. Inscriptions on the map, as well as recently discovered geographical features, however, proclaim the map to be a document of cartographic thinking similar, if not as large and ambitious, to that of Fra Mauro (#249). For a 15th century mapmaker, this form made convenient room for discoveries in the Atlantic and in Asia. The Genoese mapa€™s sea monsters reflect the cartographera€™s interest in exotic wonders, which is everywhere in evidence on the map, and typical of the scientific outlook of the early modern period, which was driven by curiosity and took a great interest in marvels. The Italians were then in close relations with the Golden Horde from Moncastro, Kaffa, Sudak, and Tana as centers, and were, therefore, in a position to know intimately their customs and manner of life.
Bandan, moreover, has parrots of three kinds: red ones, those of variegated color with yellow beaks, and white ones the size of hens. That rare animals at the time of the construction of our map were brought to Italy, where they were viewed with astonishment by the natives, certain observations of Benedetto Dei bear witness. This description of Taprobana appears clearly to have been taken from Conti, and it is very interesting to observe that our cartographer, not in a very successful manner, has attempted to bring the report of Conti into accord with Ptolemy. The Caucasus stretches across the isthmus between the Black and the Caspian seas, and as numerous rivers rising in the Caucasus empty into the former, the mountain range had to be drawn nearer the Caspian Sea in order that there might be sufficient space for the range and the representation of the Iron Gate near Derbent. The Ptolemaic Imaus, which divides Scythia into Hither and Further Scythiaa€”Scithia citra ymaum montem and Scithia ultra ymaum montesa€”is very prominently represented on our map. Herein in particular does the value of the Genoese map appear in a comparison with the larger map by Fra Mauro (#249), although the latter is richer in details.
Even today in northeast Asia, there may be found a people among whom suicide is common, the result of a belief that should one depart this life before the feebleness of old age comes on, a life of happiness in the hereafter is secured. Idrisi also represents the people Gog as dwarfs, and our cosmographer identifies them as the pygmies of Pliny, who placed them in the mountains of the north of India, exactly as does the Genoese cosmographer, in a beautiful valley protected from the cold winds, where they are molested only by the attacks of the cranes. On the west coast only the name Altoluogo appears, which name one finds on almost all sea charts. The city Calacia, lying in the interior, seems more difficult to distinguish, which city is referred to by Conti, but is not definitely located. Caila is Contia€™s Cahila on the Gulf of Manaar, Marco Poloa€™s Cail, and Ptolemya€™s Colchi. It appears from this that Albertus Magnus was one of the Genoese cartographera€™s authorities. Along with the amazing scenery and geo-education wea€™ll enjoy periods of profound peace as we drift quietly through narrow corridors of polished granite. Meredith Davidson, an enthusiastic young scholar, is Curator of 19th and 20th Century Southwest Collection, for the New Mexico History Museum and curated the current permanent exhibition, Setting the Standard: The Fred Harvey Company and its Legacy. We will have a picnic lunch on site and finish with a visit to a Santa Clara pottery-making family for a demonstration of their famous deep-carved black and red ware, which often features the water serpent, or Avanyu, as well as other symbols and imagery significant to the Tewa villages of the northern Rio Grande.
On our last Southwet Seminars field trip to the North Rim we had a very special porcupine sighting! These incredible rock carvings include curvilinear, rectilinear, non-representational, irregular, geometric, spirals, starbursts, animal tracks, hunting images, and vision & Dream scenes.
Their mission church and plaza are all part of the accommodation and compartmentalization of different but powerful spiritual forces. Wea€™ll begin our tour 150 miles to the north in the central Mesa Verde region where Chaco probably had its roots.
Crone, is that the letter definitely refers to a chart for navigation, while the 1457 map is primarily a world map drawn by a cosmographer.
By the end of the century, the circular form was becoming impractical, and once the Americas were added to world maps, it was gone almost completely. The demon-like monster in particular is evidence of the cartographera€™s research in recent travel literature to find sea monsters for his map. If this is so, this is the first time that the much sought after spice islands appear clearly on a map.
Mention may be made of the peacock which he brought from Alexandria for Cosimo de Medici; also of a chameleon, and, more important than all, of a big serpent with 100 teeth which he seems to have brought to Florence from Beirut (possibly a reference to the crocodile).
This city is distinguished by a strong tower and the legend: This is Derbent, which in their language [means] a gate of iron. It branches in diagonal directions westward of the sources of the Indus, that is, nearly twenty degrees farther westward from the continental axis than it is represented by Ptolemy.
In the representation of the Indus, for example, with its five branches, our author follows Ptolemy. The river Ava, as well as the southern parallel tributary of the Ganges, and the two Chinese rivers, the one flowing to the southeast and the other to the northeast, come from a mountain which is further explained by the legend: In this mountain carbuncles are found. Two legends are here inscribed, the one relating to the medieval geographical myth concerning the ten lost tribes of Israel, and the other to Antichrist. This identification of Gog with the pygmies of classical antiquity is peculiar to this map. There may have been a Persian maritime city by this name on the coast of Oman, since by reason of favorable winds and gulf currents the two coasts of the Persian Gulf stood in such close relations that again and again in their history Persian rule controlled the Arabic coast, and Arabic rule the Persian coast. For centuries, even into the 16th, Caila was the central point of commerce between China, Further India, and the archipelago of the east and the trade centers of the Mediterranean. Though the geography of India as here laid down presents difficulties, there are difficulties which are equally great along the east coast.
The other legend for which Professor Fischer failed to get an intelligible reading asserts that: Beyond this equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius, and in addition many others, raising a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India [the Indians], say that many have passed through these parts from India to the Spains, and . With some degree of certainty we may identify the Wadi Draa, represented as flowing through many lakes and emptying south of Cape Bojador.
On the Mediterranean, from east to west, we find Larissa, Alexandria, Senara (in the Medicean atlas, Zunara, and Vesconte also gives Zunara). Sam Duwe, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Oklahoma and Director, Tewa Basin Archaeological Research Project will be a highlight of our trip as he shares knowledge of the Tewa and the region.
Includes 7 full days of activities and 8 nights in favorite lodging in scenic locations, and featuring the interplay and dialogue which accompanies scholarly discussion and debate. Includes Transportation, scholar honorarium, lunch, followed by wine with apps at Conniea€™s Casa (and hoped-for lilacs) before return to Hotel Santa Fe, our pick-up and departure point. Our destination will be a high altitude alpine meadow overlooking the spectacular north rim of the Valles Caldera where we will be served a gourmet fajita picnic lunch with a breathtaking view down into the caldera valley below.
Zolbrod will also introduce us to two Catholic nuns who were part of the effort to create the Crownpoint Rug Auction, now a major cultural tradition and artistic event which you will have the privilege of attending. We will be like trees: silent observers and important witnesses of the continuing strength of culture here today at Zia Pueblo.
Further, the Toscanelli chart presumably depicted the ocean intervening between the west coast of Europe and the a€?beginning of the Easta€™. Conti describes them as lying on the extreme edge of the known world: beyond them navigation was difficult or impossible owing to contrary winds. The Iron Gate, usually associated with Alexander the Great and the apocalyptic people, Gog and Magog, has an important place on the world maps of the middle ages. In the region at the foot of the mountain between the Indus and the Ganges we find the Indian desert represented. Judging from the rivers that spring there from, and from this legend, we are led to conclude that the mountain-land is eastern Tibet.
The one to the east of Inaccessible mountains, designated here as Ymaus mons, reads: From this race, that is, from the tribe of Dan, Antichrist is to be born, who, opening these mountains by magic art, will come to overthrow the worshipers of Christ. The towers referred to above are explained in the following legend: King Prester John built these towers in order that those shut therein might not have access to him.
In the account of his voyage Vasco da Gama gives information concerning the city and kingdom of Cael. Whether the rivers emptying still further southward represent the numerous rivers which empty south of Senegal and Cape Verde, it is not possible to determine.
On the portolan charts there is always represented a large bay in the southeast corner of the Great Syrtus, which must have been an important harbor. We are proud to offer this unique opportunity, a Must-Do for all lovers of the Southwest culture and landscape, especially when accompanied by such exceptional scholars.
On the map of 1457, this ocean is split into two, and falls on the eastern and western margins. In the southern sea there is a note: In this sea, they navigate by the southern pole (star), the northern having disappeared. Doubtless it was the medieval wall stretching from the mountains to the sea near Derbent, closing the road along the Caspian Sea to the peoples of the steppes on the north, that called forth the legend of the Iron Door.
In contrast, the Ganges is represented according to recent information, that is apparently from the record of Conti. The representations of our cosmographer are here very erroneous, and the errors may perhaps be attributed to Conti and Poggio, since one is led to conclude by a careful study of the Conti narrative that it is not simply the story of a practical merchant traveler, but a story often adorned by the additions of a learned copyist. The other reads: Here dwell the ten lost tribes of the Hebrew race with the half tribe of Benjamin, who, unrestrained by their law and being degenerates, pass an epicurean existence. These towers stretch along the crest of the mountains, as if intended to protect the more highly civilized parts of China from the wild people of north and central Asia.
Farther southward, Antioceta, a fortification on the coast often referred to in the 15th century; also corocho, the ancient Corycus, northeast of the mouth of the Selefke.
The tree whose leaves, it is stated, are used for paper is not the paper-mulberry tree, but the fan-palm. It owes its origin as a harbor to a high, rocky headland, perhaps formerly an island, which extends from the southwest to the northeast and continues in a long chain of rocks.
All expenses covered coach transportation, admissions, all lodging and meals, donation to tax deductable donation to the Amerind Foundation.
Their lives represent an intersection of cultures that they have chosen for their life's work. Lunch included at Conniea€™s Casa in Canoncito at Apache Canyon for debriefing and sharing our adventure stories. Though Crino raised many points of interest, he did not establish his case beyond reasonable doubt.
The Carbuncle Mountains and the art of obtaining these valuable stones play an important role in the records of all cosmographers of the middle ages. It seems probable that we have here an early reference to the Great Wall of China, which appears on no other medieval map. This is Straboa€™s Cape Korykos with the Koryken Cave, where in Greek, in Roman, in Byzantine, and also in Armenian times stood a fortification. Calacia, or Calacatia, according to Batuta, is Kalahat, Kalhat, Kilat or Kilhat, in Oman southeast of Muskat, where its ruins may yet be seen near a small fishing village of the same name.
The fanlike leaves, about two hundred square feet in size, the Singhalese are said to use in the place of paper. Biasutti argued that the horizontal and vertical lines on the map are parallels and meridians taken from the world map of Ptolemy, and that the longitudinal extent of the old world approximately corresponds to his figure of 180 degrees. However, Conti did not himself visit these islands, though he gives their position as fifteen daysa€™ journey east of Java major and minor, to which their products were brought for transportation to the west. Two of these tributaries on the left seem to be the Brahmaputra and the Barak, though the larger one on the north may be intended as the Irawadi, since on this lies Ava, and above it is a legend taken from Conti: Rather the Ganges which otherwise is called the Dava. On the Catalan world map of 1375 appears a legend with an interesting pictorial representation. Abulfeda and Raschiduddin, his contemporary, refer to the great wall as the Wall of Gog and Magog. Here we find Tarsso and Layazo, which in the middle ages was a harbor of Lesser Armenia, and an important terminal on the commercial route to India. The ancient Pusk olay manuscripts in the Buddhist monasteries were all written with an iron stylus on such paper, that is, on the leaves of the talipot palm, prepared by cooking and drying.
It is difficult to see, therefore, if this map of 1457 was similar to that sent to Portugal, where its importance lay, for this information was accessible to all inquirers. Cloves at that time came only from the small islands of the Moluccas lying west of Halmahera, which perhaps the Genoese author has attempted here to represent.
The word is Persian, signifying gate or narrow pass, and is a name often met with in Persia. Though our cosmographer makes certain mistakes in relation to the chief stream of India, yet his representation of the hydrography of Asia is near the truth, and, as stated, is much better than that given by Fra Mauro. A mountain is indicated with a deep valley out of which a bird flies, having a piece of meat in its beak, and out of the same valley a river flows which in its course forms the boundary between India and China.
As the builder of this wall, our cosmographer in his legend names Prester John who appeared on the Catalan map of 1375 in the Nubian and the Abyssinian regions, and from that time on the name seems to have been connected with the last-named region, though, as the Genoese map shows, it did not completely disappear from central Asia. Kalhat, from the time of Idrisi to the arrival of the Portuguese, was the most important harbor and port of departure from Oman and the entire Persian Gulf to India, as was earlier Sohar and later Muskat. In these humble surroundings, you will come to respect and understand the Dine and their important connections between people, language, and land. The interest of the cartographer seems more probably to have lain in Contia€™s description of the oriental spice islands and the possibility of reaching them by circumnavigating Africa. The name Sanday is unknown, and Bandan is only a corruption, and should not be confounded with Banda, as cloves do not come from that island. As the Indus and its delta received special consideration, so also did the Ganges, the mouth of which is marked by the following legend: The mouth of the Ganges River, the width of which is fifteen miles, on whose banks grow canes so large that they exceed [the size of] the arm, and the islands grow nuts which we call Indian. There is support for the belief that in the letter of Alexander III, the ruler of Abyssinia is to be understood, although the great majority of the allusions to him seem to support the idea that the original Prester John was a central Asiatic ruler. It appears that at the time the Genoese map was drawn the shipping from the Persian Gulf and from Ormuz followed the coast from Oman almost to Ras-el-Hadd, and from that point with the monsoons direct to India.
His discussions and commentary featuring his perspectives on Dine culture will be valuable tools for our own education. His work is clearly related, though not closely, to the great map of Far Mauro, his contemporary. The wall stretching landward along the mountain ridge is yet, in part, well preserved, and one can follow its ruins for a distance of many miles.
According to popular tradition, it extends along the entire ridge of the Caucasus, and so it appears on this map extending from the second iron door, or pass, across Asia.
From Maharatia, Conti states that he made a thirteen daysa€™ journey eastward to the Carbuncle Mountains, that is, to the border mountains of Burma, which the Genoese mapmaker attempts to represent. The first European who actually visited the Moluccas was the Italian Varthena, about seventy years after Contia€™s expedition to the East.
A legend on the map of the Pizigani makes it clear that the wall from Derbent was originally constructed to protect the Persian territory from the people of the steppe region. The islands were considered as lying on the boundary of the habitable and known world, and as marking the limit of navigation.



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