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19.11.2014
Le cahier des charges est un element indispensable a l’expression des besoins du commanditaire. La definition des cibles est une phase essentielle a la reussite du projet : plus elle est precise, plus il sera aise de prendre les mesures permettant d’atteindre les objectifs prealablement fixes.
La definition des objectifs permet de mettre en exergue les differentes priorites et de resoudre les conflits lies au developpement. L’objectif du cycle preparatoire est de mettre en place un plan directeur qui permettra notamment de faire des choix technologiques et d’elaborer un cahier des charges.
In the last section of Chapter 1, we looked at how the Slavs expanded and settled most of eastern Europe, and in the process of spreading out, how they divided into Eastern, Western, and Southern Slavs. What happened next is uncertain because the only detailed source of information we have on Kievan Russia is a history book called The Primary Chronicle. Rurik's successor, a kinsman named Oleg (878-912), began his reign by bringing the other Varangian-ruled city-states in Russia under his authority. The next Grand Prince of Kiev, a ward of Oleg named Igor, was killed in 945 by a tribe that resisted his tax-gathering missions.(2) This tribe, the Drevlians, had paid taxes to Oleg, but that didn't make them feel they owed anything to Igor. The first act of revenge came when a delegation of twenty Drevlians came with a marriage proposal from their prince. Sometime after that episode, Olga went to Constantinople to be baptised, becoming the first Russian ruler to accept Christianity. By the time Svyatoslav (962-972) took the throne, the Varangians had been completely assimilated into their Slavic subjects; the last syllable in his name tells the story. In 2005, the Russian sculptor Vyacheslav Klykov erected this controversial statue in a Ukrainian village, showing Svyatoslav trampling a Khazar warrior. Svyatoslav's three sons fought a bloody eight-year civil war for their late father's crown, which ended in 980 when Vladimir I was the only son left. The only case that impressed the Grand Prince came from the single Greek theologian who represented the Orthodox Church.
Undoubtedly there were other reasons for Vladimir's conversion to go along with the spiritual one described above.
Vladimir became a fervent evangelist of the new faith for the rest of his life, tearing down the idols he had erected before. The eighteen years in which Yaroslav ruled alone (1036-54) are regarded as the peak of Kievan Russian civilization. Yaroslav is often called "Yaroslav the Wise" for all of his achievements, but the way he bequeathed the kingdom was anything but that. About the same time (1060), a new Turkish tribe called the Polovtsy(5) migrated into the Ukraine. The only prince after Yaroslav that ruled a united Russian state was his grandson Vladimir Monomakh (1113-25), a former prince of Smolensk. At home Andrew eliminated the old system of checks and balances by intimidating the boyars and forbidding the Veche to meet in Vladimir; the Veche still held meetings in the former capitals--either Rostov or Suzdal--but now Andrew had taken away most of the power of his rivals by default. In 1206 the tribes of Mongolia united under Genghis Khan to form the most formidable military force of the Middle Ages.
Now that they were done with the Russians, the Mongols ravaged the Ukraine and explored up the Volga, until they encountered stiff resistance from the Bulgars; then they suddenly left, making a beeline east across the steppes.


Taking advantage of the season by crossing Russia's sizeable rivers when they were frozen, the Mongols easily eliminated their first target, the Volga Bulgar kingdom. In the middle of these disasters the Russians found a hero in Alexander, the prince of Novgorod.
Since the Mongol Empire was now too large to be effectively governed from one place, it broke up into four smaller but still formidable states during the next generation. Another group of people who took advantage of the Mongol subjugation of Russia were pagans--the Lithuanians.
The most important effect of Lithuanian rule was the permanent ethnic division of the Eastern Slavs. Before 1300 Moscow was an insignificant city, dwarfed by larger neighbors such as Rostov, Ryazan, Vladimir and Tver. The next eight monarchs that ruled Moscow, from Simeon to Ivan IV, were all successful at enlarging the Muscovite state, never passing up an opportunity to grab some more land for Moscow. It was under the prince Dmitri Donskoy (1359-89) that Moscow became strong enough to do what was once unthinkable: fight the Mongols and win.
In the time of Dmitri and his successor Vasili I (1389-1425), the Golden Horde was crippled, first by a civil war, then by a devastating invasion by Tamerlane, the terrible new conqueror of Central Asia and the Middle East. After this Vasili I never again paid the full tribute, but just sent the Khan "gifts" when he felt like it. The son of Vasili II, Ivan III, was a cautious man who "always took two bites at a cherry," preferred to let his troops go into battle without him (uncommon in the age of chivalry), and was afraid of the dark. Ivan's greatest triumph was the conquest of Novgorod, the last stronghold of Kievan Russian culture. More interesting to us is the "Third Rome" theory, first proposed at this time by a monk named Philotheos.
For those peasants who could not take this kind of life, the answer was to run away, to the southern and eastern frontiers of the country.
The next tsar, Vasili III (1505-33), was too colorless to be mentioned in most history books, but he completed the work of reunification that his father had started, annexing Pskov (1510) and Ryazan (1521), and taking Smolensk from Lithuania (1514). The early part of Ivan's reign, up until about 1560, was his "good" period; most of the time he was rational, an able ruler who surrounded himself with advisors from all walks of life, including those from a peasant background, proving that ability and status are not necessarily found in the same people.
Another way to limit the influence of the boyars was to limit what the boyars' assembly, the Duma, could do.
It was in his military campaigns that Ivan acquired his epithet, "the Terrible"; not because he was terrible to the Russians (though he was), but because he was terrible to Russia's enemies. Ivan first turned his eyes toward Europe in 1553, when the English explorer Richard Chancellor, while searching for a "northeast passage" to the Orient, sailed into the White Sea.
In the same year as the English expedition, Ivan began slipping into the "bad" period of his life. Ivan agreed to return on condition that he be given unlimited power against the "traitors" to the state. When Ivan finally dissolved the Oprichnina, all resistance to his rule was dead, but the hereditary aristocracy had not been eliminated as a class; after they recovered they would cause trouble in the next generation. For 29 years after the death of Ivan the Terrible there was no competent leadership in Moscow.


Halfway through the "reign" of Fyodor I, his brother Dmitri was found dead with his throat cut. Seven years after Dmitri, Tsar Fyodor died childless, and with that the 700-year-old founded by Rurik came to an end.
On top of all this, a young man of unknown origins appeared (modern historians call him "False Dmitri") who claimed that Dmitri's assassins bungled their assignment and killed the wrong boy; now he, the "real" Dmitri, was coming out of seclusion to claim his rightful throne. Vasili IV, the "boyar tsar" (1606-10), found himself even less popular than his predecessors. It looked like Russia would disintegrate completely as a nation, but it was saved by a miraculous reuniting of the people.
The late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were hard times for the Russian people, but after the Time of Troubles ended, the nation itself prospered. Today Siberia is known as a place for exiles and those who really want to "get away from it all," but to subdue this land armed Cossacks led the way.
Siberia is famous for being huge, cold, and mostly covered with forests, meaning it has more furry animals than anyplace else. The first thing the Cossacks did when they entered a new area was put the natives to work collecting furs for them. In 1630 the Russians founded Ilimsk on the Ilim River, a tributary of the Angara, which in turn is a tributary of the Yenisei. Speaking of Sakhalin and Japan, another European nation, the Netherlands, was exploring the waters around them at this time. Philaret offered as a candidate for the throne his own son, sixteen-year-old Michael Romanov. The first three Romanov tsars, Michael (1613-45), Alexis (1645-76), and Fyodor III (1676-82), were not strong rulers, and their achievements can be described with just a few words; most of Russia's accomplishments in the seventeenth century were made by ordinary people, with little direction from the Kremlin. We looked at Russia's eastern gains in the previous section; Russia's western gains were smaller but equally important.
Another important Cossack who lived at this time was a drunken, illiterate but extremely charismatic leader named Stenka (Little Stephen) Razin. Ivan Sirko writes his caustic letter, in a famous painting done by Elias Repin, more than two hundred years after the incident.
Finally, mention should be made of an important controversy in the seventeenth-century Church. These differences may seem trivial to us, but to the Russian who lived by ritual, they put one's salvation on the line. The most important thing to remember about seventeenth-century Russia is the near-total isolation it had from the outside world.



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