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Fifty years later, in 1950, the leading ten cities had doubled in size, and Shanghai, Buenos Aires, and Calcutta had joined the list. The oldest surviving corporations, Stora Enso in Sweden and the Sumitomo Group in Japan, are about 700 and 400 years old, respectively. I suspect that one cause of their durability is that cities are the most constantly changing of organizations. The reversal of opinion about fast-growing citiesa€”from bad news to good newsa€”began with The Challenge of Slums, a 2003 UN-HABITAT report. In 2007 the United Nations Population Fund gave that yeara€™s report the upbeat title Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth. If cities are concentrators of efficiency and innovation, an article about the scaling paper in Conservation magazine surmised, then, a€?the secret to creating a more environmentally sustainable society is making our cities bigger.
In Peter Ackroyda€™s London: The Biography (2000), he quotes William Blakea€”a€?Without Contraries is no progressiona€?a€”and ventures that Blake came to that view from his immersion in London.
The common theory of the origin of cities states that they resulted from the invention of agriculture: Surplus food freed people to become specialists.
Agriculture, it appears, was an early invention by the dwellers of walled towns to allow their settlements to keep growing, as in Geoffrey Westa€™s formulation.
A study in Panama showed what happened when people abandoned slash-and-burn agriculture to move to town: a€?With people gone, secondary forest has regenerated.
Though the squatters join forces for what the UN researchers describe as a€?cultural movements and levels of solidarity unknown in leafy suburbs,a€? they are seldom politically active beyond defending their own community interests. A depiction of contemporary slum reality even more vivid than Neuwirtha€™s is an autobiographical novel by an escaped Australian prisoner who went into hiding in Mumbaia€™s slums, joined its organized crime world, and fell in love with the city. Social cohesiveness is the crucial factor differentiating a€?slums of hopea€? from a€?slums of despair.a€? This is where CBOs (community-based organizations) and the NGOs (national and global nongovernmental organizations) shine. For the first time in her life she had got rid of her husband, her in-laws, her village and their burdens.
Shimu prefers living in Dhaka because a€?it is safer, and here I can earn a living, live and think my own way,a€? she says. The magic ingredient of squatter cities is that they are improved steadily and gradually, increment by increment, by the people living there. According to urban researchers, squatters are now the predominant builders of cities in the world. A reporter from the Economist who visited Mumbai wrote that a€?Dharavi, which is allegedly Asiaa€™s biggest slum, is vibrantly and triumphantly alive. The screen-printer who provides laundry bags to hotels, the charcoal burner who wheels his cycle up to the copper smelter and delivers sacks of charcoala€¦ , the home-based crA?che to which the managing director delivers her child each morning, the informal builder who adds a security wall around the home of the government minister, all indicate the complex networks of linkages between informal and formal.
In many cities, the roughest slums are pressed right up against the most affluent neighborhoods.
This book was finished before the full effects of the world financial crisis of 2009 could be studied.
Corporations are right to pay attention to what is now referred to as the BOPa€”bottom of the pyramid. It doesna€™t matter whether you give people title deeds or secure tenure, people simply need to know they wona€™t be evicted. For the first time in her life she had got rid of her husband, her in-laws, her village and their burdens.A  A few months after she arrived, Shimu, now able to support her children, mustered the courage to return to her town and file for divorce.
That bond back to the village appears to be universal.A  The Challenge of Slums observes that a€?Kenyan urban folk who have lived in downtown Nairobi all of their lives, if asked where they come from, will say from Nyeri or Kiambu or Eldoret, even if they have never been to these places. This is a€?Developing Mission, Vision, and Valuesa€?, chapter 4 from the book Management Principles (v.
This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page.
DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Though they are not as good as a crystal ball, good mission and vision statements should invoke a desirable future and create uneasiness with the status quo. Understand how mission and vision fit into the planning-organizing-leading-controlling (P-O-L-C) framework. As you are reminded in the figure, the letter a€?Pa€? in the P-O-L-C framework stands for a€?planning.a€? Good plans are meant to achieve somethinga€”this something is captured in verbal and written statements of an organizationa€™s mission and vision (its purpose, in addition to specific goals and objectives).
As of 2010, Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) is a $22 billion, multinational company founded in 1906 and operating in 160 countries. In 2009, Mulcahy became the chairman of Xeroxa€™s board of directors and passed the torch to Ursula Burns, who became the new CEO of Xerox.
Burns explains that she learned early on in her career, from her mentors at Xerox, the importance of managing individuals in different ways and not intentionally intimidating people but rather relating to them and their individual perspectives.
In terms of the P-O-L-C framework, what values do the promotion and retention of Mulcahy and Burns suggest are important at Xerox?
How do you think Xerox was able to motivate its employees through the crisis it faced in 2000?
How do CEOs with large numbers of employees communicate priorities to a worldwide workforce? Mission and vision both relate to an organizationa€™s purpose and are typically communicated in some written form. Apply the highest standards of excellence to the purchasing, roasting and fresh delivery of our coffee. Honor the language and spirit of the law of every nation and undertake open and fair corporate activities to be a good corporate citizen of the world.
Respect the culture and customs of every nation and contribute to economic and social development through corporate activities in the communities.
Dedicate ourselves to providing clean and safe products and to enhancing the quality of life everywhere through all our activities.
Create and develop advanced technologies and provide outstanding products and services that fulfill the needs of customers worldwide.
Foster a corporate culture that enhances individual creativity and teamwork value, while honoring mutual trust and respect between labor and management. A vision statementA future-oriented declaration of the organizationa€™s purpose and aspirations., in contrast, is a future-oriented declaration of the organizationa€™s purpose and aspirations.
Any casual tour of business or organization Web sites will expose you to the range of forms that mission and vision statements can take. Mission and vision statements play three critical roles: (1) communicate the purpose of the organization to stakeholders, (2) inform strategy development, and (3) develop the measurable goals and objectives by which to gauge the success of the organizationa€™s strategy.
First, mission and vision provide a vehicle for communicating an organizationa€™s purpose and values to all key stakeholders. Third, mission and vision provide a high-level guide, and the strategy provides a specific guide, to the goals and objectives showing success or failure of the strategy and satisfaction of the larger set of objectives stated in the mission. Mission and vision both relate to an organizationa€™s purpose and aspirations, and are typically communicated in some form of brief written statements. Mission and vision play such a prominent role in the planning facet of the P-O-L-C framework.
OrganizingThe function of management that involves developing an organizational structure and allocating human resources to ensure the accomplishment of objectives. Organization design should reflect and support the strategya€”in that sense, organizational design is a set of decision guidelines by which members will choose appropriate actions, appropriate in terms of their support for the strategy. For example, in 2006, Disney acquired Pixar, a firm is renowned for its creative prowess in animated entertainment.
Organizational cultureA system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs showing people what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior. As you might imagine, achieving alignment between mission and vision and organizational culture can be very powerful, but culture is also difficult to change.
Social networksIndividuals or organizations tied to one another by one or more specific types of interdependency. Any taska€”whether launching Silk or building the Disney empirea€” is that much more difficult if attempted alone. In most cases where we think of revolutionary companies, we associate the organizationa€™s vision with its leadera€”for instance, Apple and Steve Jobs, Dell and Michael Dell, or Google with the team of Sergey Brin and Larry Page. Principle 1: The visionary leader must do on-site observation leading to personal perception of changes in societal values from an outsidera€™s point of view.
Principle 3: Revolution is begun with symbolic disruption of the old or traditional system through top-down efforts to create chaos within the organization. Principle 4: The direction of revolution is illustrated by a symbolically visible image and the visionary leadera€™s symbolic behavior. Principle 5: Quickly establishing new physical, organizational, and behavioral systems is essential for successful revolution. Principle 8: Create a daily operation system, including a new work structure, new approach to human capabilities and improvement activities. A broader definition of visionary leadership suggests that, if many or most of an organizationa€™s employees understand and identify with the mission and vision, efficiency will increase because the organizationa€™s members a€?on the front linesa€? will be making decisions fully aligned with the organizationa€™s goals. The classic case about Johnsonville Sausage, recounted by CEO Ralph Stayer, documents how that company dramatically improved its fortunes after Stayer shared responsibility for the mission and vision, and ultimately development of the actual strategy, with all of his employees. Mission and vision are also relevant to leadership well beyond the impact of one or several top executives. Recall that mission and vision tell a story about an organizationa€™s purpose and aspirations. The goals and objectives that flow from your mission and vision provide a basis for assessing actual versus desired performance.
Finally, just as mission and vision should lead to specific and measurable goals and objectives and thus provide a basis for comparing actual and desired performance, corrective action should also be prompted in cases where performance deviates negatively from performance objectives.
Strategic human resources management (SHRM)Management strategy that reflects the aim of tying the organizationa€™s human capital, its people, into the mission and vision.
In addition to being a key part of the planning process, mission and vision also play key roles in the organizing, leading, and controlling functions of management.
Why might a specific replacement CEO candidate be a good or poor choice for a firm with an existing mission and vision?
Why are mission and vision relevant to the management of internal organizational social networks? Entrepreneurs are creative and passionate about their ideas, two characteristics we often associate with vision and visionaries. Creativity and passion can, and probably should, also influence the organizationa€™s mission. The first type of creativity, investment, is associated with speeda€”being first and being fast.
Where big ideas come from the imagination quadrant, improvement is a type of creativity that involves making an existing idea better. While no one of these four types of creativity is best, they have some contradictory or conflicting characteristics. In this section, we introduce you to two creativity tools: SCAMPER and the Nominal Group Technique.
All these tools help you to manage two divergent forms of thinking necessary for creativitya€”programmed thinking and lateral thinking. Developed by Bob Eberle, SCAMPERSCAMPER is a checklist tool that helps you to think of changes you can make to an existing marketplace to create a new one: a new product, a new service, or both.
As shown in the Table 4.1 "Creativity through SCAMPER", by taking a topic or problem and then using SCAMPER, you can generate possible new products.
The Nominal Group Technique (NGT)A widely used small group process technique whose purpose is to produce a large number of ideas in a relatively short period of time.
Introduction: Briefly welcome participants, clarify the purpose of the group exercise, and explain the procedure to be followed and how results are to be used. Silent generation of ideas: Each participant silently thinks of and writes down (on 3 A— 5 card) as many ideas as possible. Record ideas: In turn, each participant reads aloud one idea, and it is recorded on the flip chart for all to see.
Group discussion: After all ideas are recorded, the person who suggested the idea is given the opportunity to explain it further. Passion as we invoke the term in this chapter, refers to intense, driving, or overmastering feeling or conviction. Passion doesna€™t just have benefits for the individual entrepreneur or manager when formulating a vision statement, it can help the whole business thrive. Engaged employees are those who are performing at the top of their abilities and happy about it.
Job satisfaction studies in the United States routinely show job satisfaction ratings of 50%a€“60%. Consciously creating an environment where passion is both encouraged and actively developed can yield an enormous competitive advantage.
StakeholdersIndividuals and organizations who are actively involved in the organization, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of what the organization does. Considering these factors in the development of a firma€™s mission and vision is a good place to start, but first, of course, you must identify critical stakeholders, get a handle on their short- and long-term interests, calculate their potential influence on your strategy, and take into consideration how the firms strategy might affect the stakeholders (beneficially or adversely). As you can imagine, for instance, one key stakeholder group comprises the CEO and the members of the top-management team.
Typically, stakeholder evaluation of both quantitative and qualitative performance outcomes will determine whether management is effective. Stakeholder analysisThe range of techniques or tools used to identify and to understand the needs and expectations of major interests inside and outside the organization environment.
Stakeholder analysis may also enable managers to identify other parties that might derail otherwise well-formulated strategies, such as local, state, national, or foreign governmental bodies. An alarming 70% of American employees aren't working to their full potential, and they're slowing economic growth. Since the financial meltdown of 2008 and the recession that followed, the American workforce has struggled to adapt to an uncertain economic climate.
Of the 70% of American workers who are not reaching their full potential, 52% are not engaged, and another 18% are actively disengaged. The State of the American Workplace report shows that companies with 9.3 engaged employees for every actively disengaged employee in 2010-2011 experienced 147% higher earnings per share (EPS) on average in 2011-2012 compared with their competition.
How leaders manage their employees can substantially affect engagement levels in the workplace, in turn influencing the company's bottom line.


Many companies are a long way from implementing most of these steps, and this is showing up in America's national engagement levels. Americans' images of socialism, capitalism and other economic-related concepts have not changed significantly over the past six years. While new media are increasingly available worldwide, perceived media freedom is declining.
Fifty percent of Americans rate their personal financial situation as either "excellent" or "good," slightly higher than the 46% recorded last year and the highest level recorded since before the Great Recession.
Americans are slightly less optimistic about the homebuying climate than they have been since 2009.
The majority of small-business owners do not feel the presidential candidates are discussing issues of importance to them. Employed Americans' reports of hiring activity where they work were essentially unchanged in April, keeping Gallup's Job Creation Index near its highest level recorded in the nine-year trend. Younger Americans are more likely now than before the economic turmoil of 2007-2012 to look to savings accounts for retirement income.
It’s another suitable way to analyze a company’s competitive position in comparison to the offerings of competitors.
Marketing Teacher designs and delivers online marketing courses, training and resources for marketing learners, teachers and professionals. The new Healthy Food Pyramid was developed by the Harvard School of Public Health in the United States (thanks guys!).
Vegetables are an extremely important part of the healthy food pyramid as they provide essential vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants and fibre.
Fish, Poultry and Eggs The foods provide optimal sources of protein and essential fatty acids. Dairy Foods and Vitamin D Calcium and Vitamin D are essential for strong bones and healthy teeth. Rightio, I hope you were as excited by my overview of the Harvard School of Public Health's Updated Healthy Eating Pyramid as much as I was when I found it!! Countries that are highly urbanized have higher incomes, more stable economies, stronger institutions.
See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. With a mission and vision, you can craft a strategy for achieving them, and your benchmarks for judging your progress and success are clear goals and objectives. Mulcahy joined Xerox as an employee in 1976 and moved up the corporate ladder, holding several management positions until she became CEO in 2001. As CEO, she wants to encourage people to get things done, take risks, and not be afraid of those risks. Mission and vision are statements from the organization that answer questions about who we are, what do we value, and where wea€™re going. In many ways, you can say that the mission statement lays out the organizationa€™s a€?purpose for being,a€? and the vision statement then says, a€?based on that purpose, this is what we want to become.a€? The strategy should flow directly from the vision, since the strategy is intended to achieve the vision and thus satisfy the organizationa€™s mission.
To reiterate, mission statements are longer than vision statements, often because they convey the organizations core values. These interdependent, cascading roles, and the relationships among them, are summarized in the figure.
Stakeholders are those key parties who have some influence over the organization or stake in its future.
That is, one criterion of a good strategy is how well it helps the firm achieve its mission and vision.
In the cases of both Starbucks and Toyota, you would expect to see profitability goals, in addition to metrics on customer and employee satisfaction, and social and environmental responsibility.
A mission statement communicates the organizationa€™s reason for being and how it aspires to serve its key stakeholders. As you learned in the previous section, the strategy is derived from the mission and vision statements and from the organizationa€™s basic values. Further, you must connect peoplea€”human resourcesa€”with the information and technology necessary for them to be successful.
This means that if you are seeking to change your vision or mission, your ability to change the organizationa€™s culture to support those new directions may be difficult, or, at least, slow to achieve.
Most important, in all three of these organizations, the leaders focused on creating an organization with a noble mission that enabled the employees and management team to achieve not only the strategic breakthrough but to also realize their personal dreams in the process. Efficiency is achieved with limited hands-on supervision because the mission and vision serve as a form of cruise control.
His vision was the quest for an answer to a€?What Johnsonville would have to be to sell the most expensive sausage in the industry and still have the biggest market share?a€?Stayer, R.
Even beyond existing employees, various stakeholdersa€”customers, suppliers, prospective new employeesa€”are visiting organizationsa€™ Web sites to read their mission and vision statements. Controlling consists of three steps, which include (1) establishing performance standards, (2) comparing actual performance against standards, and (3) taking corrective action when necessary. Mission and vision statements are often ambiguous by design because they are intended to inform the strategy not be the strategy. A leading indicatorA measure of performance that serves to predict where the firm is going, in terms of performance. In many ways, such goals and objectives provide a natural feedback loop that helps managers see when and how they are succeeding and where they might need to take corrective action. It is important to point out that while mission and vision may signal the need for corrective action, because they are rather general, high-level statements they typically will not spell out what specific actionsa€”that latter part is the role of strategy, and mission and vision are critical for good strategies but not substitutes for them.
While mission and vision start the planning function, they are best realized when accounted for across all four functions of managementa€”P-O-L-C.
In many ways, the linkages might be clearest between creativity and vision statements and passion and mission statements because the latter is an expression of the organizationa€™s values and deeply held beliefs. This type of creativity is characterized by new ideas and breakthroughs: Applea€™s stylish design of Macintosh computers and then game-changing breakthroughs with its iPod and iPhone.
Incubation is a very deliberate approach that concerns a vision of sustainabilitya€”that is, leaving a legacy.
This set of tools is not exhaustive but gives you some good intuition and resources to develop new ideasa€”either to craft a vision for a new company or revise an existing mission and vision.
Programmed thinkingThinking that relies on logical or structured ways of creating a new product or service (often called left-brained thinking). Logical and disciplined programmed thinking is enormously effective in making products and services better. It may be some combination of these SCAMPER changes that lead to highly innovative solutions. It encourages contributions from everyone by allowing for equal participation among group members. It is an entrepreneura€™s fuel, providing the drive and inspiration to create something out of nothing while enduring all the risks, uncertainty, and bumps in the road that that entails. As evangelists, salespeople, fundraisers, and cheerleaders they need to breathe life into their vision while enlisting others in their dream. While there is little academic research on the relationship between passion and vision, studies suggest that fostering engagement, a concept related to passion, in employees has a significant effect on the corporate bottom line.
That environment starts at the top through the development and active communication of mission and vision.
You learned that creativity relates to the power or ability to create and that passion is intense emotion compelling action. Table 4.2 "Stakeholder Categories" provides one way to begin thinking about the various stakeholder groups, their interests, importance, and influence.
Quantitative outcomes include stock price, total sales, and net profits, while qualitative outcomes include customer service and employee satisfaction.
Finally, stakeholder analysis enables organizations to better formulate, implement, and monitor their strategies, and this is why stakeholder analysis is a critical factor in the ultimate implementation of a strategy. As you can imagine, the groups of stakeholders who will, either directly or indirectly, be affected by or have an effect on a firma€™s strategy and its execution can run the gamut from employees, to customers, to competitors, to the government. Sluggish growth, persistently high unemployment, and sharp spending cuts by businesses and consumers alike have taken a toll. In contrast, companies with a lower average of 2.6 engaged employees for every actively disengaged employee experienced 2% lower EPS compared with their competition during that same time period. Here are some strategies executives can use to move their companies -- and collectively, the U.S. The engagement metrics that companies use can affect their ability to create changes in performance. Real change occurs at the local, workgroup level, but it only happens when company leaders set the tone from the top. Whether hiring from the outside or promoting from within, organizations that scientifically select managers for the unique talents it takes to effectively manage people greatly increase the odds of engaging their employees. While the overall organization may set lofty goals for engagement, leaders must make these objectives meaningful to employees' day-to-day experiences to bring engagement to life. A workforce with seven in 10 workers who are either not engaged or actively disengaged is bad for individual businesses and for the economy as a whole. In 2015, a median 61% of residents across 131 countries said the media in their country have a lot of freedom, down from previous years. Owners are paying close attention to the election, and half feel the outcome of the election will have a major impact on their business.
As with Porter’s Generic Strategies, Bowman considers competitive advantage in relation to cost advantage or differentiation advantage. Prahalada€™s The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty Through Profits (2005). You may also download a PDF copy of this book (15 MB) or just this chapter (846 KB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). Mission and vision communicate the organizationa€™s values and purpose, and the best mission and vision statements have an emotional component in that they incite employees to delight customers. How does a company of such size and magnitude effectively manage and motivate employees from diverse backgrounds and experiences? In 2005, Mulcahy was named by Fortune magazine as the second most powerful woman in business. A study by the consulting firm Bain and Company reports that 90% of the 500 firms surveyed issue some form of mission and vision statements.Bart, C.
You will learn more about stakeholders and stakeholder analysis later in this chapter; however, for now, suffice it to say that some key stakeholders are employees, customers, investors, suppliers, and institutions such as governments. To better understand the relationship among mission, vision, and strategy, it is sometimes helpful to visualize them collectively as a funnel. The vision statement is a narrower, future-oriented declaration of the organizationa€™s purpose and aspirations. Beyond the relationship between mission and vision, strategy, and goals and objectives, you should expect to see mission and vision being related to the organizing, leading, and controlling aspects as well.
The organizing facet of the P-O-L-C framework typically includes subjects such as organization design, staffing, and organizational culture. Strategy unifies the intent of the organization and focuses members toward actions designed to accomplish desired outcomes.
Organization structure defines the formal relationships among people and specifies both their roles and their responsibilities. Disney has helped Pixar achieve this strategy through an important combination of structural design choices.
Organizational culture is defined by all of the life experiences, strengths, weaknesses, education, upbringing, and other attributes of the employees. You are probably already active in social networks through such Web communities as MySpace, Facebook, and LinkedIn.
Without real change leaders, a revolutionary vision would remain a mere idea of the visionary CEOa€”they are the ones who make the implementation of the transformation real. To make frontline responsibility effective, leadership must learn to trust workers and give them sufficient opportunities to develop quality decision-making skills.
In the process, they are trying to understand what kind of organization they are reading about and what the organizationa€™s values and ethics are.
Nevertheless, those statements typically provide a general compass heading for the organization and its employees. Human resources management alignment means to integrate decisions about people with decisions about the results an organization is trying to obtain.
In planning, mission and vision help to generate specific goals and objectives and to develop the strategy for achieving them. Similarly, while we will discuss creativity and passion separately in this section, your intuition and experience surely tell you that creativity eventually involves emotion, to be creative, you have to care abouta€”be passionate abouta€”what youa€™re doing. Perhaps one of the most recent examples of this type of creativity crucible is the beer warsa€”the battle for U.S. Oftentimes, we can tie this type of creativity to the drive or genius of a single individual, such as Applea€™s Steve Jobs.
Ray Kroc, McDonalda€™s founder, had the idea of creating quality and cooking standards for preparing tasty burgers and fries. This type of creativity is more complex because it involves teamwork, empowerment, and collective action. The first three tools can be used and applied individually or in groups; Nominal Group Technique is designed to bolster creativity in groups and can build on individual and group insights provided by the other tools. For instance, the entertainment company Cirque du Soliel has modeled its shows on the traditional circus.
Passion is relevant to vision in at least two ways: (1) Passion about an idea as inspiration of the vision and vision statement and (2) shared passion among organizational members about the importance of the vision.
From creating a vision for the future to selling the idea to investors, from attracting high-quality employees to inspiring them to do what nobody thought possible, that passion is a key ingredient. Gallup, for instance, has been on the forefront of measuring the effect of what it calls employee engagement. They have a line-of-sight on their own future and on the organizationa€™s mission and goals. Creativity is important if the desired mission and vision are desired to be novel and entrepreneurial; passion is important both from the standpoint of adding energy to the mission and vision and to key stakeholders following the mission and vision. As you can imagine, different stakeholders may place more emphasis on some outcomes than other stakeholders, who have other priorities. Managers perform stakeholder analysis to gain a better understanding of the range and variety of groups and individuals who not only have a vested interest in the organization, and ultimately the formulation and implementation of a firma€™s strategy, but who also have some influence on firm performance.


Ultimately, we will want to take these stakeholders and plot them on a chart, similar to that shown in the following figure. This is troubling as American business attempts to recover ground lost during the financial crisis and reach prerecession levels of prosperity. The exponential boost in earnings due to a higher engagement ratio is a competitive advantage that business leaders can't afford to ignore. When a company asks its employees for their opinions, those employees expect action to follow. Companies realize the most benefit from engagement initiatives when leaders weave employee engagement into performance expectations for managers and enable them to execute on those expectations. Instead of using management jobs as promotional prizes for all career paths, companies should treat these roles as unique with distinct functional demands that require a specific talent set. Companies should coach managers to take an active role in building engagement plans with their employees, hold managers accountable, track their progress, and ensure they continuously focus on emotionally engaging their employees. Make sure that managers discuss employee engagement at weekly meetings, impact-planning sessions, and in one-on-one meetings with employees to weave engagement into daily interactions and activities.
Workforce participation was up slightly, while unemployment was down almost a full point to 5.2%.
While administrators are still understanding the law that will replace No Child Left Behind, most are neutral or positive about it. The three a€?planninga€? topics of your principles of management cover (1) mission and vision, (2) strategy, and (3) goals and objectives. Based on a lifetime of experience with Xerox, she knew that the company had powerful employees who were not motivated when she took over. The correlation between a managera€™s leadership style and the productivity and motivation of employees is apparent at Xerox, where employees feel a sense of importance and a part of the process necessary to maintain a successful and profitable business. Typically, these statements would be widely circulated and discussed often so that their meaning is widely understood, shared, and internalized. Together, mission and vision guide strategy development, help communicate the organizationa€™s purpose to stakeholders, and inform the goals and objectives set to determine whether the strategy is on track.
With regard to organizing, it is useful to think about alignment between the mission and vision and various organizing activities. The strategy encourages actions that support the purpose and discourages those that do not. Administrative systems govern the organization through guidelines, procedures, and policies. First, Pixar is an independent division of Disney and is empowered to make independent choices in all aspects of idea development. While executive leaders play a large role in defining organizational culture by their actions and leadership, all employees contribute to the organizational culture. However, these sites are really only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the emerging body of knowledge surrounding social networks. Ultimately, they are seeking to determine whether the organization and what it stands for are a good fit for them. Controlling consists of three steps: (1) establishing performance standards, (2) comparing actual performance against standards, and (3) taking corrective action when necessary. For instance, vision may say something about innovativeness, growth, or firm performance, and the firm will likely have set measurable objectives related to these. For instance, General Electric asks customers whether they will refer it new business, and GEa€™s managers have found that this measure of customer satisfaction does a pretty good job of predicting future sales. Moreover, to the extent that they serve as leading, lagging, and pacing performance metrics, they enable managers to take corrective action on any deviations from goals before too much damage has been done. Their purpose is not only to motivate employees to take meaningful action but also to give leadership a standard for monitoring progress. Mission and vision guide choices about organizing, too, from structure to organizational culture. We sometimes think of creativity as being a purely artistic attribute, but creativity in business is the essence of innovation and progress. While there were many other burger joints around at the time (the 1950s), Kroca€™s unique process-oriented approach gave McDonalda€™s a big advantage.
Gandhi would probably have been completely noncreative and ineffective had he not been adept at capitalizing on incubation dynamics. In terms of mission and vision, this means a logical and deliberate process is used to develop the vision statement.
Lateral thinking can generate completely new concepts and ideas and brilliant improvements to existing systems.
However, it has adapted aspects of theater and opera, eliminated animals, and reduced the number of rings from three to one.
Employee engagementA concept, related to passion, that is generally viewed as managing discretionary effort; that is, when employees have choices, they will act in a way that furthers their organizationa€™s interests. They are a€?enthuseda€™ and a€?in geara€™ using their talents and discretionary effort to make a difference in their employera€™s quest for sustainable business success.a€? (Employee Engagement Report 2008)BlessingWhite.
Wea€™ve also explained that firms are usually accountable to a broad range of stakeholders, including shareholders, who can make it either more difficult or easier to execute a strategy and realize its mission and vision.
Managers thus develop mission and vision statements, not only to clarify the organizationa€™s larger purpose but also to meet or exceed the needs of its key stakeholders. An alarming 70% of American workers are not showing up to work committed to delivering their best performance, and this has serious implications for the bottom line of individual companies and the U.S. But businesses often make the mistake of using employee surveys to collect data that are irrelevant or impossible to act on. Managers and employees must feel empowered by leaders to make a significant difference in their immediate environment.
They should select managers based on whether they have the right talents for supporting, positioning, empowering, and engaging their staff.
The most engaged companies consistently make employee engagement part of their formal review process, and most use these improvements as a criterion for promotions. Every interaction with an employee has the potential to influence his or her engagement and inspire discretionary effort. Mulcahy believed that among other key businesses changes, motivating employees at Xerox was a key way to pull the company back from the brink of failure. Because of her tenure with Xerox, she has close relationships with many of the employees, which provides a level of comfort and teamwork. In 2010, Anne Mulcahy retired from her position on the board of directors to pursue new projects. The better employees understand an organizationa€™s purpose, through its mission and vision, the better able they will be to understand the strategy and its implementation. Toward the narrower part of the funnel, you find the vision statement, which has distilled down the mission in a way that it can guide the development of the strategy.
For instance, organizational designA formal, guided process for integrating the people, information, and technology of an organization. Second, Pixar gives its a€?creativesa€?a€”its artists, writers, and designersa€”great leeway over decision making.
Four practical revolutions in management: Systems for creating unique organizational capability.
Performance standards often exceed actual performance but, ideally, managers will outline a set of metrics that can help to predict the future, not just evaluate the past.
A pacing indicatorA measure of performance that tells you in real-time that the organization is on track. It also tells external audiences how your organization wishes to be viewed and have its progress and successes gauged. The cultural dimension is one reason mission and vision are most effective when they pervade the leadership of the entire organization, rather than being just the focus of senior management. Similarly, Toyota has used the refinement of its automaking and auto-assembly processes (called the Toyota Business System) to be one of the largest and most successful, high-quality car makers in the world.
By mobilizing people to march to the sea to make salt, or to burn passes that demarcated ethnic group status, Gandhi was able to engender creative outcomes that had not been considered possible.
Lateral thinkingA thinking process that is about changing patterns and perceptions (often called right-brained thinking). As a result, it offers a highly stylized (and much more expensive!) version of what, nostalgically, we call a circus today.
This is the main reason managers must consider stakeholdersa€™ interests, needs, and preferences. The data that Gallup's Q12 employee engagement survey collects are specific, relevant, and actionable for any team at any organizational level.
In 2000, Xerox was facing bankruptcy after years of mismanagement, piles of debt, and mounting questions about its accounting practices. One of her guiding principles was a belief that in order to achieve customer satisfaction, employees must be treated as key stakeholders and become interested and motivated in their work.
In the narrowest part of the funnel you find the strategy a€”it is clear and explicit about what the firm will do, and not do, to achieve the vision. Each element must support each of the others, and together they must support the organizationa€™s purpose, as reflected in its mission and vision.
Third, Pixar protects its creativesa€™ ability to share work in progress, up and down the hierarchy, with the aim of getting it even better. You may be surprised to learn that many big companies have breakdowns in communications even in divisions where the work on one project should be related to work on another.
Of course, he made other important changes as well, such as decentralizing decision making and tying individuala€™s rewards to company-wide performance, but he initiated them by communicating the organizationa€™s mission and vision and letting his employees know that he believed they could make the choices and decisions needed to realize them. Finally, mission and vision are tied to the three key steps of controlling: (1) establishing performance standards, (2) comparing actual performance against standards, and (3) taking corrective action when necessary.
They argued that creativity a€?typesa€? could be clustered based on some combination of flexibility versus control and internal versus external orientation. You can use these changes either as direct suggestions or as starting points for lateral thinking. They also are proven to influence key performance metrics because the Q12 measures employees' emotional engagement, which ties directly to their level of discretionary effort -- their willingness to go the extra mile for their company. You then leave it in the crisper for up to a week, cook it in less than perfect ways (if they even make it out of the crisper) and then eat them. Mulcahy not only successfully saw the company through this difficult time but also was able to create a stronger and more focused company.
She maintains that Mulcahy created a strong and successful business but encouraged individuals to speak their mind, to not worry about hurting one anothera€™s feelings, and to be more critical. It is used to match the form of the organization as closely as possible to the purpose(s) the organization seeks to achieve. Finally, after each project, teams conduct a€?postmortemsa€? to catalog what went right and what went wrong.
NIH describes a sociological, corporate, or institutional culture that avoids using products, research, or knowledge that originated anywhere other than inside the organization.
Going back to our Pixar example, for instance, Disney is fostering a network among members of its Pixar division in a way that they are more likely to share information and learn from others. A lagging indicatorA measure of performance that shows how well the firm has done historically. Since people make the place, ultimately strategic human resources management must bring these pieces together.
For the manager, their typology is especially useful as it suggests ways to manage creativity, as in simply hiring creative individuals. However, some of these ideas could be good starting points for a new organization or revision of the vision for an existing one.
In that sense the best vision statements create a tension and restlessness with regard to the status quoa€”that is, they should foster a spirit of continuous innovation and improvement. Through the design process, organizations act to improve the probability that the collective efforts of members will be successful. This way, innovations gained through new projects can be shared with later projects, while at the same time sharing knowledge about potential pitfalls.Catmull, E. The open internal network also means that a cartoon designer might have easier access to a computer programmer and together they can figure out a more innovative solution. As summarized in the figure, their research suggests that there are four types of creativity: (1) investment (external orientation with high control), (2) imagination (external orientation with flexibility emphasis), (3) improvement (internal orientation with high control), and (4) incubation (internal orientation with flexibility emphasis).
Table 4.1 "Creativity through SCAMPER" provides you with the SCAMPER question steps and examples of new products or services that you might create. Moreover, firms with clearly communicated, widely understood, and collectively shared mission and vision have been shown to perform better than those without them, with the caveat that they related to effectiveness only when strategy and goals and objectives were aligned with them as well.Bart, C. For instance, in the case of Toyota, its a€?moving forwarda€? vision urges managers to find newer and more environmentally friendly ways of delighting the purchaser of their cars. As a sociological phenomenon, the a€?not invented herea€? syndrome is manifested as an unwillingness to adopt an idea or product because it originates from another culture.
Finally, since Pixar promotes communication across hierarchical levels and gives creatives decision-making authority, the typical power plays that might impede sharing innovation and individual creativity are prevented.
Firm financial performance, for instance, is an accounting-based summary of how well the firm has done historically. We will focus mostly on the relationship between creativity, passion, and vision in this section because organizational visions are intended to create uneasiness with the status quo and help inform and motivate key stakeholders to move the organization forward.
P&G has been able to combat this NIH bias and gradually change its culture toward one that is more open to external contributions, and hence in much better alignment with its current mission and vision. Managers see these three network advantages at work every day but might not pause to consider how their networks regulate them. Even if managers can calculate such performance quickly, the information is still historic and not pacing or leading.
This means that a vision statement should reflect and communicate something that is relatively novel and unique, and such novelty and uniqueness are the products of creativity and passion. Increasingly, firms compile a set of such leading, lagging, and pacing goals and objectives and organize them in the form of a dashboard or Balanced Scorecard.
Prahalad describe this tense relationship between vision and strategy as stretch and ambition. For instance, when Walt Disney suggested building a theme park in a Florida swamp back in the early 1960s, few other people in the world seemed to share his view.




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