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This is a€?Influence of New Technologiesa€?, section 9.4 from the book Mass Communication, Media, and Culture (v.
This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. The experience of watching television is rapidly changing with the progression of technology.
Although television audiences are becoming increasingly fragmented, they are also growing because of the convenience and availability of new technology. The origins of satellite televisionTelevision system delivered by means of a communications satellite and received by a satellite dish and set-top box.
The trouble with early satellite television systems was that once people purchased a satellite system, they had free access to every basic and premium cable service that was broadcasting via satellite signals.
Subscribers of DBS receive signals from geostationary satellites that are broadcast in digital format at microwave frequency and intercepted by a satellite dish. As of 2010, the two biggest players in the satellite television industry are DirecTV and Dish Network.
Since the 1999 legislation put satellite television in direct competition with cable, the major satellite companies have increasingly pitted themselves against cable broadcasters, offering consumers numerous incentives to switch providers.
In another overt bid to lure cable customers over to satellite television, both DirecTV and Dish Network offer a number of comprehensive movies and sports packages, benefiting from their additional channel capacity (satellite television providers typically offer around 350 channels, compared with 180 channels on cable) and their ability to receive international channels often unavailable on cable.
Over the past two decades, the viewing public has become increasingly fragmented as a result of growing competition between cable and satellite channels and traditional network television stations.
Non-television delivery systems such as the Internet allow viewers to download their favorite shows at any time, on several different media.
Of the many recent Internet phenomenons, few have made as big an impact as video-sharing website YouTubeVideo-sharing website founded in 2005 that enables users to upload personal videos, television clips, music videos, and snippets of movies that can be watched by other users worldwide..
Agreements between YouTube and media corporations allow viewers to watch clips of their favorite shows on YouTube for free. Some critics and television executives claim that the Hulu model has been too successful for its own good, threatening the financial underpinnings of cable television by reducing DVD sales and avoiding carriage feesFees paid to cable operators by broadcasters for transmitting their channels on the operatorsa€™ systems.a€”in 2009, Fox pulled most of the episodes of Ita€™s Always Sunny in Philadelphia from Hulua€™s site. Hulu executives are considering introducing paid content on the site in an effort to subsidize advertising revenue, a blow to consumers that would likely be softened by perks such as early access to content, ad-free shows, and more comprehensive archives. Originally introduced in the early 1990s, the concept of video on demand (VOD)A pay-per-view system that enables viewers to order or download a film via television or Internet and watch it at their convenience.a€”a pay-per-view system that allows viewers to order or download a film via television or the Internet and watch it at their conveniencea€”was not immediately successful because of the prohibitive cost of ordering a movie compared to buying or renting it from a store. As an alternative to cable or satellite VOD, viewers can also readily obtain movies and television shows over the Internet, via free services such as YouTube and Hulu or through paid subscriptions to sites that stream movies to a computer.
Moving a step beyond VOD, cable and satellite television providers are combining aspects of traditional television viewing with online content to create an entirely new way of watching showsa€”interactive television (iTV)Television programming that enables viewers to engage with and control aspects of their viewing experiencea€”for example, by playing a quiz using a remote control.. Interactive television is beginning to take on the social format of the web, linking viewers with online communities who use communication tools such as Twitter and Skype IM to discuss what they just saw on television in real time. A Nielsen report found that during the fourth quarter of 2009, 60 percent of Americans spent up to 3.5 hours every month going online and watching television simultaneously.
Despite the shift toward interactive television, one barrier that manufacturers seem to be unwilling to cross is the addition of Internet to peoplea€™s television sets. The first satellite television signal was broadcast in 1962; however, the television industry did not begin utilizing satellites for broadcasting purposes until the late 1970s. Unlike some other forms of media, television is so far surviving the impact of the Internet. What were some of the technological developments that paved the way for the evolution of television, and what role did they play? What factors contributed to the dominance of electronic television over mechanical television? Television audiences are becoming increasingly fragmented as a result of competition from cable and satellite companies and non-television delivery systems such as the Internet. Critics frequently blame television for increasing levels of violence and aggression in children.
Supporters of public television argue that it serves a valuable role in the community, whereas opponents believe it is outdated. Whether online viewing outlets continue to grow in popularity or viewers return to more traditional methods of watching television, broadcasters are likely to remain dependent on advertising sponsors to fund their programming. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics website, the employment rate for advertising sales agents is expected to increase by 7 percent between 2010 and 2018, about average for all professions. What predictions does the BNET article make about future trends in the Big Four networksa€™ advertising sales? Based on the analysis in the BNET article and the information on the Bureau of Labor Statistics website, how is the advertising sales industry likely to change and develop?
As the Bureau of Labor Statistics website points out, creativity is an invaluable trait for advertising sales executives. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. No longer restricted to a limited number of channels on network television, or even to a television schedule, viewers are now able to watch exactly what they want to watch, when they want to watch it. The FCC had an a€?open skiesa€? policy, under which users had as much right to receive signals as broadcasters had the right to transmit them. Sales of the popular direct-to-home (DTH)A television system in which subscribers receive television signals directly from geostationary satellites. In 1994, four major cable companies launched a first-generation direct broadcast satellite (DBS)A small-dish satellite-delivered program service specifically intended for home reception.

A converter next to the television produces output that can be viewed on the television receiver.
Assisted by the passing of the Satellite Television Home Viewers Act in 1999, which enabled satellite providers to carry local television stations (putting them on equal footing with cable television), both companies have grown rapidly over the past decade. One of these incentives is the addition of premium networks for satellite subscribers in the same vein as premium cable channel HBO.
In the mid-2000s, the satellite companies also began encroaching on cable televisiona€™s domination of bundled packages, by offering all-in-one phone, Internet, and television services. DVRs are even capable of targeting viewers with specific ads when they decide to watch their recorded program.
The Internet has typically been bad news for traditional forms of media; newspapers, magazines, the music industry, video rental companies, and bookstores have all suffered from the introduction of the Internet. Created by three PayPal engineers in 2005, the site enables users to upload personal videos, television clips, music videos, and snippets of movies that can be watched by other users worldwide. Established in 2007 following a deal between NBC Universal, News Corporation, and a number of leading Internet companies (including Yahoo!, AOL, MSN, and MySpace), the site gives users access to an entire library of video clips without charge and syndicates its material to partner distribution sites. Per the networksa€™ request, Hulu also shut off access to its programming from Boxee, a fledgling service that enabled viewers to stream online video to their television sets.
Another early complaint about the service was that studios withheld movies until long after they were available on DVD, by which time most people who wanted to view the film had already seen it. Using an additional set-top box and their remote control, viewers can utilize several different features that go beyond simply watching a television show.
When popular musical comedy show Glee hit the screens in 2009, marketing experts at Fox pushed for a strong online presence, airing the pilot episode well in advance of the actual season debut and generating buzz on social networking sites such as Twitter and FacebookA social networking service that allows users to instant message and to publicly post thoughts, photographs, videos, links, and more.. Although Internet-enabled televisions began trickling into the market in 2008 and 2009, many industry executives remained skeptical of their potential. Early problems with satellite television included the high cost of a satellite dish and the theft of satellite signals following the passing of the Cable Act in 1984.
However, the World Wide Web is changing content delivery methods and the way people conceive television and program scheduling. What factors influenced the growing popularity of satellite television in the 1980s and 1990s? Do broadcasters have a social responsibility to their viewers, and if so, how can they fulfill it? Is public television still relevant in todaya€™s society, or should funding be cut completely? Advertising sales executives work for a specific network and sell television time to agencies and companies, working within budgets to ensure that clients make effective use of their advertising time. Using the information on both sites, think of a list of creative ways to attract new clients to the ailing broadcast networks.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (134 MB) or just this chapter (13 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
Non-television delivery systems such as the Internet, which enables viewers to download traditional television shows onto a computer, laptop, iPod, or smartphone, are changing the way people watch television. Soviet scientists accomplished the goal first with the launch of Sputnik in 1957, galvanizing Americans (who were fearful of falling behind in space technology during the Cold War era) into intensifying their efforts and resulting in the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958. Initially, the satellite receiver systems were prohibitively expensive for most families, costing more than $10,000. In 2005, DirecTV expanded its 101 Network channel to include original shows, becoming the first satellite station to air first episodes of a broadcast television series with NBC daytime soap opera Passions in 2007.
Despite being ideally suited to offering such packages with their single telecommunications pipe into the house, cable companies such as Comcast, Cox, and Time Warner had developed a reputation for offering poor service at extortionate prices. Digital video recorders (DVRs) like TiVo allow viewers to select and record shows they can watch at a later time. In 2008, consumer groups battled with cable companies and lawmakers to protect the privacy of viewers who did not wish to be tracked this way, causing Nielsen to make tracking optional. Although it initially drew unfavorable comparisons with the original music-sharing site Napster (see Chapter 6 "Music"), which was buried under an avalanche of copyright infringement lawsuits, YouTube managed to survive the controversy by forming agreements with media corporations, such as NBC Universal Television, to legally broadcast video clips from shows such as The Office. The videos include full episodes of current hit shows such as House, Saturday Night Live, and The Simpsons, as well as older hits from the studiosa€™ television libraries.
Both of these disadvantages have since been remedied, with movies now released at the same time on VOD as they are on DVD at competitive rental prices. Viewers can also stream free episodes of their favorite shows via cable and broadcast networksa€™ websites. For example, interactive television enables users to take part in quiz shows, vote for a favorite contestant on a game show, view highlights or look up statistics during sports matches, create a music playlist or photo slideshow, and view local information such as weather and traffic through a tickerAn electronic banner that scrolls across the bottom of the television screen.
Once the show gained widespread popularity, Fox launched an interactive hypertrailer on its website, allowing viewers to click on and a€?likea€? the showa€™s cast members on Facebook. Once piracy was under control, satellite television companies began to emerge and become profitable.
New viewing outlets such as YouTube and Hulu enable viewers to watch online video clips, entire episodes of television shows, and movies free of charge (although Hulu may soon offer paid content to offset the losses in network advertising revenue). Meanwhile, cable and satellite providers are enabling viewers to purchase television shows to watch at their convenience through the use of video-on-demand services, changing the concept of prime-time viewing. However, as the price of a satellite dish dropped toward the $3,000 mark in the mid-1980s, consumers began to view satellite television as a cheaper, higher-quality alternative to cable. The system, a small-dish satellite-delivered program service specifically intended for home reception, was the first successful attempt to enter the market in the United States. Dish courts customers who have been hit by the economic downturn, aggressively cutting its prices and emphasizing its low rates. The station aired first-run episodes of football drama series Friday Night Lights in 2008 and set its sights on the male over-35 demographic by obtaining syndication rights to popular HBO series Oz and Deadwood a year later. In the first three quarters of 2004, the eight largest cable providers (with the exception of bankrupt Adelphia) lost 552,000 basic-cable subscribers. For example, viewers can set their DVRs to record all new (or old) episodes of the show Deadliest Catch and then watch the recorded episodes whenever they have free time.
Television remains the dominant source of entertainment for most Americans, who are using new media in conjunction with traditional television viewing, watching vast quantities of television in addition to streaming numerous YouTube videos and catching up on missed episodes via the networksa€™ web pages. Supported through advertising, the venture, which is only available to viewers in the United States, became the premier video broadcast site on the web within 2 years.

However, many television executives realize that if they do not cannibalize their own material, others will. Currently, most cable and satellite television providers offer some form of on-demand service, either VOD, which provides movies 24 hours a day and enables viewers all the functionality of a DVD player (such as the ability to pause, rewind, or fast forward films), or NVOD (near video on demand)A system that broadcasts multiple copies of a film or program over short time intervals but does not allow viewers to control the video by pausing or rewinding it., which broadcasts multiple copies of a film or program over short time intervals but does not allow viewers to control the video. With the increasing popularity of smartphonesCell phones that provide services similar to those of a personal computer.
The Glee cast also participates in weekly a€?tweet-peats,a€? which feature live Twitter feeds that scroll across the bottom of the screen during reruns of the show, providing behind-the-scenes details and answering fan questions. The two biggest current satellite television providers are DirecTV, which targets its services toward affluent consumers, and Dish Network, which targets lower-earning consumers. Video-on-demand services, now available through most cable and satellite providers, allow viewers to order movies or television programs at their convenience, rather than having to adhere to a fixed programming schedule. Digital video recording (DVR) systems such as TiVo, which enable users to record particular shows onto the systema€™s computer memory, are having a similar effect.
Following the initial purchase of a dish system, the actual programminga€”consisting of more than 100 cable channelsa€”was free.
The satellite industrya€™s sudden drop in popularity was exacerbated by large-scale anti-dish advertising campaigns by cable operators, depicting satellite dishes as unsightly. Within a year, PrimeStar was beaming 67 channels into 70,000 homes for a monthly fee of $25 to $35 (in addition to a hardware installation fee of $100 to $200). Conversely, DirecTV targets affluent consumers, emphasizing quality and choice in its advertising campaigns and investing in advanced services and products such as multiroom viewing (enabling a subscriber to watch a show in one room, pause it, and continue watching the same show in another room) to differentiate itself from rival satellite and cable companies. Between 2000 and 2004, cablea€™s share of the television market fell from 66 percent to 62 percent, while the number of U.S.
In the third quarter of 2008, the average American watched 142 hours of television per month, an increase of five hours per month from the same quarter the previous year.
Correctly predicting that the site was the a€?next step in the evolution of the Internet,a€? Google CEO Eric Schmidt has watched YouTubea€™s popularity explode since the takeover. When a viral video of Saturday Night Live short a€?Lazy Sundaya€? hit the web in 2005, generating millions of hits on YouTube, NBC did not earn a dime.
Most contain built-in applications and Internet access.a€”cell phones that contain built-in applications and Internet accessa€”viewers are using VOD as a way of watching television while they are out of the house. The CW network uses a similar technique with its a€?TV to Talk Abouta€? campaign, a tagline that changes from ad to ad to include iterations such as a€?TV to text about,a€? a€?blog about,a€? or a€?tweet about.a€? Its website offers forums where viewers can discuss episodes and interact with video extras, photos, and background clips about various shows. Since the 1999 legislation enabled satellite companies to broadcast local channels, satellite television has become a viable threat to cable. However, the television industry did not utilize satellites for broadcasting purposes until the late 1970s when PBS introduced Public Television Satellite Service.
Cable broadcasters lobbied the government for legal assistance and, under the 1984 Cable Act, were allowed to encrypt their satellite feeds so that only people who purchased a decoder from a satellite provider could receive the channel. Although sales picked up in the late 1980s with the introduction of integrated receiving and decoding units and the arrival of program packages, which saved consumers the time and effort of signing up for individual programming services, the growth of the satellite industry was stunted by piracya€”the theft of satellite signals. By 1996, competing companies DirecTV and the EchoStar Dish Network had entered the industry, and Dish Networka€™s cheaper prices were forcing its competitors to drop their fees. In other words, the company hopes to purchase HBO shows such as Sex and the City before HBO sells the series to basic-cable channels like TBS. Broadcast networksa€”the Big Four and the CWa€”have also begun streaming shows for free in an effort to stop viewers from watching episodes on other websites. Having discovered that consumers are willing to watch entire television episodes or even films on their smartphones, industry executives are looking for ways to capitalize on smartphone technology. Software such as Microsofta€™s UltimateTV, released in 2001, even brought interactivity to individual television shows. Online television forum Television Without Pity provides viewers with an alternative place for discussion that is not affiliated with any one network.
Satellite companies attempt to lure cable customers by offering premium channels, sports and movie packages, and competitive prices. Thanks to the influence of the Internet, television is becoming more interactive, with providers combining aspects of traditional viewing and online content. Satellite communication technology caught on and was used by broadcasters as a distribution method between 1978 and 1984 by pioneering cable channels such as HBO, TBS (Turner Broadcasting System), and CBN (Christian Broadcasting Network, later the Family Channel). Despite reports that cash-strapped consumers are switching off pay-TV services to save money during strained economic times, satellite industry revenues have risen steadily over the past decade.
To secure its place as the go-to entertainment website, YouTube is expanding its boundaries by developing a movie rental service and showing live music concerts and sporting events in real time. Its advertising model appeals to viewers, who need only to watch two minutes of promotion in 22 minutes of programming, compared with 8 minutes on television. In 2010, News Corporationa€™s Fox Mobile Group was planning to launch Bitbop, a service that will stream television episodes to smartphones for $9.99 a month. For example, a viewer watching CBS crime series CSI can click on the interactive icon in the corner of the screen and obtain instant information about forensic analysis techniques, along with an episode guide, character biographies, and a map of the showa€™s Las Vegas setting. This is manifested in two ways: new features that provide viewers with hundreds of additional options while they watch their favorite shows (for example, the ability to look up a news story or get a weather update), and social television, which encourages viewers to combine television viewing with social networking (for example, by blogging or joining an online chat forum about the show).
All articles, images, logos and trademarks in this site are property of their respective owners. Limiting sponsorship to one advertiser per show has helped make recall rates twice as high as those for the same advertisements on television, benefiting the sponsors as well as the viewers.
The problem was ultimately solved by the actions of the Satellite Broadcasting and Communications Association (SBCA)Trade association created in 1986 that established an antipiracy task force in an effort to prevent the theft of satellite signals., an association created in 1986 by the merger of two trade organizationsa€”the Society of Private and Commercial Earth Stations (SPACE) and the Direct Broadcast Satellite Association (DBSA). The shift from traditional television viewing to online viewing is making a small but noticeable dent in the $84 billion cable and satellite industry. SPACE was composed of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers of direct-to-home systems, and DBSA represented companies interested in direct broadcast satellite systems. The SBCA set up an antipiracy task force, aggressively pursuing illegal hackers with the FBIa€™s help.

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