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The fifth module in Building’s series for 2012 examines the key regulations designers must be aware of when specifying school doors and windows.
Leaderflush Shaplanda€™s uniquely designed two-leaf articulated door, the Pivette (part of the Designer range), is specifically developed to minimise door swing area whilst maximising clear opening widths.
The sliding and folding mechanics of the Pivette makes it a versatile solution where functionality, access and space are important considerations, such as lobbies with space required for wheelchair access between doorways or where doors open onto landings, leaving access space to comply with Part K. The Pivette is available with facing options and ironmongery to match other Leaderflush Shapland products. Summary: Approved Document N of the UK Building Regulations covers the rules and regulations surrounding glass and glazing and in particular safety in relation to impact, opening and cleaning. The purpose of Approved Document N is to deal with glazing and the safety aspects involved when it comes to impact, opening and cleaning. What this essentially means is that where windows and other glazed surfaces are present, they should be safe for any passing pedestrians or inhabitants of a dwelling in so much as if breakages occur then the resulting glass should be contained as much as possible, any risk of impact with a glazed surface should be minimised as much as it can be, windows and skylights should open safely and the glass itself should be possible to be cleaned as easily and safely as it can.
When concerned with doors, the risk areas are identified as those between floor and shoulder height and those around the handles and push plates.
Section N2 of this approved document is concerned with identifying the presence of glazing in situations where it may not be obvious that it is present.
Due to the nature and style of some of these items, when positioned in situ, it is not always obvious that they are actually there which can mean if someone is rushing about and not necessarily concentrating on what’s around them they can easily walk straight into a glass door, wall or partition. To these ends it is vitally important that any transparent glass doors, walls or partitions are made apparent. The above is mainly geared towards doors and entrance points but you also have to be aware that large and transparent panes that form walls or partitions need to be indicated in a suitable manner. This section of the document deals with windows, ventilation points and skylights - in essence, items that can be opened. As we are dealing with windows here certain elements of Approved Document K also come into play. We all know that windows get dirty and with this in mind it also has to be ensured that any window can be safely cleaned. Windows can be designed and constructed so that they open inwards and can be cleaned from the inside of the building.
Where ladders are to be used to access the outside of a window a solid surface must be provided for the ladder to sit on. As with anything relating to the building regulations, Approved Document N is no exception - you must ensure that you are referring to the most correct and up-to-date document! With this in mind the above notes should only be used as a guide and you should always refer to the downloadable Approved Document N available from the Planning Portal website on the link at the top of this page for the most relevant building control guidelines. Buildings which are of architectural and historical interest and which are referred to as a material consideration in a local authoritya€™s development plan. Buildings which are of architectural and historical interest within national parks, areas of outstanding natural beauty, registered historic parks and gardens, registered battlefields, the curtilages of scheduled ancient monuments, and world heritage sites. Buildings of traditional construction with permeable fabric that both absorbs and readily allows the evaporation of moisture.
When undertaking work on or in connection with a building that falls within one of the classes listed above, the aim should be to provide improved thermal performance and adequate ventilation as far as is reasonable and practically possible.
In general, new extensions to historic or traditional dwellings should comply with the standards set out in current Building Regulations. Making provision for the fabric of historic buildings to a€?breathea€™ to control moisture and potential long-term decay problems. In all cases where it is proposed to erect a new dwelling, building regulations require the person proposing to carry out the work to notify a Building Control Body in advance of any work starting. No new dwellings are exempt from the energy efficiency requirements of the Building Regulations. An architect may have the flexibility to install products that do not meet the above minimum requirements by use of area weighted averages for U values and DER or SAP calculations when designing the building.
Replacement windows will need to meet the thermal insulation requirements of the regulations.
In some cases it may be permissible to use glazing units which do not meet the above specifications, to do so you would have to submit calculations to prove that the overall insulation requirements of the regulations would still be met. The building fabric should be constructed so that there are no reasonably avoidable thermal bridges. A 'small pane' is an isolated pane or one of a number of panes held in glazing bars, traditional leaded lights or copper lights.
In a small annealed glass pane, use glass with a minimum 6mm nominal thickness except in the situation described in b.
In traditional leaded or copper lights, when fire resistance is not important, you may use 4mm glass. Maximum area of a single pane not to exceed 0.5m2, small panes of annealed glass should not be less than 6mm thick (unless traditional leaded lights where 4mm glass is acceptable). Building regulations state: All safety glazing should be permanently marked in accordance with BS6206. NOTE: For improved aesthetics Architectural Bronze Casements omit the visible stamp to safety glass once the beads are fitted.
For glazing in the locations specified above but less than 250mm wide, clear float 4mm glass will be specified.
The person carrying out the work shall give sufficient information to the owner about the buildinga€™s ventilation system and its maintenance.
Manually controlled trickle ventilators can be located in window frames or directly through the wall. Provision should be made to ensure that appropriate ventilation is maintained and is made no worse as a result of a replacement glazing installation. Where there was no ventilation opening, or where the size of the original ventilation opening is not known, the following minimum sizes should be adopted. All solid metal window frames are subject to the appearance of condensation under certain conditions.
Use of systems that include a thermal break will not guarantee frames will be condensation free in all conditions.

Usual day to day activities such as cooking, breathing and laundry generate warm moist air that may lead to condensation where humid air comes into contact with cooler surfaces (such as a window frame). For a period of time following significant building works, high humidity can be expected in the property as the building materials used in construction continue to dry out and stabilise. Provide ventilation to optimise the circulation of the air and ensure it is open to its maximum flow rate.
Prevent heavily water laden air from kitchens, bathrooms or pools from permeating the whole house.
It is improbable that a building will become totally free of condensation, but a practical approach will always minimise its occurrence. To prevent children being held fast by the guarding: ensure that a 100mm sphere cannot pass through any openings in the guarding.
If your existing windows do not have opening lights which meet the above requirements, we would strongly recommend for your own safety, that you take the opportunity to provide them in the replacement windows. Approved Document K Protection from falling, collision and impact specifies a minimum guarding height of 800mm, except in the case of a window in a roof where the bottom of the opening may be 600mm above the floor. Locks (with or without removable keys) and stays may be fitted to egress windows subject to the stay being fitted with a release catch, which must be child resistant. Windows should be designed such that they will remain in the open position without needing to be held by a person making their escape. Visit Our ShowroomYou are welcome to visit our showroom which is at our main office in Lincolnshire, centrally located with good road and rail links. Decorex - Syon Park, London - 18th-21st September 2016As one of Londona€™s most established interior design exhibitions, we are proud to be attending Decorex for our third year. It’s important to note that although referred to as ‘DDA compliant’, the Disability Discrimination Act or DDA is no longer in effect. Access requirements and ‘DDA Compliance’ now forms part of the Equality Act or EA – you can find out more about this change in our post ‘Part M? To comply with current standards (BS8300) and building regulations (Approved Document M), doors and entrance should be designed and specified using ‘Effective Clear Opening Widths’ or (ECW). The space around a door (or ECW for doors) is an important factor when designing buildings for inclusivity; it will determine how you approach the door, either head on or at an angle. The direction and width of approach determines the clear opening width required for door specification, due to the angle of the door as the diagram below shows.
To find out more about other design considerations to meet the requirements of Part M you can download our eBook ‘Specifying doors to meet Approved Document M of the Building Regulations’. It is financed only by Google advertising; no payment is received from websites included in our product guides. Pivette offers cost-effective solutions to a wide range of design problems presented by Part M of the Building regulations, The Discrimination Act and the newly updated BS8300:2009. Recent projects include Pinewood Infant School, Hillingdon Hospital and Newfield and Talbot School.
It ensures that any glazing accessible to persons in a building is shielded from the possibility of impact or resistant to impact if a collision occurs. Most manufacturers are aware of these issues and in light of this, construct their products to conform with the regulations. This can be achieved by adding pattern markings, solid or broken lines or company logos at a suitable height to indicate their presence.
The regulations state that if this is the case then these items must open and have the ability to be adjusted easily and safely.
It is stated that where there is a risk of falling through or out of a window that is above ground level then and opening windows should be restricted from fully opening. The regulations state that both sides of a pane of glass should be able to be cleaned safely where there is a risk of falling more than 2 metres.
We work with Checkatrade to ensure that we recommend only reliable and trustworthy tradesmen. The following is a synopsis of current requirements relating to the installation of windows and doors. The work should not prejudice the character of the host building or increase the risk of long-term deterioration of the building fabric or fittings.
The only exception would be where there is a particular need to match the external appearance or character of the extension to that of the host building. Owners of listed buildings and buildings in conservation areas may not need to satisfy these requirements in all cases. This notification would usually be by way of full plans (or possibly a building notice) given to a local authority, or an initial notice given jointly with the approved inspector. Details would need approval by a Building Control Body to ensure overall compliance with Building Regulations. This may be possible if other insulation measures are undertaken at the same time as the window replacement - for example; installing cavity wall insulation or a€?topping upa€? loft insulation. Your Building Control Body should be made aware of the thermal properties of non-thermally broken window and door systems and approval sought for their use in a project. Markings should be still visible after the glass has been fitted and the beading and pointing has been completed. They are positioned typically 1.7m above floor level to avoid discomfort due to cold draughts. For most rooms, one or more opening windows totalling 5% of the floor area, with background "trickle" vents totalling 8000mm2 will be adequate.
Unless specified otherwise, all windows and doors are traditional in style, formed from solid metal extrusions and do not include a thermal break. The appearance of condensation on surfaces relates to the relative humidity, air temperature and surface temperatures (windows and walls etc) within a room. If present, standing water should be regularly mopped up to prevent potential damage to interior timber, plaster or other surfaces and furnishings. It is recommended in Building Regulations that thermal bridging should be avoided or minimised where possible. The bottom of the openable area should be more than 800mm but less than 1100mm above the floor level.

This is not, however, a requirement of the regulations, which simply state that the replacement windows must be no worse than those they replace in this respect. Our specially designed stand for this show is an inspirational platform to showcase our products. Despite this, DDA compliance is still the way many people refer to accessibility regarding doors.
As stated within the BS8300:2009, reduced swing doorsets reduce the extent to which the door swings into the room and corridor, facilitating movement in and out of rooms such as WCs and bathrooms. In the event that impact causes breakage it should be ensured that the glass breaks in such a way that no injuries are caused.
When dealing with doors this is recognised as being glass panels and glass side panels in doors and glass that features at lower levels within walls and partitions. We recommend that, in addition to reading these, you consult with your own local authority regarding the use of our windows in your own project.
This remains our clientsa€™ responsibility as Architectural Bronze Casements Ltd are not currently registered with a competent persons self-certification scheme such as FENSA, Certass or Trada. We would strongly advise you get any such calculations checked by the building control officer well before the replacement windows are installed, so that expensive mistakes can be avoided. These ventilators often incorporate a flap that allows users to shut off the ventilation a€“ depending on external weather conditions.
Mild condensation to surfaces may evaporate as the environment warms and could possibly be avoided with simple experiments in heating, ventilation and control of kitchen and bathroom steam.
During this period it is essential that additional ventilation is provided to the building, allowing the increased exchange of humid air. Architectural Bronze Casements Ltd will not be liable for damages incurred following a failure to manage the environment or subsequent condensation within a property. Design details can be included to reduce the effects and we ask that you discuss this detail with your Architect and Building Control to ensure that the chosen windows are suitable for your project.
Where the existing windows already have opening lights which are larger than the above requirements, those in the new windows can be reduced in size provided they are not reduced to less than 0.33m2 and not less than 450mm high and 450mm wide. Come and experience first-hand the beauty, strength and visually striking nature of our bronze products.
Our stand number will be confirmed at a later date and you can apply for tickets on the Decorex website. Discussions with your local Conservation Officer and Building control department will help guide you through the options available.
Dependent upon the type of property and nature of the work proposed, planning consent may also be required for works including the replacement of windows and doors. In some cases the existing windows may contain a permanent vent to supply combustion air to a heating appliance, although this is now rare. This may be aided by the use of dehumidifiers and the opening of casements to provide a good air flow through the property.
Severe condensation may be a result of structural issues or a failure to correctly isolate humid environments within the property. If successfully completed, certificates will be distributed two weeks after the deadline.INTRODUCTIONThere are many Building Regulations governing the specification of windows and doors in new and refurbished schools, covering areas such as overheating, ease of access and thermal efficiency. Also included are details on how windows, sky lights and ventilators should open and close safely and also what access and facilities should be provided to make sure glass can be cleaned in a safe manner.
A window with a night latch position is not recommended because of the difficulty of measuring the equivalent area, the greater likelihood of draughts and the potential increased security risk in some locations. If this is the case however you should ensure that either the replacement window contains a similar permanent vent, or that some other means of providing the required ventilation is installed at the same time.
When measured at seated head height, during the continuous period of teaching, the average concentration should not exceed 1,500 parts per million (ppm), while the maximum concentration should not exceed 5,000 ppm. It is recommended that, wherever possible, the minimum opening area for purge ventilation should be 10% of the floor area.Document F states that “unless the room is ventilated adequately by other installed ventilation provisions, all replacement windows should include trickle ventilation, preferably with accessible controls”. However, the glazed-in trickle vents on the wall shown could achieve a ventilation level of 38,790mm2.It is important to remember that trickle ventilator controls must be accessible. Those fitted above 1,900mm from the floor, or 1700mm if reaching over an obstacle such as a desk, should be rod or cord operated (as contained in Approved Document N3 - Safe Opening and Closing of Windows).Natural Ventilation StrategyHere is an example of a single-sided natural ventilation strategy for a classroom in a city location.
Every year, 1,300 fires in schools are attended by fire and rescue services, and between 2000 and 2004 the average annual cost of school fires was ?58m. The bottom of the openable area must be no higher than 1100mm from floor level and access must be unobstructed (see diagram).ACCESS AND USE (PART M)For door specifications, Approved Document M1 of the Building Regulations gives clear guidelines on acceptable openable widths and issues regarding visibility. The effective clear width of a door is the width of the opening measured at right angles to the wall in which the door is situated, from the outside of the door stop (frame) on the door closing side to any obstruction on the hinge side - whether this be projecting hardware, a weather board, the door leaf or frame (see diagram). For reasons of security and safety, doors and side panels wider than 450mm should have minimum “vision zones”, as shown below.CONSERVATION OF FUEL AND POWER (PART L)Part L addresses the conservation of fuel and power, and places particular importance on the thermal efficiency of buildings.
Approved Document K2 states that all opening windows less than 800mm above floor levels should be suitably guarded or restricted.The requirements for the avoidance of collisions with open windows, skylights or ventilators are contained in Approved Document K4. This states that installations should be designed so that projecting parts are kept away from people moving around the building, and that features should be included that guide people away from openings. It is recommended that if a window opens by more than 100m at a height of less than 2m, it should be marked by a barrier (of at least 1,100mm in height), a change of surface such as cobbles or a bush, or a change of level.Campsmount Technical College in DoncasterGLAZING SAFETY (PART N)Part N of the Building Regulations addresses protection against impact and safe opening and cleaning of windows. Generally, toughened glass would receive an A rating, and laminated glass would receive a B, depending on the glass and inte-layer thickness.
In doors and glazed areas next to doors, the glass should have at least a C rating, or a B rating if the pane width is greater than 900mm. The company’s advanced 70mm system was also used for a major window refurbishment at Campsmount Technical College in Doncaster.

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