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How near to universally acceptable disabled access sanitary accommodation can designers get?
However, with official statistics suggesting that 11.7 million people in the UK population are disabled, you can almost guarantee that you will never get an accessible toilet exactly right for everyone. Prioritising the generic figures can sometimes downplay severe disability and overcomplicate a more rational approach to disability access. Then we might ask, for example, how is a registered blind person expected to take a guide dog into the paltry sanitary facilities that still exist in shopping centres up and down the country? Obviously the obligatory 1500 mm turning circle is reasonable allowance although extending this to 1700 mm where possible would better facilitate a carer.
An essential requirement is that grabrails must be fixed securely, with the substrate and fixings sufficiently rigid and sturdy to withstand a person's full body weight. The AD M , together with guidance by many local authorities, recommend that baby change facilities not be provided in accessible toilets or in changing rooms since this will restrict the facilities for disabled people.
While the AD M , specifies that the height to the top of washbasins should be 720-740 mm, care should be taken to specify shallow bowls to avoid obstruction to wheelchair users.
But it's not just about access inside the toilet compartment, it's also about getting to the compartment in the first place and travel distances from any one point should be 40m max, and on level surfaces where possible. The unisex toilet shown in this Shortcut is designed for angled lateral transfer from one direction only (alternatives shown). Department for Communities and Local Government (2004) 'Approved Document Part M: Access to and use of Buildings',  ODPM.
Centre for Accessible Environments (2004) 'Designing for Accessibility ', RIBA Enterprises. Submit an enquiry to find out more details on the latest Special Offers or contact us by calling our local rate number 0845 603 6078.
According to ADA Guidelines (Americans with Disabilities Act), preexisting public buildings should be made accessible with features like a scooter or wheelchair ramp. Installing a feature like a ramp makes a business, organization, or place of worship not only more accessible, but more approachable for all! In particular, installing an ADA compliant wheelchair ramp ensures both guests and employees can enjoy and utilize a space regardless of their level of mobility. There are many types of ramps out there, but specific measurements and features ensure a ramp is ADA compliant. Threshold ramps are simple commercial-grade ramps that make doorways or small floor elevations (under 6 inches) passable for someone with a mobility challenge. For more information on residential ramps, including professional ramp installations from 101 Mobility, please visit our website. Appendix B to part 36: Analysis and Commentary on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design. SANS10400 are the Building regulations in South Africa, and both international and national standards, are fundamental to successful building and construction projects, both big and small. When the South African National Building Regulations were updated by the Department of Trade and Industry in May 2008, the General Requirement relating to Roofs was changed to incorporate certain safety elements. While the legislation changed in 2008, it was only in 2011 that Part L: Roofs was published by the SABS.
As with most of the National Building Regulations, those that apply to roofs relate to SANS other than the one specific to that particular element.
There are several South African National Standards (SANS) that relate to roof timbers, all of which must be complied with when roof trusses and other roofing elements are constructed.
You’ll find the full list in Part L of SANS 10400 (or check with an SABS librarian for the relevant information).
Roof design depends on a number of factors including the type of covering you are going to use, and the span over which the roof structure is to be supported. The trusses themselves are made up of rafters, tie beams, posts and struts, all of which are assembled according to a specific design. The regulations also state that no member of any truss should have a length that is greater than 60 times its smallest dimension. The basic requirements shown in the table below, apply to Howe-type trusses as listed above. This table is considerably more useful that the one that was in the previous 1990 edition of the regulations, as not only maximum truss spans are indicated, but also the allowable and recommended pitch of the roof, and the member sizes and grades of timber that are specified in SANS 1783-2. You will also see that the maximum centre-to-centre spacing of the trusses varies according to the type of roof covering you are going to be using. Another element that is specified in this table is the type and number of bolts to be used at heel and splice joints (although it must be said that builders often use nails). A heel joint (mentioned here) is simply an indentation that is cut into a rafter so that the timber can rest on the top plate. The timber grades allowable for softwood and all SA pine rafter beams is Grade 5 and Grade 7.
Note that the type of roof covering in this table (maximum clear spans for laminated SA pine supporting a tile or slate roof with a 26 degree pitch)  is shown in the first column, and the rafter spacing in the other four columns. Note that * indicates the most commonly available sizes. Below is a table for maximum clear spans for SA pine purlin rafters or purlin beams supporting profiled metal or fibre-cement sheeting (or metal tiles in the table below) with a 26 degree pitch. Below is a table for maximum clear spans for gum pole rafters with a pitch above 26 degrees and above 26 degrees.
The maximum mass of the tiles or slates, including battens or purlins, shall not exceed 65 kg per square metre.
When it comes to thatch roofs, generally the slope should be 45 degrees, except at dormer windows where the slope should only be 35 degrees. It is vital that roof trusses and other roof framing elements have joints that are accurately cut, securely made and fitted so that the component parts are drawn tightly together.
If rafter construction is used instead of roof trusses, and the roof covering is regular sheeting or tiles (as already mentioned), it is important to accurately assess the parameters for rafter spans and the size and grade of rafters.

When constructing a roof framework, the rule of thumb is that any purlin should have a minimum nominal depth and width of 76 mm or 50 mm, and max centre-to-centre spacing between the purlins ought to be 1,2 m.
All roof trusses, rafters and beams that are supported by a brick or concrete block (or even a stone) wall must be securely fastened to the wall using galvanized steel strapping or galvanized steel wire that complies with the National Building Regulations. If you order factory-manufactured trusses that are made with metal plate connectors, they may not comply directly with the requirements of the various tables in the SANS.
If this method of construction is used, softwood poles must comply with SANS 457-2 and hardwood poles must comply with SANS 457-3, and ALL poles must be treated in accordance with the requirements of SANS 10005. If poles are sawn or reshaped at the ends, any of the exposed ends must be treated with a Class W preservative. For thatched roofs, laths must have a minimum diameter of 25 mm and they must comply with the requirements of SANS 1288. There are other factors that relate to fire resistance an combustibility, and waterproofing – which of course has to cover (excuse the pun) flashing and flat roofs!
Waterproofing refers mainly to runoff water from the roof … and therefore relates directly to the slope of the roof. Part L of the updated national building regulations (published in 2011) also include new sections on roof coverings and waterproofing systems for pitched roofs, and drainage and waterproofing of flat roofs.
Leaves and bad paint may cause water to stand in the real flat sections which will accelerate rust.
I have a IBR (0.58) flat roof, that up till now i taught was built accordingly, to my surprise when obtaining quotes (for general maintenance) only one contractor informed me that my slope was not enough and that it was inadequate. I have asked my local municipality for one of their experienced roofing engineers to come out to my house and inspect my roof. Hi John, I am sure that you can, but two things come to mind straight away, 1st how are you going to fix the sheeting onto brittle tiles, roof sheets normally will be nailed onto wooden purlins and or battens & 2nd the tiles are usually uneven so it will be difficult to get a nice flat roof laid. 1) My ceiling has sagged and insurance company has already informed me that the wrong nails were used. You have a right to ask for a reference in terms of where an SABS national standard states this. Regarding exposed trusses, SANS 10243 provides guidance on the manufacture, erection and bracing of timber roof trusses. I am designing the re roofing of my braai room and the depth of the timber trusses is decreasing the height underneath the roof. With Instructables you can share what you make with the world, and tap into an ever-growing community of creative experts. This picture shows the studding in for the porch ceiling, 16 inch centers and 4 foot long studs. Under the heading of what is 'unreasonable', financial constraints can be factored in as a variable. Surely the faintly fatuous notion that around 20 per cent of the adult population ought to be covered by the DDA doesn't help the discussion about the types of facilities needed by the severely disadvantaged sections of the public?
After all, statistics showing that there are '5,000 guide dog owners' is not so eye-catching as '2.5 million people with visual or hearing impairments'. In fact, many wheelchair users have carers and assistants and when you factor them in, or consider the less socially acceptable types of disability - mental as well as physical - then many WC cubicle designs still fall far short of the mark.
Coat hooks can be fixed at various heights provided that the lowest one does not drape garments along the floor. Changing and feeding babies often takes a long time and could cause a considerable wait for people with disabilities, baby change facilities should be catered for elsewhere where possible. Take note also of a conflict between this and the 780-800mm height for washbasins for ambulant disabled (often those with chronic back pain). The British Toilet Association recommends that the number of female cubicles should be equal to 2x (male urinals + male cubicles). Peninsular layouts allow transfer from either side but should only be specified in instances where skilled assistance is available. There are generally two types of ramps widely used for public access: threshold ramps and aluminum ramps.
The easy-to-use universal design of these ramps allows them to be used by anyone; therefore, allowing multiple accessibility needs to be met at once!
For example, when a length of ramp is built beyond 30 feet without a resting platform or switchback, the ramp then becomes too steep for most unassisted wheelchair users. To ensure a ramp is properly installed and sufficiently meets ADA regulations be sure to use a professional ramp installer. In simple language, if there is a major wind or some other really horrible weather conditions (God forbid), the roofs of our homes are expected to be able to stay on the house and protect us from the elements without themselves being damaged. This last one, though, is open to interpretation as not all roofs incorporate ceilings as such.
For instance, where any roof is to be supported on the wall of a building as described in the relevant section of Part K: Walls, the roof MUST be constructed in accordance with the rules laid out by the relevant SANS (in this case 10400). Any qualified designer knows that every one of the SANS that form part of 10400 needs to be considered as a whole. Also note that the maximum mass of tiles or slates, including battens or purlins, should not be more than 65 kg per square metre.
All trussed roofs MUST be provided with approved bracing that prevents any possible buckling of the rafters, tie-beams and long web members. Please note that if the rafter spacing is not the same as that shown in the table below, intermediate values of maximum rafter spans may be interpolated within the range of values suggested for relevant timber grades. But because they were established as a guide to MINIMUM standards, you must never ignore them.
If they have cracked or the end are plot within a space that is equal to the diameter of the pole, they MUST NOT BE USED.

It is also necessary to cover at least 35% of the surface area of the end with a new nail plate to prevent or at least minimize cracking. The roof has been constructed with treated poles and where the poles have been supported by the load bearing wall fine cracks have appeared below each pole….is this normal????? Its a little bit late for me to now raise the issue of the roof with my estate agent at that time. Possibly take all the tiles off first clean up the battens of protruding nails etc and then put your Chromodeck sheets down. I am not an architect or engineer and cannot provide info on how to adapt an existing installation. This guide looks at some of the issues that need to be considered to satisfy the regulations as well as the (sometimes conflicting) needs of real building users.
But even with this potential get-out clause, over the last 15 years or so, toilets designed for generic disability have become normal practice in most public buildings. The much-quoted figure of 1.5 million people with 'learning disabilities' for example, incorporates 40,000 people with profound learning difficulties, and consequently the real needs of this subset often tend to get lost in the generalised responses to the much higher global figure. Actually, separating short-sightedness and total blindness might allow designers to focus attention on the specific levels of the problem. Radiators, disposal bins and vending machines should, where possible, be recessed and plumbing should not protrude into the space even if boxed in, in case it restricts manoeuvrability.
However, unless audited otherwise, the likelihood of disabled and baby change access occurring at the same time is slight - and so it is reasonable to optimise the compartment space.
Although not everyone can be catered for, consideration in the design and specification stages for likely user groups' difficulties - rather than ticking the boxes - will provide an environment beneficial to most users. No part of this document may be reproduced without the authoring and copyright bodies' express approval.
By sticking to the ADA regulations and installing switchbacks, the ramp will wrap around and gradually elevate – much like a spiral staircase or a mountain road. It’s just because the different new sections were published over a period of years that has made it more of a challenge for many.
Where relevant, specifics are shown in the tables for maximum clear spans for sawn softwood beams with a 26 degree pitch below. If you buy from a reputable company you can rest assured that they will be absolutely fine. If a thatched roof is constructed with gables, without hips, valleys or dormer windows, it must have a pitch of 45 degrees, and a clear span that is no more than 6 m.
I have a house where one section of a roof was extended with a pitch of only 11 degrees and tiled, which does not comply with the regulations as I understand it. Or probably easier, check the approved plans to make sure that the roof was built according to plan. My situation is that i purchased this house six months ago and had a roofing contractor requested by thee estate agent to inspect the quality and build of the roof, the same contractor i asked to quote me on performing general maintenance after purchase(not the one that informed me of the incorrect slope).
Its unfortunate that i was informed of the incorrect pitch after i signed an offer to purchase. You really do need to talk to a competent person – or someone that manufactures trusses. Disability access has ceased to be a chore for architects and has almost become a mainstream consideration. The concept of learning difficulties, defined as not learning things 'as quickly as others', surely ought not to embrace equally those who have 'problems with co-ordination' or those with 'confusion between "left and right", with those with severe mental illness.
Ensure that the WC seat remains upright when positioned against the backrest; that all equipment is 'heavy duty' and fixed accordingly (as opposed to typical domestic nut and bolt arrangements) and that dispensers, etc. If located in disabled access toilets, baby changing equipment should be flush-mounted so as not to impede the general circulation and turning circles within the compartment.
We make every effort to ensure the accuracy and quality of information and guidance when it is published. Professionals also come with valuable experience with building codes and other local regulations. They will be either nailed or bolted together on site, or delivered to site on order by a specialist truss manufacturer. Whoever is doing the maths need to be certain that no section of the truss has a length that is greater than 60 times its least (or smallest) dimension. Construction must also be in accordance with SANS 10407 and with additional specification in SANS 10400-L that are shown in the form of drawings and a table.
However, we can take no responsibility for the subsequent use of this information, nor for any errors or omissions that it may contain.
If fibre-cement slates were used, the minimum slope had to be at least 10 deg – and if they were less than 17 deg they needed an underlay. Tap water temperatures should not exceed 41°C, be operated by lever grip and be of sufficiently low pressure to prevent splashing the floor.
In the drawings, specifications for rafters state that if the poles are 100 mm to 125 mm in diameter, then the truss clear spans may not be greater than 4 m. And my own personal gripe: spare toilet roll holders should not be located at ground level alongside the WC where splashback effect is experienced the most.
If the poles are 125 mm to 150 mm in diameter, then the spans may be more than 4 m but not greater than 6 m.

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