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In 1955, Isaac Asimov published a short story titled "Franchise", about a system that decides who should be elected president (in 2008) by picking a single voter to represent the whole population. If a single voter is regularly selected at random then, over time, a larger, more representative sample of the population will build up. Distributed systems say "after a certain amount of time, enough votes will have been cast to be sure enough of a consensus". Each voter must be selected at random, but if this selection is performed by a central machine, that machine must be trusted. The system will, generally, consume energy up to the value of the reward for casting each vote. To save energy, votes can instead be given to those who have purchased the most shares (stake) in the system (i.e. Another alternative, valid for small populations, is to collect the sample in a single poll: invite all members to participate, and generate the consensus after a certain amount of time has passed.
I didn’t know Aaron, personally, but I’d been reading his blog as he wrote it for 10 years.
Philip Greenspun, founder of ArsDigita, had written extensively about the school system, and Aaron felt similarly, documenting his frustrations with school, leaving formal education and teaching himself.
In 2000, Aaron entered the competition for the ArsDigita Prize and won, with his entry The Info Network — a public-editable database of information about topics. Aaron’s friends and family added information on their specialist subjects to the wiki, but Aaron knew that a centralised resource could lead to censorship (he created zpedia, for alternative views that would not survive on Wikipedia). In order to pull information in from other people’s databases, you needed a standard way of subscribing to a source, and a standard way of representing information.
RSS feeds (with Aaron’s help) became a standard for subscribing to information, and RDF (with Aaron’s help) became a standard for describing objects.
I find — and have noticed others saying the same — that to thoroughly understand a topic requires access to the whole range of items that can be part of that topic — to see their commonalities, variances and range.
He found that it was difficult to make political change when politicians were highly funded by interested parties, so he tried to do something about that.
To return to information, though: having a single page for every resource allows you to make statements about those resources, referring to each resource by its URL. Aaron had read Tim Berners-Lee’s Weaving The Web, and said that Tim was the only other person who understood that, by themselves, the nodes and edges of a “semantic web” had no meaning. To be able to understand this information, a reader would need to know which information was correct and reliable (using a trust network?). He wanted people to be able to understand scientific research, and to base their decisions on reliable information, so he founded Science That Matters to report on scientific findings. He had the same motivations as many LessWrong participants: a) trying to do as little harm as possible, and b) ensuring that information is available, correct, and in the right hands, for the sake of a “good AI”. As Alan Turing said (even though Aaron spotted that the “Turing test” is a red herring), machines can think, and machines will think based on the information they’re given. As much as individual, composable objects are interesting, the real understanding comes when a collection of items is analysed as a whole (or a part, if filtered). There’s more to a collection of items than is immediately obvious - it’s not just a [1, 2, 3] list, with "array" methods for filtering and iteration: the Collection itself is an object with its own set of observable properties - many of which are summaries, in some way, of the properties in the items in the collection.
These summaries describe some aggregate quality of the collection, and - ideally - an indication of the variance, or confidence intervals, for that value within the collection. If you look around, you’ll see trees with different coloured leaves, depending on their genotype and phenotype. So: observed properties of a collection can vary over time, or over space, depending on the conditions in which they’re found and the conditions of observation. The observed colour of a tree - or a collection of trees - is a function with many inputs and one output: the wavelength(s) of light that leave the tree and enter your eye (or some other detector). For any collection of items, a function can be written that describes one of their properties under certain conditions.
For example, the value(s) that this function outputs might be the mean (average) and standard deviation of a series of measurements over time, or it may group those values into buckets (the sort of data that might be displayed as a bar chart). If you’re working with JSON or HTML (which is probably the case), these interface names make no sense.
As is apparently the way with all DOM APIs, XMLHttpRequest wasn’t designed to be used directly. When an action (get, put, delete) is performed on a Resource, a Request is made to the URL of the resource.
Instead of sending hundreds of requests to the same domain at once, send them one at a time: each Request is added to a per-domain Queue. Google Plus was formed around one observation: most of the people on the web don't have URLs. For example, to show you which restaurants people you trust* have recommended in an area you’re visiting, a recommendation system needs to have a latitude + longitude for the area, a URL for each restaurant (solved by Google Places) and a URL for each person (solved, ostensibly, by Google Plus).
People might be leaving reviews in TripAdvisor, or Yelp, and there’s no obvious way to tie all those people together into any kind of coherent social graph.
Google Plus has an extremely clever way of linking together all those accounts, which involves starting with one trusted URL (Google Plus account), linking to another URL (GitHub, say), then linking back from that URL to your Google Plus account to prove that you own the GitHub account and can write to it.
The problem is (and the question “why” is an interesting one), even after people had their Google Plus account, they didn’t use it to post reviews.
When Google tried to connect YouTube accounts to Google Plus accounts, and failed, it was because people felt that those personas were distinct, and wanted the freedom to do certain things on YouTube without having it show up on their “personal record” in Google Plus. This also perhaps explains why people are wary of using Google Plus authentication to sign in to an untrusted site - they’re not so much worried about Google knowing where their accounts are, but also that the untrusted site might create a public profile for them without asking, and link it to their Google Plus profile.
Anyway, Google Plus is going away as a social network, and maybe even as a public profile, but the data’s still going to be connected together behind the scenes - perhaps using fuzzier, less explicit connections as a basis for recommendations and decision-making. You might notice that the published property is represented as a String, when it would be easier to use as a Date object. From this definition, you can see that the publishedDate property has a dependency on the published property: any computed properties should be updated when any of its dependencies are updated.
This is fine when the dependencies are all stored locally, but it’s also possible to imagine data that’s stored elsewhere. The Resource object used above is a Web Resource, part of a library I built to make it easier to fetch and parse remote resources. In either of those cases, the data is being fetched asynchronously, and a Promise is returned. I talked about this kind of thing at XTech in 2008, illustrating the object as a Katamari Damacy-style of “ball of stuff”, being passed around various different services and accumulating properties as it goes. Talis’ data platform had a similar feature, where results from a SPARQL query could be augmented by passing each result through another data store, matching on identifiers and adding selected properties each time.
The SERVICE feature of Wikidata’s SPARQL endpoint is also similar: it takes an object in each result and passes it to a specific service, assigning the resulting data to a specified property.
In OpenRefine, remote data can be fetched from web services and added to each item in the background. The web is no longer a desktop publishing platform, it’s most often a networked medium for machine-machine communication. All the old “features” that came part and parcel with printed documents are relics of an age where information was fixed in stone (well, wood pulp). Emscripten comes with its own SDK, which bundles the specific versions of clang and node that it needs. I’ve made a fork of xml.js which a) allows all the command-line arguments to be specified, so can be used for validating against a DTD rather than an XML schema, and b) allows a list of files to be specified, which are imported into the pseudo-filespace so that xmllint can access them. For third-party libraries, you can either download production-ready code manually to a lib folder and include them, or install with Bower to a bower_components folder and include them directly from there.
The benefit of this approach is that you can edit the source files through GitHub’s web interface, and the site will update without needing to do any local building or deployment.
Keep the config files in the root folder, but move the app’s source files into an app folder. Use Gulp to build the Bower-managed third-party libraries alongside the app’s own styles and scripts. While keeping the source files in the master branch, use Gulp to deploy the built app in a separate gh-pages branch.
The actual app source files (index.html, app styles, app-specific elements) are in the app folder. Earlier this week I attended a “Big Data Investigation Workshop” run by British Library Labs as part of the International Digital Curation Conference.
The workshop was an introduction to working with tools for cleaning, analysing and visualising collections of data: OpenRefine (which is great but showing its age), Tableau (which is ridiculously impressive) and Gephi (which has fast graph layout but lacks usability). As the workshop was co-organised by the Internation Crime Fiction Research Group, the theme of the data was “Crime Fiction”.
Although the news story didn’t link to any source data, it almost certainly came from the Electoral Commision’s register of donations to political parties. Running a basic search of the Electoral Commision’s register, with no filters, produced a CSV file containing all registered donations since 2001, which we then loaded into Tableau Public (Tableau’s limited, free desktop application for data visualisation).
The first visualisation was a simple bar chart of the total donations to each party, including only “political party” recipients, coloured according to the type of donation. The next visualisation was a summary of the donations from the individuals named in the news story. Getting Tableau to recognise UK postcodes is a bit tricky, as it doesn’t recognise the full postcode - we had to write a function to separate out only the first part of the postcode. I’d been making graphs of Spotify’s “Related Artists” network, but was finding that pieces of the graph often remained disconnected.
To connect these disparate parts of the network, I queried for the top tags that had been attached to each artist, and added those to the graph.
This brought the network together nicely, so I applied it to a larger data set: all the unique artists that had ever been played on a particular BBC 6 Music radio show.
The full graph of artists and their tags was interesting, but to get a clearer overview of the show’s musical themes, the artist nodes were hidden after the graph had been laid out (using Gephi's "Force Layout 2" algorithm). This left just the tags, laid out in two dimensions, where the most similar tags are closest together and the most frequently used are largest. As some of the labels were overlapping, I used Gephi’s "Label Adjust" layout algorithm to shift their positions enough that most of the overlapping was avoided. One problem was that when several artists shared the same name, irrelevant tags would be attached to an artist.
In a sense, the artists are the “dark matter” of the graph: they pull the tags together and organise their macroscopic structure, but remain invisible in the final, visible map. It may be that a highly-concentrated cluster of artists (as well as one or two very loosely-connected artists) pushed some tags further apart than they deserved to be.
Process those two CSV files into a list of pairs of connected identifiers suitable for import into Gephi.
Switch to the Preview window and adjust the colour and opacity of the edges and labels appropriately.
It would probably be possible to automate this whole sequence - perhaps in a Jupyter Notebook. Among CartoDB’s many useful features is the ability to merge tables together, via an interface which lets you choose which column from each to use as the shared key, and which columns to import to the final merged table.
CartoDB can also merge tables using location columns, counting items from one table (with latitude and longitude, or addresses) that are positioned within the areas defined in another table (with polygons).
I've found that UK parliamentary constituencies are useful for visualising data, as they have a similar population number in each constituency and they have at least two identifiers in published ontologies which can be used to merge data from other sources*. Once the parliamentary constituency shapefile has been imported to a base table, any CSV table that contains either of those identifiers can easily be merged with the base table to create a new, merged table and associated visualisation. So, the task is to find other data sets that contain either the OS “unit id” or the ONS “GSS code”. Given an index of CSV files, like those in CKAN-based stores such as, how can we identify those which contain either unit IDs or GSS codes?
As Thomas Levine's commasearch project demonstrated at csvconf last year, if you have a list of all (or even just some) of the known members of a collection of typed entities (e.g. In a General Election, the residents of each UK parliamentary constituency elect one Member of Parliament to represent them in the House of Commons. Each party can nominate a maximum of one candidate per constituency, often chosen from a shortlist of potential candidates in a selection contest.
Candidates who wish to stand for election must submit their nomination papers within one week after the notice of election has been published (i.e. However, candidates usually start their campaigning several months earlier, and their intention to stand for election will often be announced in a local newspaper. AndyJS’ spreadsheet and a derived list of candidates by constituency, via the Vote UK Forum. Dods People, a commercial monitoring service, used as the data source for the MHP General Election Campaign Outlook (GECO).
As well as prospective parliamentary candidates, some MPs will be contesting their seats again, and some will be standing down. Every 5 years, the Boundary Commissions for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland review the UK parliamentary constituency boundaries.
The last completed Boundary Review recommended 650 constituencies, and took effect at the General Election in 2010. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) has produced a guide to parliamentary constituencies and a map of the current constituencies.
The Office for National Statistics publishes a CSV file listing the names and codes for each parliamentary constituency (650 in total), under the Open Government License.
The parliamentary constituencies of England are named in The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 2007. The Ordnance Survey produces the Boundary-Line data, which includes an ESRI Shapefile for the boundary of each parliamentary constituency.
The Ordnance Survey’s administrative geography and civil voting area ontology includes a “hasUnitID” property, which provides a unique ID for each region, and a “GSS” property that is the ONS’ code for each region.
The Boundary-Line Shapefile includes the Unit ID (OS) and GSS (ONS) code for each constituency, so they can easily be used to merge the boundary polygons with other data sources in CartoDB. If using CartoDB’s free plan, it is necessary to use a version of the Boundary-Line Shapefile with simplified polygons, to reduce the size of the data. Following the next Boundary Review, the number of constituencies will be reduced from 650 to 600 by the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act, introduced by the current coalition government. Via Nautilus’ excellent Three Sentence Science, I was interested to read Nature’s list of “10 scientists who mattered this year”. One of them, Sjors Scheres, has written software - RELION - that creates three-dimensional images of protein structures from cryo-electron microscopy images.
I was interested in finding out more about this software: how it had been created, and how the developer(s) had been able to make such a significant improvement in protein imaging.
I was hoping for a link to GitHub, but at least the source code is available (though the “for free” is worrying, signifying that the default is “not for free”). On the RELION Wiki, the introduction states that RELION “is developed in the group of Sjors Scheres” (slightly problematic, as this implies that outsiders are excluded, and that development of the software is not an open process). The file is downloaded over HTTP, with no hash provided that would allow verification of the authenticity or correctness of the downloaded file. There’s an AUTHORS file, but it doesn’t really list the contributors in a way that would be useful for citation. Original disclaimers in the code of these external packages have been maintained as much as possible.
The source code for RELION should be in a public version control system such as GitHub, with tagged releases. The CHANGELOG should be maintained, so that users can see what has changed between releases. There should be a CITATION file that includes full details of the authors who contributed to (and should be credited for) development of the software, the name and current version of the software, and any other appropriate citation details.
Each public release of the software should be archived in a repository such as figshare, and assigned a DOI.
There should be a way for users to submit visible reports of any issues that are found with the software.
The parts of the software derived from third-party code should be clearly identified, and removed if their license is not compatible with the GPL.
For more discussion of what is needed to publish citable, re-usable scientific software, see the issues list of Mozilla Science Lab's "Code as a Research Object" project.
I used a PHP client to connect to Twitter’s streaming API as I was interested in seeing how it handled the connection (the client needs to watch the connection and reconnect if no data is received in a certain time frame).
The streaming API uses OAuth 1.0 for authentication, so you have to register a Twitter application to get an OAuth consumer key and secret, then generate another access token and secret for your account. The dat server that was started earlier with dat listen is listening on port 6461 for clients, and is able to emit each incoming tweet as a Server-Sent Event, which can then be consumed in JavaScript using the EventSource API. Big companies (Google, IBM, Wolfram) are positioning themselves to be the repository where sensors store their data. Other companies are building platforms for applications to make use of that data in real-time. There’s a piece missing: it should be possible to query those data stores to build up a snapshot of information, then document and publish the collection of data (and the harvesting process) for others to read and explore. Firstly, seed-harvester imports an initial collection of items (which may be as simple as a list of identifiers or URLs) from CSV, JSON, or a JavaScript function that fetches the initial data set. Secondly, leaf-builder provides an interface for adding leaves (properties; computed or otherwise) to each item of the data set. Thirdly, vege-table itself extends HTML tables to present the collection of items, generating a row for each item and a column for each leaf. Once all the leaves have been added, the data collection can be published by exporting the table description and data files, placing them in the same folder as the main index.html file, and switching off the database. In one day, two separate authors demonstrated that they’ve solved the problem of “how to publish your research on the web”.
Dominic Tarr analysed the performance of different JavaScript cryptographic libraries, and Jure Triglav collected tweets mentioning sunny weather and correlated them to actual weather reports. The reports are online for anyone to read, and the code and data are in version-controlled repositories, with instructions for anyone to reproduce them. The README file describes the purpose of the project, the dependencies, what was tested, how to reproduce the experiments, and what license the project is released under.
The process for generating the data (a Bash script that calls node commands) is present, and its usage is documented in the human-readable README. All the machine-readable metadata needed for the project, including the list of dependencies, is present in package.json. The results are written up as a paper in Markdown (including figure images directly from the output folder).
The data is continuously updated in the background, and the figures and text are updated in real time. Note that neither of the reports have “references” sections at the end, for the simple reason that they don’t need to: if they need to refer to anything, they just need to link to it in the (hyper)text. The Microdata DOM API allows JavaScript programs to read and write data embedded in HTML as Microdata. As specified by the W3C Working Group, document.getItems(itemtype) returns a collection of all the elements with an itemscope attribute in the current document that have the given itemtype attribute.
Each itemscope element has a properties object that provides access to all of the element's itemprop descendants (either contained directly or referenced elsewhere in the document using the itemref attribute). These methods and properties allow the program to access all the Microdata nodes and values in the document. The HTML is very simple: a single container for the whole card, with two sections inside - one for the front and one for the back. If you can't tell why a technology would be useful to you, it's not for people, it's for the robots. Google Glass provides machines with vision and access to a network of institutional knowledge.
Bitcoin allows machine-machine transactions to be processed without needing any evaluation of trust.
Stephanie Haustein and colleagues recently described the lack of correlation between tweets about an article (using Altmetric data from July 2011 - December 2012) and formal citations of the article. I decided to look at the data for smaller sets of articles, published in specific journals. Import a CSV file, with columns "doi" and "citations", to a new project named "citations_scopus". As some of you have heard, I'm leaving University Marketing and Communications, and will be doing freelance Web design and consulting. I will continue to post on an array of topics geared to academic, corporate and non-profit Web developers, bloggers, content managers, marketers and anyone else with an interest in the Web. You can also expect a few marketing entries about the move, as I learn how long it takes to rebuild readership in the new location.
Instead they babble repetitively in varying sized and colored typefaces, repeating their promises over and over again, but with slightly different wording. If you're in business for the long run, no matter the field, content that merely badgers readers into buying your whatsits and whatnots is not the solution. Pick the right graduate school so they can research light-emitting polymers that will help them develop new green technologies.
Now that your visitor has decided to explore your site, you need to give him or her the information needed to make a decision. People talk about Web content in terms of stickiness—methods they can use to keep visitors on the site or encourage them to return in the future.
By giving visitors the information they seek, we serve both their goals and ours, while forging customer relationships that can last well into the future.
Lately I've noticed that a great number of online marketers are unfamiliar with these marketing basics. Your product will not appeal to everyone on the planet who has a dog, so there is no point in spending the time and money it would take to reach all of them. For example, I recently mentioned the word "dog" in a Tweet (a message I posted on Twitter.) Within 2 minutes I received an e-mail saying that person X was now following me on Twitter. Customers and potential customers share bad experiences and I shared this with many friends who now also will not buy from X. In the long run we'll make more sales if we can match our product to customers who have a desire or need for that product. Is available in a range of sizes—meant to accommodate either the smallest puppy or the largest Mastiff. We may learn that certain breeds are more likely to wander and their owners would desire such a collar. Let's say we've decided to target college-educated Volvo drivers with Golden Retrievers as one of our market segments. It's important to remember that people will only follow us back if we have something worthwhile to say.
Taking the time to narrow your audience to an easily defined niche makes marketing more cost effective.
Once you've found that audience you need to connect with them on their own terms if you want to achieve any level of success.
Now that the New Year has been rung in, it seems that the meme of the moment is to blog about the year in review.
Plurk: Social Media Marketing in Action brought in new readers and temporary traffic spikes, the more timeless subjects such as writing, marketing and navigation were the ones that drew in the most readers overall. Suggestions on ways to test sites in multiple browsers, reasons for testing and why we still can't ignore Internet Explorer 6.0. Overview of popular uses for social media, nature of word-of-mouth and the impact of social media on marketing goals.
Your home page is NOT your index; it's your store front provides tips on navigational aids that will help users to explore your site no matter which page they may enter through.
Exploring the differences between subdomains and subdirectories and their impact (or lack thereof) upon marketing. Embedding YouTube Videos is one of the easiest things you can do on the Web, but if you're a stickler for standards compliant HTML, you can't just copy and paste. Positioning photos with hspace or tables is awkward and dated, but the CSS float property makes it easy for anyone to include images in their Web sites and blogs so that they float cleanly to the right or left of the text. Search Engine Optimization may seem complicated, but by following these simple SEO basics you can make a significant impact. This brief introduction to HTML provides links and resources for learning HTML as well as a homework assignment users can try as a way to get started.
This is the first in a series of articles that make up my Planning your Web site tutorial—in which I walk readers through a process of identifying goals, understanding their audience, choosing content, outlining a site and organizing pages and navigation. The Web is constantly evolving and we're all trying to keep up with the latest trends and technologies. Heidi thinks the veil between the 'brick and mortar' world and the 'cyber world' becomes more elusive each day. My friends tell me that I'm no longer shy, but I am an introvert, so I have to admit I was just a wee bit nervous.
George Nemeth was there and George knows everybody and is more than happy to make introductions. Cleveland Social Media Club (on Ning) provides an information hub, but it's also enabled us to easily create multiple redundant pathways to one another.
All gnashing of teeth and wailing aside (and yes there was a lot of that) one of the first things people did was to start announcing where else they could be found. We had this information, we had the ability to download our data, but it was clear that we were scattering into the wind. At the time I really wasn't certain about my long term goals, I just needed something I could launch quickly. By way of comparison this blog was 20 months old by the time it started generating that level of traffic.
Since then we've lost a bit of momentum and probably need to refocus marketing on community building strategies. Soylent Green, there is a classic line towards the end that states, "Soylent Green is people!" Alas, soylent green was also what people ate. As the semester winds down, and the holiday season encroaches, it seems there are more and more events to publicize, greetings to send, end-of-year newsletters to distribute, holiday sales to promote, etc. In many popular e-mail programs, the default preference is to have images turned off in incoming messages.
Sighted readers, such as me, have no way to judge whether the message is worth reading (or not) unless we click on the image. Readers with vision problems who rely on screenreading software have no way to read a message that is part of an image.

Most of us know that tables are meant for tabular data and CSS is meant for style and position. The middle row has a white background and contains another table with one row and two columns. The left column contains a background image, but no background color and features the main text.
To add an inline style to an html element just include style=" " and put your regular CSS information within the quotes.
People sometimes worry that they'll lose too much flexibility if they try to stick with Web standards, but this example shows that despite the limited support of CSS in e-mail there is still room for experimentation. The e-mail standards project provides information on what features are supported by the most often used e-mail programs. How you send an HTML e-mail depends on your mailing list and the programs you have available.
Macbook Pro looks great but if your current one is only a year old and serves your needs you may not need to order a new one just yet.
I don't know the answer to that but I suspect it would be more than 30-40 characters, and would depend on the strength of your original decision. There is, but most of it is focused on URL length for search engine optimization, maximum URL length able to be read by certain browsers, etc. Instinctively we like the idea and ease of short URLs, but URL length is only one of many factors to consider in our Web related marketing strategies. Those who recommend having links open in a new window do so with the intention of making it easier for users to return to the original site. By now, the theory goes, you will have either forgotten where you were before or forgotten how to get back. Get Satisfaction page in which a user actually requested that links on Pownce open in a new window. Individuals who are unable to detect changes of context or may not realize that the context has changed are likely to become disoriented while navigating a site. While writing this I kept having a vision of wandering the Internet in a world where every external link opened a new window or tab.
Categorical Imperative he states that one should "act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law." While this idea was meant to deal with issues of morality, it's easy to see how it could be applied to lesser situations such as links opening in new windows. According to myth, a sticky Web site is one that compels visitors to stay on the site for a long time.
This blog, while vastly different from Amazon, has similar requirements when it comes to stickiness.
If you've been writing a blog entry about Web site stickiness and outbound links, perhaps you've piqued their interest enough that they want to learn more.
Whether your Web site is meant to sell widgets, promote an event or disseminate knowledge, your outbound link strategy should be to provide helpful information to your visitors. By providing such resources you can build goodwill towards your brand and help users make a purchasing decision. In the end, if you take as much care with your links as you do with your other content, your readers should come back for more. Jimi Izrael will introduce you to the myriad types of blogs and explore their evolution as an outgrowth of modern journalism.
Center for Community Solutions this half day seminar will offer ideas non-profits can use in promoting their services through social media and introduce you to members of the local media with particular insight in the field. Founded in 2006, the Cleveland Web Design and Development Meetup is "here to help folks come together to learn about and discuss making the web, web pages, web programming, all that sorta thing. Founded in 2007, "The Cleveland Web Standards Association (CWSA) is grounded on the premise of sharing information in a relaxed atmosphere. Founded in 2002, the Cleveland Weblogger Meetup Group meets once a month to discuss blogging, Northeast Ohio, politics and anything else that seems interesting.
This introductory lecture gives the motivation for the course, some information about the people involved and the organization of the course, a high-level overview of the course's topics, and an overview of the assignments which are an important part of the course program.
The Web is, in the words of its creator Tim Berners-Lee, a "global information space." The Web is relatively new, but the vision of a global information space is at least a century old. There is no practical obstacle whatever now to the creation of an efficient index to all human knowledge, ideas and achievements, to the creation, that is, of a complete planetary memory for all mankind.
Discussions on Hypertext have sometimes tackled the problem of copyright enforcement and data security. Like earlier attempts at building a "global information space", the Web was designed in response to the information management needs of large-scale, institutional science. The Web is composed of standards: rules and practices to which technologies must adhere if they are to be considered part of the Web. Next week we will begin looking at Web standards in detail, starting with HTML (the HyperText Markup Language). It can be hard to understand web technologies without a basic understanding of filesystems, directory structure, and file paths.
Some URL paths are not translated into file paths at all, but are interpreted in other ways (e.g. Cascading Stylesheets (CSS) have been designed as a language for better separating presentation-specific issues from the structuring of documents as provided by HTML.
One limitation of the data used here is that the dates of each tweet and citation are not known; it might be interesting to correlate tweets and citations during specific windows of time after article publication. First we’ll need to build the basic frame of an email, so that we can start dropping our carousel code in.
After we add in the tables that contain the inputs and content, we’ll move these labels to their correct position in the document flow. Each nested table will look the same, but we’ll increment the id attribute on each input. As you can see, we now have three inputs (slide-1, slide-2, slide-3)  that are each nested into another table.
First we’ll set some styles for the CarouselWrapper container so that we can move the slides within it and define its height and width. The button style block makes the buttons visible and sets their height, width and other relevant display styles.
Our next media query is set to activate only for webkit and Mozilla users, again to prevent partially functional code from showing. The last three style blocks are used to reset the carousel positioning values for mobile screens. Although there are several techniques to make video playable in email, due to the lack of support for video in most email clients and the complexity, most people just put an image with a "play" button and link the image to a landing page with the video. This is completely optional but it would be nice to have an image that actually tells the user that they can play the video in the image itself. The way you do this is to set the container to the height of one image and set overflow to hidden. From analyzing the code, it looks like there's a whitelist of URLs that can be embedded in the code.
As each year marches past, governments are becoming more and more restrictive about unsolicited email.
The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 is a spam law that established the United States’ national standards for sending commercial email by defining commercial email messages (which is different from transactional or relationship email) and providing guidelines for sending behavior, content and unsubscribe compliance.
To follow the guidelines in place, you must include a visible and operational unsubscribe option in your commercial emails, a legitimate physical address of the company, accurate “From” information and subject lines and you cannot send to harvested email addresses.
Unless you’re a mom and pop shop that strictly practices local email marketing, understanding (and complying with) global spam laws is critical to your bottom line. Canada’s Anti-Spam Law (CASL), which was enacted in 2014, sent shivers up marketers’ spines worldwide as it threatened millions of dollars in fines for violations when sending spam to our neighbors in the North.
While these laws above are country specific, a new law is coming down the pipe that will unify spam guidelines and policies across the EU. The European Union Parliament is expected to approve a comprehensive piece of privacy legislation in the coming months known as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The primary objectives of the GDPR are to give citizens back the control of their personal data and to simplify the regulatory environment for international business by unifying regulations within the EU.
Now that we understand what the laws are, let’s talk about email best practices to stay inside the policies already in place.
Not only are double opt-in lists compliant with international spam laws, they can also help boost your open rates. Whether you choose to leverage a single or double opt-in method is up to you, but never (never!) buy a list! According to data provided by Convince & Convert, 43 percent of email recipients say that they will report email as spam based on the “from” name or email address. This element should be fairly self-explanatory, but you’d be surprised at how often this link is forgotten or broken in email campaigns. With GDPR, an individual has the “right to be forgotten” if their data is no longer being used for the purpose under which it was originally collected. Remembering all these laws, following all these rules and building your list through a strictly opt-in basis can seem daunting, but your efforts will pay off in the end. Let's start with the big news: email marketing is going to remain a top priority for companies in 2016.
Modular design can be applied to email development to create a flexible framework of pre-tested code blocks or "partials" that you can mix and match for any email. As you start to send out modular emails, you'll probably notice that some of your partials have issues in certain email clients.
Email Editor is going to cut your email production time in half and vastly improve your testing workflow.
Cut development time in half by seeing your changes made in real-time via the preview pane.
As you tinker around in your email code trying to troubleshoot line height issues or fix alignment problems in Outlook, thoroughly testing your template has never been easier (or faster). Now, if you need to access past images or brand visuals like your logo, you can do so seconds.
Dig into our reservoir of responsive and fluid hybrid templates that have already been thoroughly tested across the most popular inboxes.
Don’t forget, when customizing your template a simple tweak in the HTML could cause display issues in an array of different clients and devices.
We all know that awful, pit-in-your-stomach feeling when you realize you closed a text editor or refreshed a browser without hitting the “save” button. Plus, if you make an HTML edit that causes three other issues to appear, all you have to do is revert back to your last revision. The Email Editor’s revision history tool allows you to take the quickest path for effective troubleshooting so you can shave hours off of your production time.
Harness the power of premade code snippets that will complete a complex action with a simple stroke of your keyboard.
The Email Editor will put your development process on overdrive so you can build and test edits in real time. To avoid this, everyone in the system is given a task that is guaranteed to give each participant an equal chance of completing first - a chance which is increased only by how much work they do. When it turned out that he wasn’t going to be writing any more, I spent some time trying to work out why. Also, some people might add high-quality information, but others might not know what they’re talking about.
To teach yourself about a topic, you need to be a collector, which means you need access to the objects.
It could contain metadata for each item (allowable up to a point - Aaron was good at pushing the limits of what information was actually copyrightable), but some books remained in copyright.
He also saw that this would require politicians being open about their dealings (but became sceptical about the possibility of making everything open by choice; he did, however, create a secure drop-box for people to send information anonymously to reporters). Each resource and property was only defined in terms of other nodes and properties, like a dictionary defines words in terms of other words.
If an AI is given misleading information it could make wrong decisions, and if an AI is not given access to the information it needs it could also make wrong decisions, and either of those could be calamitous. Your eye analyses the light arriving from the tree, and your brain tries to summarise the wavelengths that it’s seeing.
To be able to understand the shared properties of items in a group, and differences from items in a different group, is to begin to understand them. They’ve read Tim Berners-Lee’s books, and understand that there are Resources out there, with URLs that can be used to fetch them. And that’s before you get into the jQuery.ajax option names (data for the query parameters, dataType for the response type, etc). It also doesn’t return a Promise, though there’s an onload event that gets called when the request finishes. Even with Gmail, there's no way to say that the person you email is the same person who's left a review, unless they have a URL (i.e. Now that both of those URLs are trusted, either of them can be used as the basis of a new trusted connection: linking from the trusted GitHub URL to a Flickr URL, and then from the Flickr URL to the trusted Google Plus URL (or any other trusted profile URL), is enough to prove that you also own the Flickr account and can write to it.
In this case, when the published property is updated, the publishedDate property is also updated. The intense focus is on performance of Blink as a platform for mobile applications, and not at all on document rendering features. Hardly anyone writes English (though a lot of people, and some machines, can read it to some extent).
This makes running xmllint in the browser much more like running xmllint on the command line. We added a filter on the donor name, searched for their surname and selected those names which matched (there were several variations on each donor’s name in the database), then used Tableau’s grouping to group together the name variations.
Once this was done, Tableau easily mapped the location of each donor, to produce the final visualisation: a map of each donation to a political party, coloured according to the recipient party and sized according to the value of the donation. To avoid this, only the artists that had been given MusicBrainz IDs in the BBC data were included, and these MBIDs were used to query for tags. I'd like to be able to do the same thing in D3, as Gephi is quite awkward to use, and has cropped the node labels when exporting the above images (it seems to only take the nodes into account when cropping the output, and not their labels). Fusion Tables creates a virtual merged table, allowing updates to the source tables to be replicated to the final merged table as they occur. The UK parliamentary constituency shapefiles published by the Ordnance Survey as part of the Boundary-Line dataset contain polygons, names and two identifiers for each area: one is the Ordnance Survey’s own “unit id” and one is the Office for National Statistics’ “GSS code”. Although there’s usually a property name in the first row, there’s rarely a datapackage.json file defining a basic data type (number, string, date, etc), and practically never a JSON-LD context file to map those names to URLs. For example: country names (a list of names that changes slowly), members of parliament (a list of names that changes regularly), years (a range of numbers that grows gradually), gene identifiers (a list of strings that grows over time), postcodes (a list of known values, or values matching a regular expression). The Boundary-Line data is published under the OS OpenData license, which incorporates the Open Government License. On that page is a link to “Download RELION for free from here”, which leads to a form, asking for name, organisation and email address (which aren’t validated, so can be anything - the aim is to allow the owners to email users if a critical bug is found, but this shouldn’t really be a requirement before being allowed to download the software). They are difficult to find: trying to download XMIPP hits another registration form, and BSOFT has no visible license.
Apart from the folder name, the only way to find out which version of the code is present is to look in the configure script, which contains PACKAGE_VERSION=‘1.3’. The data table is paginated, sortable, filterable, and includes footer rows that summarise columns using facets where appropriate. This is most likely what people will see first, so it links to the code repository for all the information needed to repeat the experiments.
In theory this is good, but as it’s published in a system that doesn’t yet have version control, there’s no ability to compare past versions. However, browsers never fully supported the API, and are dropping any native support that did exist. However, in order to provide this flexibility, the DOM API can be quite long-winded when reading the value of a single property, which is most often what's needed.
A5), divided into two equal halves (front and back), produced using only HTML and CSS (and a PDF conversion). After writing a few scripts to fetch and parse data to CSV from various web services, using the DOI as the key for each row, I realised that it would be easier to gather the data in OpenRefine by incrementally adding columns. I know this because they post links telling me they can make this happen if I buy their books and CD's or read their blogs. It may help you sell a short run of something, but it won't establish a relationship with your clients, build a solid customer base or solidify your branding strategy.
This will allow your readers to judge the quality of what you offer, and determine if that offer will serve their specific need. If a visitor is picking a graduate school, he or she will want to know about the faculty, the facilities, fellow students, courses offered etc. It seems like everyone wants to get involved, call themselves an expert and use the magical powers of social media to triple sales, recruit students, etc. Like any tool it needs to be used in the proper context—in conjunction with other marketing strategies.
While it comes in a variety of colors, it's not a huge variety and none feature rhinestones. Perhaps owners of Golden Retrievers are 50% more likely to buy multiple collars for their dog than German Shepherd owners. Perhaps college-educated Volvo drivers replace their dog collars 50% more often than Cadillac drivers. We've discovered that we can buy mailing lists for this group, that they watch the Discovery Channel and regularly buy from L.L. This may then be a good place to put up a Facebook page, to advertise, and to participate in discussions about dogs and accessories. Twitter conversations aren't as easily segmented by topic as they are on Facebook or StumbleUpon. By carefully reading through these results we can pick people one-by-one that may fit our audience.
This is not a place to push our product, but a place for us to join a community in which we can share ideas on topics of common interest. Before following any of them, we have to make sure that we've posted some worthwhile Tweets—most of which are not about our new collar. People think of social media as being a free alternative to traditional advertising or direct mail, but making successful connections requires time and labor. So, instead of presenting you with my top 10 articles of 2008, I've decided to break them up into 2 groups, the top 5 written in 2008 and the top 5 from year's past that continue to draw readers—even with the passage of time.
This article addresses the importance of using a tone suitable to both the audience and the subject matter in order to better connect with readers and clearly convey your message.
But no matter which platform we use to publish, which strategies we apply, it always seems to come back to the basics. Whether it's to promote a business or an academic program, it's not unusual to hear people as, "How should we be using Twitter?" or "What should we do with Facebook?" The questions often focus on the tools, but as I've mentioned before, in Social Media: Your Interactive Information Resource, social media is about making connections—human connections. While this has been apparent to me for sometime, it's become increasingly clear over the past month.
Thus, if one service goes down, the connections aren't lost, we still have other channels available.
My friends group contained liberals and republicans, atheists and born-agains and people from several different continents and cultures.
Pownce always made it easy to post our other profile addresses on the site, but now people were indicating where their primary addresses would be. In my panic, I decided I needed to create a new, possibly temporary home for us, someplace that would still exist after December 15, where we could continue to share our contact information.
I configured the page to use the colors from the Pownce home page, enabled some features that I thought might be useful and spread the word. This way I thought we could use this page to keep track of Pownce-related activity elsewhere.
It sounds silly, but it was a good way to get new people involved as it gave them ideas on things to post.
In April 2008 there were over 230,000 networks on Ning, and they were growing at over 1,000 per day. This sample was created with certain features in mind to demonstrate how such an e-mail will render in different programs. Thus many of us receive e-mails with little boxes and some indicator that says "click here to load images." If you are like me, you rely on the remaining text of the message to make you decide if you should bother or not.
They are relying purely on the text of the message and any "alt text" provided for the image. To ensure that they are readable by everyone in your audience, just be sure to include all the important points as actual text. The original file contains two images, a picture of Death and a white background image with shaded edges. With images off the white background from the main table will show through so that the text is still easily read. In some of our samples the e-mail is showing up as dark blue which is hard to read against the dark background.
This helps me determine if the problem is a simple coding error or if it is due to a feature not supported in one of the e-mail programs I'm testing. But I've found that padding seems to fail more often than margin in e-mails, so I use margin to ensure that I retain space between paragraphs in as many programs as possible.
These offer helpful guidelines, but the only way to know what will work for your file is to test it in as many different programs as you can. If you're regularly sending mass e-mails to large lists, you may wish to use an e-mail service such as Target X or Constant Contact. Site owners had been telling me that their URLs were too long for users to type and that this was keeping people from responding to their direct mail campaigns. The length of an URL is but one of several factors a reader considers when deciding whether or not to respond to a direct mail offer. On the other hand perhaps you can justify getting a new one by giving the older one to your daughter—who could use a better computer. If the next step is to visit the Web site then you probably will take the mailer over to your computer and type in the address. You have decided you are interested in the product or service and want to place your order, RSVP for the event or do whatever else may be appropriate to the offer.
It would be unusual that any of us would need to create a 70 character URL, even for a very targeted marketing campaign, but if we did, I don't know that it would be a deal breaker.
If the chore of typing 70 characters is enough to deter someone from completing their order, then perhaps they weren't that committed in the first place.
Many people are researching various aspects of URL length, but without very specific testing it can be hard to determine if URL length or some other factor is the relevant issue. The majority of these sites have short domain names (and thus short URLs) and he concluded that there is a correlation between short URLs and site popularity. Although many others have already written about this topic, it comes up often enough that I think it is worth discussing. Anyone who surfs the Internet knows that it is easy to get lost down a rabbit hole of links. Of course if the link opens in the same window, and you are using a current browser such as Firefox, you can simply click the down arrow next to your back button to navigate back through the series of links you just followed.
With one click I can go back and read another interview or I can choose to go all the way back to the original blog. Preferences vary, so unless you survey the users of your particular site it may be difficult to determine if your audience likes or dislikes it when a link opens in a new window. For example: individuals who are blind or have low vision may have difficulty knowing when a visual context change has occurred, such as a new window popping up.
In this vision it was only a matter of minutes before there were so many tabs open in my browser that I had to use the left and right arrows to scroll through them.
The content and features of the site are so enticing that users will stay there wandering about for hours.
In that case you can provide links at the bottom of the page that will give them more information. It occurred to me that this might be a good opportunity for those of you (in Greater Cleveland) who are thinking of taking up blogging. If so you're in luck "Jim Kukral, a lifelong Clevelander and web-famous Internet guru wants to help ease the pain.
The purpose of this association is to provide practical instruction and techniques that will elevate the quality and functionality coming from Cleveland firms and free agents. I finally made it to my first meeting with them last month during which we ate some tasty vittles while discussing gender roles and a variety of other topics. Looking back at these early visions can give us a sense of the recurring problems in human communication and information management to which the Web was intended be a solution. Suppose I could program my computer to create a space in which anything could be linked to anything. These are of secondary importance at CERN, where information exchange is still more important than secrecy. Earlier hypertext systems did not allow for broken links, and thus required central coordination. Tim Berners-Lee was able to build upon previous technologies and incorporate ideas from previous systems to meet these needs. Most of these standards are developed by standards bodies, organizations that publish documents defining Web technologies.
This lecture provides an overview of these topics and shows how web servers build upon these fundamentals.
It introduces the basic functionalities of a browser; retrieval and rendering of Web pages. Carousels can be a powerful tool for email, especially for mobile where vertical space is at a premium.
In some other carousel builds, only the first content block is rendered in fallback clients. The main carousel table holds all of the nested tables with inputs and will be resized via media queries for various screen sizes. The first three style blocks resize the containers and buttons to make them better fit mobile screens. Mail recently updated their Rich Link Previews to support videos from YouTube, Vimeo and other providers (hat tip to Remi Parmentier). So we'll start with just a placeholder image and link as a fallback that takes the user to a landing page when clicked. Mail display the play button, we first need to obtain the URL of the embeddable YouTube player.

Mail will be able to play the video in the email, recipients viewing the email in other clients would click off into the landing page that hosts the video. Since this would be the only div within our video container we can set a class "video-container" to the container and target the button with the following style.
Mail, the alternate image will obscure the original image by pushing it out of the container. Many of these laws have provisions that state they apply not only to companies that are located in the country’s jurisdiction, but also to any entity sending email to that country’s citizens. You must gain consent through an opt-in mechanism where the subscriber has to take a positive action to give consent.
This overhaul of the EU Data Protection Directive is expected to become law across all 28 EU Member States in 2018 and contains very specific requirements about obtaining consent to collect an individual’s information, as well as guidelines about how that information is to be stored and used. MailChimp took a random sample of 30,000 users in their database who’d sent at least 10 campaigns to see if double opt-ins improved their email marketing stats.
Unfortunately, you cannot tell how old email addresses are and 22.5 percent of email addresses expire each year. On top of that, 69 percent say that they will report email as spam based solely on the subject line. Once someone clicks on that link, you can obtain a little more information about why the individual is unsubscribing through a preference center, but be sure to make the process easy and to remove them from your list in a timely manner (within 10 business days is required in the United States). For example, if someone purchased a product from you, you have implied consent to add them to your mailing list. A partial is a self-contained code sample that can be used in any order within the flow of an email.
This table will ensure that some basic styles are added, and that the email is centered and renders reliably.
At this point, you need to decide if your partials will be stacking tables inside the container table, or stacking TRs.
As we described above, that may be starting and ending with table tags, or starting and ending with TR tags. For example, you may also want to create multiple column layouts for advertising products, a variety of article layouts for a newsletter, or a partial with a huge CTA for event invites. Buttons, for example, can be a very useful partial to have, so that you can add them after any article or image.
As you fix those issues and update your partials, you'll begin to see less and less problems. In this blog, we’re going to break down, piece by piece, how to harness the power of our brand new tool to save time and money while building beautiful emails. With email testing at the core of Email on Acid, the introduction of our Email Editor is going to cut your email production time in half and vastly improve your testing workflow. With your raw HTML directly next to your email preview, you can say goodbye to toggling between your text editor and email service provider (ESP) every time you add a new table or swap out an image.
Almost every email client displays HTML differently because each client has its own unique way of interpreting your HTML. Building, previewing, testing and troubleshooting your email can now be executed in one place, with the click of a single button. No need to upload hundreds of images onto your own server or painstakingly place the image URLs into your raw code.
Whether you want to use media queries in your email or leverage an animated template, our library of templates will provide you with a wide variety of options.
Lucky for you, we offer a history of all your edits, so you never have to worry about losing work again. You can also create, save and utilize your own custom coding snippets to accelerate your coding with automated commands. With the click of a button, we’ll inline all of your embedded styles so they’ll render everywhere. I didn’t find out why the writing had stopped, exactly, but I did get some insight into why it might have started.
If everyone had their own wiki, and you could choose which trusted sources to subscribe to, you’d be able to collect just the information that you trusted, augment it yourself, and then broadcast it back out to others.
The colours might cycle over time, as day and night pass, and they might cycle over longer periods, as seasons pass. The further away you look, the greater likelihood that the colour of a tree will be more different from the closest trees - the variance within the collection will increase.
If this property was bound to the original table, you would see the new values being filled in as the data arrives!
If this was available it would be ideal, as then the bower_components folder could be left out of the built app. In particular, we looked at a recent news story in The Independent, which stated that “three senior figures at scandal-hit [HSBC] bank donated ?875,000" to the Conservative Party in recent years. Pleasingly the totals almost exactly matched those given in the news story, for the three named donors. There’s no way to know what has changed from the previous version, as the previous versions are not available anywhere (this also means that it’s impossible to reproduce results generated using older versions of the software). Happily, this is the format in which Twitter’s streaming API provides information, so it's ideal for piping into dat. Once a leaf has been attached to an item, the data added can then be used to build further leaves. That’s ok though, as long as it’s saved in the Internet Archive whenever someone refers to it.
I've written a jQuery plugin that provides equivalent functions and makes them easier to use. After having searched Google, discovered your site on StumbleUpon, followed a link from a source they trust or typed in the link they saw on your business card, they've come to your site in the hopes that you can fill their needs. If your site appears to offer what they seek, they will stay a bit longer to find out if your offering is the one most appropriate to their specific needs. It's merely a tactic used in the hopes that long or repeated visits will encourage readers to buy, or otherwise consume, our stuff. Being currently dogless and unclear of the mission of his site, I neither signed up for the service nor followed X back on Twitter.
From this alone we can guess that it will not appeal to small dog owners who dress up their pets in decorative outfits.
If we have an existing customer base for related products we can analyze past purchases to look for buying patterns that may relate to our new product. Perhaps we've also discovered that their average age is 35-60 and they tend to live near major metropolitan areas.
It will take time, but it might be worth reviewing the various groups and selecting a few active ones to join. By targeting your audience you can focus that labor on connecting with the people who matter most to your goals. In 2009 I expect to be writing more on social media topics such as Facebook and Twitter, but I'll also be writing more about content and general marketing principles, the foundations we build upon in all of our Web-based endeavors.
So rather than writing a typical how-to or advice article, today I'll just tell you about two recent events that really drive this message home. Members of Cleveland SMC can friend each other and converse on that site, but we also post our other profiles there. Once the connection is made it can be continued on any one or more of the online services available. When you are new to social networking, it can be intimidating, but theme days provided some great starting points.
They spread the word on Twitter and other places, and within no time we had more than 100 members. But this was a social media site, marketed through social media to active social media users. Alas, as many of you know, creating and distributing an HTML e-mail message is far more complicated than building a regular Web site.
Recently I received a message from a well-known business magazine in which the only text provided stated only the name of the magazine and its address. If the sender didn't care enough to present the information clearly, then why should we care enough to read it? This particular message didn't include any "alt text" so the message was lost to such recipients. This doesn't mean you can't use images to add visual interest, it just means that your message will be accessible to everyone whether they can see the pictures or not.
Because the content is text-based the main message is available and the alt text provides a description of the missing photo. In our sample this is showing up as black which indicates that the table cell should be restyled to feature a lighter color. By eliminating any coding errors I can then focus on the work-arounds I may need to implement to solve the e-mail specific problem. To ensure that your styles aren't ignored, use inline styles to format everything in the document.
You can do this by installing several programs on your own computer and by enlisting the aid of friends and colleagues. To send an HTML e-mail just click the "Write" button to compose a new message, type in your recipients addresses and subject line then go to the "Insert" menu and choose "HTML." A box will pop up in which you can past the code from your HTML file. When deciding whether a mailing is potentially useful, recipients, consciously or subconsciously, ask the following questions. If you're not as firmly committed then maybe a long address, particularly one with lots of special characters, would dissuade you. If your direct mail campaign isn't sending sufficient traffic to your Web site, then you should also review your message. Disclaimer: links that open in a new window or tab—when that wasn't my choice—are a pet peeve of mine, but I will attempt to explore the topic objectively. To me that seems far easier than wading through a sea of windows, or looking at an array of tabs to find the one you want. Pownce was able to solve the problem by giving users a setting that lets them pick which behavior is the default while they're on Pownce.
In this case, warning users of context changes in advance minimizes confusion when the user discovers that the back button no longer behaves as expected." To avoid this confusion they recommend that users should be notified if a link will open in a new window and if possible be given the choice to not have it open in a new window. Whether I bore you halfway through this article or you go on to read several more entries, at some point you will leave this blog.
My goal is to share ideas and best practices with you, and learn more from the feedback you provide, so that we can all strive to make the most useful Web sites possible. This is why many Web marketers fret over the percentage of visitors who bounce out of the site and the amount of time spent on it by those who stay. It also made me think that this would be a good time to share some of the other great resources available to bloggers, Web developers and those interested in social media in Northeast Ohio. And it's free." The groups holds regular meetings, offers study groups for novices and provides a variety of helpful online resources. The conceptual structure and overall logical organization of a computer or computer-based system from the point of view of its use or design; a particular realization of this. Organization, supervision, or direction; the application of skill or care in the manipulation, use, treatment, or control (of a thing or person), or in the conduct of something. Yet we must be careful to avoid seeing an unbroken line of technological progress where there was none: many of the pioneers of information management were forgotten, and later generations constructed their own pragmatic historical narratives.
The whole human memory can be, and probably in a short time will be, made accessible to every individual. All the bits of information in every computer at CERN, and on the planet, would be available to me and to anyone else.
His emphasis on decentralization, use of existing infrastructure, and decision to make WWW technology freely available enabled it to spread and grow quickly. But sometimes standards develop more organically, from technologies that become popular and are widely implemented without a formal process. In particular, we look at page titles, meta tags, inserting text and images, using lists, and creating simple tables. Selectors specify to which elements of a document a set of declarations (each being a value assigned to a property) apply; in addition there is a model of how property values are inherited and cascaded. Any modern browser needs to support more than just HTTP and HTML; it must support CSS for stylesheets, JavaScript for scripted Web pages, various image formats, and popular applications such as Flash.
The labels allow us to connect the button to the inputs, and the spans are used to style text and hide the buttons on unsupported clients. This is done to enable the use of sibling selectors, which will create the interactive behavior. Inside of the TD of the carousel table, we’ll start to build our nested input tables.
By adding these span tags, we give the bug a target to apply to that won’t have a negative effect. This is how the carousel will be rendered for clients that don’t support this interactive technique.
The last style, .hide, is used to hide the span in each label, so that the words one, two and three can be replaced with numerals which take up less space on mobile screens. The cursor style is important as an indicator that the user can interact with the button on desktop clients. 320px width was selected to fit iPhone5 screens, but you can select whatever width works best for your content.
From the list, it appears the range of content includes videos, audio, images, articles and LinkedIn profiles.
In this blog, we’re going to give you a quick refresher on the current state of spam laws, both national and internationally, and how to avoid a mistake that could come with a large fine attached to it. Email compliance laws reach world-wide so let’s dig into the different restrictions abroad. The main difference between these laws is that CAN-SPAM is an opt-out law whereas CASL is an opt-in law. Though CASL has only begun to bare its teeth (the “transitional period” ends July 1, 2017), it is just the beginning of stronger anti-spam legislation.
The double opt-in method produced a 72.2% increase in unique opens and had a 114% increase in clicks compared to the click through rate of single opt-in lists. That’s why it’s critical to be clear about who you are and what the email you are sending is about.
Individuals must provide either expressed or implied consent for the use of their information (and a pre-filled checkbox does not constitute valid consent).
Instead of custom coding each email template and maintaining them separately, keep a library of tested code blocks that can be used to assemble any design your company or department might need. The TR stacking method may be preferable, because it makes full-width colored backgrounds easier. By constructing them in the same manner, the partials are interchangeable and can be used to construct emails in any order. You can get a good idea of what needs you'll have by taking a look at the mailings you've sent out in the last 6 months.
Soon you should have a robust set of modular content blocks that can quickly be assembled to create whatever layout is desired. You may also want to save your "frame" as a snippet so that you can "start from scratch" and then quickly drop in your frame. That is why your HTML code can appear broken in some email clients (like Outlook) even though the very same code is pixel perfection in another inbox. We’ll unify the visual elements of your development process by hosting all your images in your own, personalized library in the Editor.
Each of my online profiles on different sites is literally a different “profile”, and I only choose to link some of them together. Authorship is immaterial (jk, partly), and when is anything ever authored by a single person, anyway?
If your visitor has a hankering for Italian food, then your restaurant menu, location, hours and some photos (of both food and the restaurant) will probably suffice.
If we provide content that let's visitors make an informed decision, then we've done our job. Social media, like advertising, direct mail and telemarketing is but one of many tools in the marketer's toolbox. Instead I posted a brief rant to friends on why following everyone mentioning the word "dog" was not a viable marketing tactic. It's rugged and easy to use and may appeal to hunters and other owners of medium to large dogs, especially working breeds. If our Fluffy Anti Flea shampoo buyers have been good collar purchasers in the past, while our dog brush buyers have not, then we should promote our collar to the shampoo buyers. The more we learn about dog-collar buying patterns the more likely we are to narrow our audience down to the group most likely to be interested in our product—while ensuring that there are enough potential buyers in that group for us to make a profit.
Accordingly we might want to initiate a direct mail campaign that we send to the list, advertise on the right shows on the Discovery Channel and make an arrangement with L.L.
There we can participate in conversations and even talk about our dog collars, so long as remember that social media is about people and not just about our products. We can post Tweets about our own dog, dog-training tips, and observations about life in general that have nothing to do with dogs. If you put as much effort into tailoring your communication methods to your market as you put into developing a product or service that suits their needs you'll have a far better chance of establishing connections than you would with a more generic approach. While I have written more on social media this year (who hasn't?) I quickly noted that my topics overall continued to range across a wide array of Web related subjects.
While video and audio continue to build in popularity, the core of our content is still composed of words. If I went to Pownce with an idea I had about a Web project I wasn't getting feedback from just anybody.
As we shared media and stories, personal experiences and jokes we got to know each other on many levels, much as one does in the brick and mortar world.
It worked well because we (I credit our early adopters for spreading the word) were focused on a very specific niche (Pownce users), who were well-versed in social media tools, and we had a deadline that affected everyone involved. In the meantime various members of the community and others are also working to build services with features more akin to the original Pownce.
As we struggled in the days of the browser wars, today we struggle with the myriad ways popular e-mail programs support HTML. This would also be readable in a text-only mail program with no colors or styles available. I can access my work e-mail in Outlook 2003, MacMail, Gmail and Case's Webmail, so I send myself messages then check them in each program. The important thing is to make sure that it renders cleanly in each and degrades nicely if images or styles are not available. Check with your organization to see if they already have an arrangement with a preferred vendor.
The top 100 list includes sites ranging from Yahoo and Google to Apple and Hewlett Packard. Some designers do this only for external sites while others reserve the technique for opening up .pdf files.
I could offer you videos of the cutest dancing penguins or a fool-proof Web marketing technique and you would leave. Whether you want to take a class or network with others in the field, here are some things that may be of interest.
The 1993 decision to allow commercial uses of the Internet, and suitability of Web technology for e-commerce, resulted in explosive economically-fueled growth. However they arise, Web standards are critical for the existence of the Web, and they can have enormous economic and societal impact.
Attributes can be used for more layout control in the HTML tags, but most layout issues are deferred until the CSS lecture. The biggest limitation of CSS is that it cannot change the structure of the displayed document. In addition, browsers can support additional functionality such as off-line operation, or in general more application-oriented features such as AIR or Silverlight. This tutorial is based on the work of Sam Johnston, you should check out his original article.
I’ll also note that for this carousel, the content blocks have a fixed height, and each block must have content of the same height to make it fit in the space provided. Without this code, it’s difficult to hide inputs from Outlook and they will be rendered as (useless) radio buttons. The rest of the styles in this section provide standardizing functions for various email clients, but don’t relate to the carousel specifically. The various prefixed transition styles control how quickly the buttons color in on hover and after changing slides. Not to mention that sending to thousands of people that did not opt-in will inevitably hurt your sender score, which will negatively impact your deliverability.
It’s the best way to keep and engage the individuals you have worked so hard to get to join your list in the first place. This could easily be done through a re-engagement campaign where they click a button saying they want to continue hearing from you. I'll be going over how to build the "frame" you'll drop your partials into, how to select the partials you'll need, and how to maintain the library of partials as you test and iterate.
You can always code new partials and add them to your library as the needs of your company or department change. Type the shortcut for the partials you'll need to create the main content sections of the email, and then all you'll need to do is customize the text and images. Like any tool it needs to be used in the proper context—in conjunction with other marketing strategies. If we offer interesting insights and links that might intrigue members of our audience and respond to questions within our areas of expertise we'll forge far stronger connections than we would if we treated our Twitter stream as an advertising platform. Next I looked at my stats to see which articles were getting the most traffic and comments. One fellow declared that he preferred IM and shared 5 different ways to connect with him that way. Anyone who has had to create an HTML e-mail message, or has received one they couldn't read, knows what I mean. I incorporated the letter spacing and the 2009 span changes mostly to see if they would be carried through in the e-mail programs I tested. I haven't upgraded to Outlook 2007 (as I'd no longer be able to test 2003) so to test that I send messages to my colleague Kim—who patiently lets me look over her shoulder or makes screen captures for me to evaluate. If you can do that, you will ensure that your message doesn't get missed because of poor formatting. But it did make me wonder if anyone had studied the role URL length plays in direct mail response rates.
How long would it have to be for you to change your mind and not order the product or service that you've already decided you want? Their strong brands would play a greater role in the popularity of their sites than the length of their URLs.
While I'd still prefer that links open in the same window, giving me the choice of whether or not to open them in a new tab, I understand that many may disagree.
I think a Web site is sufficiently sticky if the goals of the site owner and its visitors are achieved. In the process of its remarkable growth, however, some of the properties of the early web were de-emphasized (e.g. Right now, it looks like the videos are limited to YouTube, Vimeo and a handful of other providers. Mail's play button on top of the existing play button may make the image look a bit strange - it would be nice to display an alternative image instead.
It’s also important to have a clean list because internet service providers (ISPs) are becoming more reliant on engagement metrics to detect spam, and as we discussed earlier, clean lists have much higher engagement than old or purchased lists. As such social media—when used for marketing—still relies on basic marketing principles such as understanding your target audience, the features and benefits of your product or service, brand awareness and so forth. As our focus, today, is on social media let's assume we already have these (and other) strategies in place. In another year we could be spending our lunch hours exploring some yet unknown site with yet another funny name.
So today I'll present five tips that should help to make your e-mails readable by the masses. If a user wants to open a link in a new window he can do so by right-clicking (Windows) or ctrl-clicking (Mac) the link in question. If the visitor has a positive experience, follows your call-to-action and comes back to visit in the future, then the site is sufficiently sticky. Mail inbox, the card would actually allow the recipient to play the video inside the email itself.
Engagement metrics are defined by how your subscribers interact with your email, like opens and clicks. Test different urls with the same message, try different messages with similar urls of the same length and so forth.
I often open links in a new tab if I know that I'll want to flip back and forth between them.
But, whatever your preference may be, I hope this discussion will help the next time you're debating where a particular link should open. It can be reproduced exactly and fully, in Peru, China, Iceland, Central Africa, or wherever else seems to afford an insurance against danger and interruption.
Mail subscribers, this simple technique might pay off for you as long as you host your videos at the above mentioned services.
I'm not sure what data-url does, but data-embed-url is essentially the URL of the embeddable YouTube player that is displayed in an iframe when you click on the play button. If the speakers are well-resepected experts, the event fits your schedule, is reasonably priced and includes lunch, chances are you'll go. It is a matter of such manifest importance and desirability for science, for the practical needs of mankind, for general education and the like, that it is difficult not to believe that in quite the near future, this Permanent World Encyclopaedia, so compact in its material form and so gigantic in its scope and possible influence, will not come into existence.

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