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Summary: Making timber shelves including Shelving an alcove, floating shelves, shelves without brackets and fixing shelves. We therefore decided to use Redwood for the shelves so they could be stained later to match the floor and doors. The 6 x 1 timber we used is easily strong enough to support the weight of books etc over the span we were working with, but the slats we used underneath would have sagged if we had not fixed them up to a centre strut. The finished product, which will be stained by the client to match the floor and skirting which is just visible in the picture.
Why not check out our video sections on shelving, how to correctly use a power drill and how to use a table saw to watch a variety of films on how to hang shelves and the tools you can use for this task. Traditionally roofs were constructed on site using sawn timber, typically with all joints simply nailed together.
There are a wide variety of truss designs available to cope with a range of roof design requirements. Unless attic trusses are specified at the outset, they create a loft space that is difficult to use for storage, and requires a lot of extra work to convert to a living space.
A more modern enhancement to this technique is to include metal straps that help tie the wall plate to the walls.
Finally purlins are usually installed before any significant loading is applied to the rafters. A hip jack rafter, has a birdsmouth joint at the bottom, but is cut at a compound mitre at the top so at to intersect with a hip rafter. Valley jack rafters meet the ridge in the normal way, with a simple mitre, but have a compound mitre on the base and no birdsmouth joint.
Cripple jack rafters, have compound mitres at both ends, intersect with both a hip and a valley rafter, and do not make contact with either wall plate or ridge beam. The latter stages of construction (felt, battening, tiling) remain the same regardless of the framing method used. The sarking is usually left a little long at the facia end, so that it can overhang the facia, and deposit any water on it directly into the gutter. Once all the tiles are in place, the ridge tiles can be bedded onto a mortar mix, and the gaps between them pointed.
The vast majority of domestic flat roofs consist of timber rafters and a timber 'roof deck'.
These are most most commonly in the form of 225mm x 75mm (9' x 3') floor joists sat on a timber wall plate, which is 'bedded' on mortar mix on to the innner leaf of the building's perimeter wall. Above the rafters and firrings, a 'roof deck' is typically constructed in a suitable timber sheet product such as 18mm plywood or sterling board.
These days a construction method referred to as "Warm Deck" is often used, where insulation is placed directly beneath the decking material on top of the joists and firrings. Bituminous roof coverings pre-date the romans and take many forms, examples include; torch applied felts, hot pour and roll felts, self adhesive felts, asphalt.
Polymeric Membranes are widely used in commercial applications today thanks to their swift clean reliable installation process and long lifespans. It will give you the idea of building storage space onto your home and can even be adapted to make a corner cupboard. With the number of different door designs available from kitchen and DIY stores these days we suggest it may be a good idea for you to find the doors (if you intend to have them) first.
A variety of joints can be seen in our timber joints projects and some special joints are shown here.
Floor tiling, carpets, any number of things around the home require a degree of setting out. It is important to start any appropriate projects with straight and square lines and it is very easy to accomplish.
The frame can be fixed to the wall using a 7mm masonry bit with red wall plugs and (for 50mm timber) 3 inch, number 8 screws.
We always prefer to use screws to fix the cladding to the frame even if we are using plasterboard.
I’ve done some finish carpentry in the past, but I’m really more of a framer because I like to just throw things together quickly and make them as strong as possible. I recently built some new garage shelves in the home we have been living in for a couple years now. Obviously you don’t have to make all the shelves be the same height, but make sure to have at least one of two rows of shelving tall enough for all of your tallest items.
Given the length of the walls I was building my shelves on, I bought my wood in the 8 foot lengths.
The wall I built these shelves on was about 14 feet long, so I needed two 8 foot sheets of plywood for each row. Once you know the length of the wall, it’s fairly straightforward as far as counting up how many 2x3s and sheets of plywood you need. As you can see in the picture below, I also used the perpendicular wall for increased support. After screwing and nailing the boards up on to the wall, you can put up the end boards (2x4s).
For those with some kind of baseboard in your garage, you will need to take a chisel and notch out a spot for the vertical 2×4 boards that will go on the ends, against the wall. Repeat this process with the next row up, but before you nail the vertical 2×4 to the second row, make sure to level it vertically with your long level.
It’s a little difficult to see in these pictures, but I have also tacked in some support boards between the horizontal beams, coming out perpendicular to the main wall. As you can see in the picture below, your garage shelves should be strong enough to double as a jungle gym for your kids!
One of my goals with this design was that it would be simple enough for almost anyone to build (including myself). Great job, having sold steel shelving for the last 25 years, your system makes great use of the available space, you don’t have to try and fit standard steel shelf bays into the gap. I would suggest trying concrete screws since you really only need the horizontal strength from the wall. What was the spacing you used on the support boards between the horizontal beams, coming out perpendicular to the main wall and did you toe nail at the wall side? I actually only used one perpendicular (from the wall) support piece for the entire length of the shelf because when you nail down the plywood shelving you gain plenty of perpendicular strength and the shelves are not deep enough to warrant perpendicular support beams.
The only reason I put one in the middle was to help connect the spot where I had to splice the length of the shelf, and to hold it in place during the framing stage. I’m planning to do my own shelves and found these to be pretty similar to what I had in mind.
With a 4 foot span I’m not sure the 2x3s would be sufficient, especially if you plan on storing a lot of heavy items on them. If you want to keep the paneling to match the rest of the garage you should be fine to leave it up. I love the design however I want to center my shelves on a wall and not have them attached to another perpendicular wall on the end like yours are. You really made a good job Michael having shelves like this in our garage can make all stuff in one place, my dad tried the steel before but measuring the gap really took a long time.
I had build a wall of shelves 8 years ago and have to disassemble them do to water leakage into my basement. I keep thinking about the square dimensions of the posts used in decking but believe I may be underestimating how strong wood can be.
In your case I would probably add some vertical beams to your interior wall in addition to the ones on the outside of the shelves.
As far as your concrete block wall is concerned, I would just use a concrete drill bit to pre-drill some holes and use concrete screws to attach the boards. Thanks for sharing your success story – I’m glad to hear it worked out for you!
Jewelry Making Journalfree jewelry tutorials, plus a friendly community sharing creative ideas for making and selling jewelry. I enjoyed making my Happy Mannequin Necklace Display so much, I thought I might turn an unwanted timber frame into a combination bracelet and earring display. You see, I am a hand-made soap maker and I had this frame made from recycled fencing timber, which I used to put my Soap Signs in.
I wrap some wire around the clasp and poke it through to the other side and give it a twist. Also very cool that you “recycled” an object from another of your craft interests for this project! This also might help to deter theives, although it’s more involved if someone wants to try something on.


Get every strategy and secret I've learned from years of selling my handmade jewelry at shows.
Copyright © 2003-2016, Rena Klingenberg (or guest author named in article byline), and may not be reproduced without author's permission. In this project we will show you how to build a set of fitted shelves in an alcove without using any brackets to give the effect that they are floating shelves. The skirting we used when we did the floor was 6 x 1 inch Redwood so we used the same for the top of the shelves and to hide the support battens we clad the underside with tongue and grooved matchboard.
The 2 x 1 battens are fixed to the wall at heights dictated by the clients books, stereo etc.
This strut was simply cut to length and then glued (as all of the connections and joints were) and nailed (we use a nail gun but you may prefer to screw or use 1½ inch oval or lost head nails. The weather was a bit dodgy so we used a cheap gazebo tent on the patio to protect the power tools and to keep all the sawdust outside. We work with Checkatrade to ensure that we recommend only reliable and trustworthy tradesmen. These are built off-site in a controlled environment and delivered ready to be positioned on the roof. Most truss manufacturers will have extensive catalogues with styles available like: this, or this.
This is simply a timber beam that is fixed to the top of all the walls (typically by nailing through it directly into the brickwork below).
Typically these nail over the wall plate and are then fixed to the inner surface of the wall. These are skew nailed into the wall plates at each end, and may also be nailed together where there meet on the central spine wall. This will need to be accurately measured and marked out with the correct angles at both ends and the position of the birdsmouth joint before cutting. Until now all rafters shown have been "common" rafters that run from the wall plate to the ridge board. This is either a tiler's felt (like normal roofing felt, but with a hessian re-enforcement), or a breathable membrane like Tyvek sheeting.
Typically spaced evenly at 100mm intervals, these not only provide a fixing and hanging location for the tiles, they also greatly strengthen the roof and consolidate its structure. That way the facia can hold up the bottom row of tiles at the same angle as subsequent rows (that partially rest on the rows below).
The first row may need to be shortened a little to prevent them protruding beyond the facia board too far - ideally they want to drain into the middle of the gutter. Although widely regarded as unreliable, problematic, and prone to leaking, correct design can increase the longevity of a flat roof substantially. In reality, flat roofs should not be completely flat, a slight gradient or fall should be built in to a flat roof to ensure drainage and prevent the ponding of water which is not only unsightly, but can lead to more serious issues. Due to its lower cost, in the past chipboard was widely used in many flat roofs, this lead to a number of problems and is not acceptable today. This project shows you how to plan, prepare and make your fitted, timber cupboards, including using the appropriate joints.
It can be expanded on by using different designs, the struts can be moved to accommodate shelves or simply left open plan. The timber sizes can be changed and more struts can be put in to ensure greater strength if you feel you need it. Most of these can be found at the bottom of this page, the rest can be found by clicking on the toolstore link at the bottom of the page.
The frame can easily be built around the door size and you will have guaranteed matching your existing decor.
If this is your first project, or you have not done much carpentry, buy an additional length of timber and practice your joints before embarking on a project which will become a feature in your home. Remember a quarter of an inch out at one end of a 12 foot room, means about 2 inches out at the other end. The method is called 3,4,5 and for the technically minded is based on Pythagoras's theorem which we won't go into now! Once cut, fix the two uprights absolutely vertically on the walls using the struts as spacers to get them in the right position.
Make sure the screw heads are counter sunk into the timber or they will push the cladding out.
You will not be able to see them when you are attaching the cladding, making fixing to them a bit of a lottery. Sink screw heads into the cladding and fill over them to get a flush face on which to decorate.
With garage shelves, in my opinion, they don’t need to look fancy, but they do need to be sturdy – I’ve seen far too many saggy garage shelves that look like they’re going to come tumbling down at any moment.
Divide this distance by the height of the tallest item you will be keeping on your shelves. I made our bottom two shelves taller to hold the larger, heavier items (like food storage), and made the upper shelves a little bit shorter to hold the smaller, lighter items. If your bottom shelf will have a 21 inch space under it, measure up 24 ? inches and use your level to draw a horizontal line all the way across the wall. I used a combination of 2x4s (for the vertical support posts), and 2x3s (for the main horizontal framework, including the boards tacked to the wall).
For a 14 foot wall, I used 5 2×4 vertical posts, two on the end and three in the middle, each spaced about 3 ? feet apart. This is the fun part and if you’ve already measured and marked everything, the building portion should go fairly quickly (with this design). Place them over the horizontal lines you drew and put a nail in at each vertical line (where the studs are). Measure and cut these boards (and all the other vertical support 2x4s) to be ? inch taller than the highest board against the wall. Start at the bottom and place something under one end, while you nail the other end to the perpendicular board that is against the wall.
After you have leveled the 2×4 and nailed it to the second row, the remaining rows will go quickly. They should fit right into your frame and once nailed down will offer additional strength coming out of the wall, as well as side to side. With the budget you have, you can actually do a lot of things with it but make sure to canvass for cheap but quality materials. My main goal was to build shelves that wouldn’t sag and would hold up well in the long run. Is there any way you could make the shelves within your system adjustable to give you even better use of space ? I would think that you could use this same design, just duplicate the back and front sides with the vertical beams, and then make sure to include some kind of diagonal support beams that go from the top left to bottom right, and top right to bottom left corners to maintain the horizontal strength. These should work since you don’t need the vertical strength from the wall, just horizontal. It’s hard to resist a good opportunity to build something yourself and save some money!
You will have to pre-drill the holes with a hammer drill and a concrete drill bit, but concrete screws should work, in my opinion. If you decided to use thinner plywood than I did then you might need to add in more support beams.
Just be sure you are screwing and or nailing into a stud behind the wall and not just into the panelling.
Since those were secured to each horizontal shelf they really don’t move down on the floor. I just finished building these shelves in the center of a wall in my garage, there is no wall to attach to at either end.
For the spacing of the vertical beams, I would try not to go beyond 4ft, unless you plan on using thicker horizontal beams. You could then cut all of the horizontal beams, that are to attach to the interior wall, to fit in between the vertical beams. For the width (or depth) of the shelves, I just measured the the widest item I knew I would be storing on the shelves and then made them an inch or two wider than that. With your fun, happy mannequins and this wonderfully rugged display, your booth will be unique and eye-catching. The support battens were 2 x 1 inch treated softwood and were fixed using red wall plugs and 3 inch number 8 screws. Take the batten down and drill a 5mm hole in the centre of the batten to push a screw threw.


See our nails information DIY project) The strut just supports the small weight of the T & G matchboard. In addition to making a working platform for the remainder of the roof assembly, they also help resist the forces applied by the rafters when loaded that would otherwise attempt to spread the supporting walls. With a symmetrical roof the forces applied to either side of it from the rafters and the weight of the tiles etc should balance, hence there is no need for this to be a particularly substantial timber. The purlins themselves are often fixed to gable end walls when available - often resting on a small projection of corbelled brickwork.
With hipped roof designs there are also "Hip" and "Valley" rafters that form the external and internal "corners" of the roof, plus a number of "Jack" rafters. Flat roof rafters will typically be a maximum of 225mm x 75mm (9' x 3'), and in some cases may be as small as 75mm x 50mm.
The effects of sagging can create a vicious circle whereby water cannot escape the roof and ponding occurs, this increase in weight in turn causes greater sag, which aggravates the problem further.
Also if the timber is not square at the end, a measurement to the other end will vary, depending on which side you measure from.
An 8 foot length of sawn timber to practice on will cost pennies compared to the waste of materials if you mess up with the real thing. Suffice to say that if you measure along one wall 3 feet (or metres or any other unit), and along the other wall 4 of the same unit, the diagonal line in between the points should measure 5 units. Use a tenon saw to cut the skirting back if you prefer that to cutting the frame around the skirting. The side rails which support the cladding should be fixed at no less than 600mm centres for 12.5mm cladding and if your cladding is thinner than that, they should be spaced at 450mm centres.
In fact, I’ve actually had a pet killed by some pre-built garage shelves that collapsed.
I wanted to share my experience to give other DIY-ers an idea of a simple shelving design that is built to last. I would also recommend storing all of your DIY chemicals like herbicides, pesticides, or cleaners on the top shelf, so your children cannot reach them (easily…). Take your stud finder across the wall horizontally (twice), once up higher, and once down lower and mark each stud. The next horizontal line should be 24 ? inches above that line (assuming all of your shelves will be the same height). I also used ? inch thick plywood for the shelving surface, with the smoother side of the plywood facing up. You can do whatever you want here, but make sure you don’t go too far between the posts so you have enough strength.
This is so that when you lay the plywood down on the top shelf it will fit into the frame for additional support. Replace whatever you were using to support the other end with the first vertical support 2×4. I would still check each row with the level as some boards can be warped and will need to be bent into place. I guess I should have mentioned that $60 of that $200 was buying a new box of screws and a nails for my nail gun, which I obviously didn’t use all of them. I also wanted to use wood because it’s cheaper and I already had all the tools to do it easily.
Instead of buying a shelving system, I thought it might be more price-efficient to try and reuse the planks we have. You might want to go with an entirely new design for your situation, however, since this design gains most of its strength from being attached to the wall. Some concrete screws come with a concrete drill bit that is the right diameter for the screws you are buying.
As far as vertical strength is concerned, I personally think the 2x4s are good enough for your situation.
Do you think I should remove the paneling from the wall that I’m building shelves on? I will say that you should make sure they are all the way down on the floor before tacking them into place up above, to ensure that they are supporting the vertical weight of the shelf.
At the same time, it might work just fine since each of the vertical beams would be attached to more than two horizontal shelves, hindering that side-to-side movement.
These shelves have a face on them as you can see from below so make sure you leave the side battens back far enough to accommodate this if you have the same plane. This helps ensure that all the rafters are the same, and so long as the final brickwork level of the house is plumb, the roof should be also.
In the absence of gable ends (or when additional support is required) struts may be used to prop the purlin and transfer some of the load either to the spine wall of the building or possibly to the loft floor. Jack rafters are ones that have one end (or both) that does not meet a wall plate or ridge beam. Timber straps are usually added to span a number of trusses (often diagonally behind the roof face) to add to the rigidity prior to the tile battens going on.
Each strip (typically a rolls width at 1.2m) should overlap the previous one by a few inches to ensure that any water that runs down the sarking will not penetrate the roof space. Tiles are placed side by side, but (with plain flat tiles) small gaps can be left to maintain the aesthetic spacing of the tiles. Rafter spacings or 'centres' can also vary, from the traditional 400mm (16') up to 600mm (24').
Since warm moist air is able to meet cold timber, care must be taken to ventilate the roof void to minimise condensation and the possibility of rot.
If it does your walls are square, if it doesn't, you need to mark some points that are square to start your work. This would equal roughly 4.4, which means that you have enough room for 4 rows of shelving with 21 inches of usable height.
Then take a 4 ft (or longer) level and trace a straight vertical line between the upper and lower marks. Nail it into place with only one nail so you can still pivot the board side to side and level it. I personally go for wood than any other material for shelves because 1) it is easy to work with 2) it is exudes a classic warm appeal. I wanted the spacing to be large enough so I could get large tubs in and out, but still have enough support. Having it attached to the wall should also help to prevent it from collapsing to the side, but again, I’m really not sure. I do wish I had a few more inches when storing some of my larger coolers, but I am still able to get them in. Once I knew that depth I wanted, I pre-cut all my plywood to that width so those pieces would just lay right into the frame. Typically an end pair of rafters can be fixed in place at the base first, and then one end of the ridge inserted between them and tacked in place.
Sarking is traditionally fixed either with large head clout nails, or more commonly, ordinary wire nails hammered partially in, and then bent over. However the actual level of fixing will depend on the location and the likelihood of extreme weather. Tapered timber firrings should be fixed on top of the rafters in order to create sufficient gradient or 'fall' so that water drains freely from the roof. My shelves were about 21 inches deep so I was able to get two, 8 foot long pieces out of each sheet.
If you plan on spacing your vertical beams at 4ft, or longer, I would at least upgrade your horizontal beams to 2x4s instead of 2x3s. This vertical line will be your guide to help you see where to screw the boards to the wall. I found this depth to be good for most tubs and other large items you would store, and plenty of room for storing several smaller items. You can now use the masonry bit to drill right through the timber and the wall (don't forget to alter your depth marker as shown in the aforementioned project).
Push the wall plug into the timber, turn the screw in a couple of turns and tap it through with a hammer. You will feel the plug slip through the timber into the wall and when you do it is time to screw the screw in. To be fair it does eventually blunt the masonry bit slightly but it takes about 650 holes through timber to do this and the time saved, together with the accuracy involved, makes it worth it.



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