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This Project Audit checklist will be helpful to those who would like to learn the purpose of this process and how the life cycle is organized. Preparation for the air vacation is actually the beginning of the trip, because when you start planning, it gives you a thrill of anticipation. Methodology: it is a process of analyzing project matters and elements to disclose reasons and underlying problems causing uncomfortable symptoms in project management.
Reasons for the procedure: Change of the Project Manager (when previous one was replaced due to some reasons), Post-implementation review, Project is Trouble (Delivery issues, Complaints of the Customer, etc).
Starting the process with a formal notification (sending a formal announcement on the audit to the project team). Provide a detailed checklist to use to compare your current systems to the requirements of ISO 9001:2008.
As we continue into the future, if we hope to move in the direction of sustainability, the question of energy efficiency in buildings old and new becomes increasingly relevant and key to success.
It seems that energy conservation and energy savings are the best alternatives to meet expanding energy demands.
According to the EPA BASE study (1994-1998), an overwhelming 96 percent of all buildings in the U.S. In order to address the problem of energy conservation, International Energy Agency (IEA) developed Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS) program. The practice of retrofitting buildings with simple, environmentally friendly technology—better wall insulation, more-efficient boilers, and low emission windows—has been around for years, but there is little research on how much energy these changes actually can save.
Currently, there is a need for skilled laborers who are capable of understanding and managing the complete energy assessment process. The best way to enhance student learning is to get students involved in a learning environment where they can learn the theoretical basics of energy auditing and practical applications of a building’s retrofits.  In order to achieve this goal, universities must team up with professional employers to provide off-campus learning opportunities.
The proposed course is aligned with the Sustainable Construction curriculum at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Durham School of Architectural Engineering and Construction.  This course provides an opportunity for students to gain knowledge on key topics related to the energy assessment of buildings. The course plan follows the procedure for energy assessment developed by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).
According to ASHRAE energy auditing process can be divided into four steps: benchmarking, walkthrough, general audit and grade audit (ASHRAE 1997). During benchmarking, building’s utility bills are analyzed compared with the similar buildings.
In order to conduct and understand the complete energy auditing procedure, students must receive training and education in interdisciplinary knowledge in thermodynamics, building system operation, construction engineering, and cost analysis. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Durham School of Architectural Engineering and Construction, does not have a class that covers energy auditing and building retrofitting. Kiewit Building Group served as the project consultant, providing overall project management and energy auditing training for the students. After the practical on-site training period, students were sent to collect building survey data for each of the City of Omaha’s ninety-seven facilities. Additionally, general audit was conducted on three city buildings (library, fire station and public recreation facility).
In the move toward sustainability, the need for more energy efficient buildings is an increasingly important topic in the building industry.
The Journal of Sustainability Education (JSE) serves as a forum for academics and practitioners to share, critique, and promote research, practices, and initiatives that foster the integration of economic, ecological, and social-cultural dimensions of sustainability within formal and non-formal educational contexts. The Heart of Sustainability: Big Ideas from the field of Environmental Education and their Relationship to Sustainability Education or What’s love got to do with it? Journal of Sustainability Education is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The size of enterprise impacts the cost of IT as percentage of revenue is greatest in small enterprise (less than $100 million in revenue) and lest in large enterprises, those with reveenuses over $1 billion. Understand and explain what infrastructure is, enabling you, your constituents, and the executive team to manage the organization's technology environment more effectively. Analyze the current state of your infrastructure so you know where it works well and where to focus improvement efforts.
Justify infrastructure spending, using the template's comprehensive definitions and ready to use examples to link IT infrastructure and your company's bottom line. Implementing a cost effective IT Infrastructure that aligns with your organization's business strategy is essential to ensuring the success of the Information Technology function. You can use this Project Plan template pack (37 page MS Word & 10 MS Excel) to develop your Work Breakdown Structure, Action Item Log, Deliverables List, Gantt Chart, Issue Log, Project Costs, Project Plan (Excel), Project Requirements Checklist, Risk Log, and Roles and Responsibilities matrix. Use this Project Plan template to guide both project execution and project control, document planning assumptions and decisions, facilitate communication among project stakeholders, and document approved scope, cost, and schedule baselines. Try CentriQS complete task management solution for planning, tracking and reporting tasks, projects, and schedules. Project audit can considered as a super-sized project status capture with a purpose of detecting and rectifying issues, while they still can be fixed smoothly and economically. Combined annual energy cost for these buildings is over $200 billion (Energy Information Administration 2006).
Department of Energy report, it is estimated that up to 50 percent of the energy in buildings is lost due to inadequate insulation (U.S. In order to conserve energy, we have to determine where and how the energy is consumed in our system.
This program describes energy auditing methodology and lays down a set of rules for energy auditing. The problem of implementing retrofitting technologies on existing buildings is associated with high professional labor cost and limited data on savings that building retrofits brings.
The objective of this paper is to propose a curriculum for an integrated course in an energy auditing process that would include both academic and practical training. The biggest advantage of this approach is that students will have the opportunity to test their theoretical knowledge gained in the classroom, as well as in the real working environment.  It is well known that practical experience enhances the understanding of academic concepts.
The topics covered include: energy consumption, building system analysis, grade auditing, thermal assessment, data collection, and building retrofit benefit-cost analysis. The walkthrough audit is based on visual verifications and notifications of the building’s installed equipment and operating data. A grade audit involves planning and construction of improvements that fall within the framework of retrofitting a building.
The proposed class outline will allow students to gain multidisciplinary knowledge needed to efficiently conduct energy auditing and retrofitting process.


However, faculty recognize the need for this deficient profile and have taken action toward this end.
Training included theoretical basis of energy auditing (4 weeks), practical on-site visits and data collections (2 weeks), operating energy auditing tools (1 week), and operating energy auditing software Energy Star Portfolio Manager (1 week).
Students were advised that the auditing process was to begin by interviewing building manager for each facility. The Energy Star Portfolio is an online software that allows you to track and assess energy and water consumption across a number of buildings. Matija Radovic is a Master’s student within the Construction Engineering program of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), Durham School of Architectural Engineering and Construction. No major or minor non-conformances foundOpportunity for Improvement (OFI): A situation or condition of a management system that may be weak, cumbersome, redundant, overly complex, or in some other manner, may, in the opinion of the auditor, offer an opportunity for an organization to improve its current status.
For many IT professionals, the amount of time it takes to develop and implement such a infrastructure, and the unknown process required to complete it, makes infrastructure design and implementation a daunting task.A  The IT Infrastructure, Strategy, and Charter Template draws on the experiences of some of the best IT and business operations executives in the industry to provide you with the right shortcuts.
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Terri Norton and Matija Ratovic to learn about efforts I the Midwest to prepare university students to take on this task. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act mandates significant funding be appropriated for renovations to federal buildings. According to Annex 11 of ECBCS, there are several steps that the energy auditing process should follow (IEA-ECBCS 1987).
The general audit or real audit is more detailed analysis of the building energy needs and consumption. During this step, a cost–benefit analysis is conducted in order to determine the best engineering practice for a given project.  Detailed technical and business plans are developed to justify the cost of retrofitting.
In 2010, the City of Omaha received a multimillion-dollar grant from the Department of Energy for energy efficiency improvements on the city buildings.  An objective of the project was to establish baseline energy consumption for city buildings and to study the long-term efficiency of the energy retrofits.
Over the course of the project, the City of Omaha decided to make small retrofitting projects on each building and to track how retrofitting changes effected the energy consumption for each. The theoretical basis of energy auditing was covered with four 2-hour seminar sessions provided by Kiewit Building Group.
Students were given a list of 50 interview questions to assess the energy use of each building.  Additionally, the interview questions covered the maintenance history and any past or present issues for each facility. The City of Omaha’s facilities were divided respectively to six primary types of building spaces—administrative offices, community centers, fire and police stations, libraries, pavilions and caretaker residences, and maintenance and service facilities. General audit of these buildings were to be used as template for remaining 94 facilities.  General audit was very time consuming and labor intensive. It is a very useful energy management tool that compares your building’s energy consumption against theoretical model buildings, which is statistically derived from a national survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration. His research focus is in the area of structural materials, more specifically the performance assessment of structural walls composed of sustainable materials. The auditors are expected to be competent and able to conduct the audit in an impartial and objective manner. OFIs do not require any action on the part of the organization; however, the organization should give them serious consideration in view of the auditor’s knowledge and exposure to similar systems. However, new threats and technologies are constantly and rapidly changing the network landscape.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), staggering 30 percent of the energy used in operating commercial and industrial facilities is used inefficiently or unnecessarily (U.S. If all insulation products are properly installed in buildings it will save consumers about 12 quadrillion BTUs annually or “about 42% of the energy that would have been consumed with no insulation in place” (Green and Competitive Report: Energy Conservation Management 1996). Energy audit is a set of rules that breaks down the energy consumption in an existing building into components. Knowing that energy saving practice did not exist in near past in the construction industry, it is safe to assume that almost 65 percent of U.S. It is approximated that the $400 billion will be spent on major green renovations in the commercial building sector. In theory, energy assessments are required to identify the most efficient and cost-effective energy conservation methods. In this step detailed energy distribution is determined—amount of electricity used for lighting systems, for heating and cooling, and for running various electrical equipment. The City of Omaha collaborated with University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), College of Engineering and Kiewit Building Group, in order to complete the project. These changes included modifications in electricity and gas and water consumption before and after the completion of the retrofitting process.
Information covered in seminar sessions included the HVAC system in the residential and commercial buildings and fundamentals of energy auditing, thermodynamics and building assessment.
Students were given the opportunity to practice with mock interviews with real building managers. It took four students and commissioning architectural engineer about 4 hours to collect data on one facility. Students were supplied with gas, electricity, and water consumption data for all of the City of Omaha’s 97 buildings for up to 15 years.
Moreover, the project provided a vehicle for implementing energy efficiency into the college curriculum.  The knowledge gained from the case study serves as a foundation for the proposed course presented in this article.
He served as one of the primary graduate student energy auditors on the EECBG project with the City of Omaha.
Provide references to documentation where necessary Has the organization established, documented, implemented and maintained 1 4.1 and continually improved an EMS in accordance with the requirements?
Provide references to documentation where necessary Has the organization identified priorities and set appropriate environmental 7 4.1d objectives and targets? Provide references to documentation where necessary 11 4.2 Has top management defined the organizations environmental policy? Provide references to documentation where necessary 17 4.2f Is the policy communicated to employees and contractors? A disaster recovery plan describes how an organization is to deal with potential disasters. System administrators must scan the network continually for known security weaknesses, keep their skills current and, most important, reexamine corporate security policies periodically.
The amount that would be saved by properly insulating commercial buildings is more than 50 percent of the expected U.S.
When we know how and where energy is used, we are able to determine a proper energy saving method for a particular building.


Additionally, it is forecasted that efficiency retrofits will more than triple in annual revenue to $6.6 billion by 2013. They correctly recognized the need for method that will improve energy conservation at new buildings. In this step, quantitative evaluation of energy consumption and energy distribution is determined. The UNL College of Engineering was included into the project to engage and train UNL engineering students in the process of energy auditing. Data obtained would allow the City of Omaha to determine the best energy saving techniques for future improvements. The University of Nebraska College of Engineering provided an additional one-hour seminar for training students on the subject of residential energy auditing.  Site-specific theoretical basis of energy auditing and building inspections was covered with four 1-hour sessions provided by the commissioning architectural engineer from Kiewit Building Group. Data from the Energy Star Portfolio was used to generate energy usage index (EUI) for each building. The course will include classroom training and on-site training and physical assessment.  A pilot for this course will be implemented into the Fall 2011 schedule of classes, as a special topics course.
Each auditor should complete the section of the checklist they have been assigned by the Environmental Management Representative or Lead Auditor [delete as appropriate]. It may be either: A failure in some part of the suppliers management system relative to a specified requirement.
Has the organization established a structure and program(s) to implement the 8 4.1e policy and achieve objectives and meet targets? Is the policy appropriate to the nature, scale and environmental impacts of its 12 4.2a activities, products or services?
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The IT Security Manual Template provides all the essential sections of a complete security manual and walks you through the creation of each step.. Over $20 billion can be saved annually if energy conservation measures are employed on commercial buildings and industrial facilities. However, engineering programs across the country are lagging in developing and offering courses that will address the need for building retrofitting.
Course projects will be incorporated to demonstrate practical application of course knowledge.  Table 1.
A general audit involves detailed surveying of all energy consumers in the building, on-site measurements, and implementation of computer-based models. It was an excellent opportunity for students to learn about energy auditing and for faculty to pilot proposed class curriculum. During the theoretical basis of the training, students were introduced to project plans and schedules.
The building’s EUI represents energy consumption normalization factors that allow us to compare energy consumption across the buildings. Has the organization facilitated planning, control, monitoring preventive and corrective actions, auditing and review activities to ensure both that the policy 9 4.1f is complied with and that the environmental management system remains appropriate? Is the environmental policy defined and approved by the organizations top 19 SQ1 management? Since commercial buildings are the biggest consumers of energy, utility companies have reason to initiate (subsidize) conservation efforts.
After covering theoretical basis of the energy auditing process, two weeks of practical on-site visits were conducted in order to strengthen knowledge of energy auditing process.
They were also informed that the use of improper interviewing techniques could hinder the success of an audit. A number of minor non-conformities against one requirement can represent a total breakdown of the system and thus be considered a major non- conformity. Does it include a commitment to comply with relevant environmental 14 4.2c legislation and regulations, and with other requirements to which the organization subscribes? Is the environmental policy sufficiently clear to be capable of being understood 20 SQ2 by internal and external interested parties?
As the demand for electricity continues to increase, utility companies will experience great challenges as they try to meet the increasing demand. On the other hand, commercial buildings could also benefit from energy conservation by cutting operational costs. After surveying their course offering for the academic year 2010-2011, we did not find a program that offers an integrated class in energy auditing and building retrofitting. The total of four on-site visits were made to actual city facilities—the Main Administrative Office Building, Waste Processing Plant, Library, and Fire Station.
Has the organization identified the environmental aspects arising from its past, 5 4.1b existing or planned activities, products and services, in order to determine the environmental impacts of significance? Does it provide a framework for setting and reviewing environmental 15 4.2d objectives and targets? Has the environmental policy been periodically reviewed and revised to reflect 21 SQ3 changing conditions and information? Has the organization ensured that the significant environmental aspects have 27 4.3.1 been taken into account in establishing, implementing and maintaining its environmental management system?
Conditions that may result in the failure of or materially reduce the usability of the products or services for their intended purpose. Has the organization considered environmental aspects such as emissions into 28 SQ1 the air? Building a new fossil fuel power plant is a long process that is heavily opposed by environmental groups. Building a hydro power plant is also a challenge due to plant’s high negative environmental impact. Relying on clean energy sources (solar, wind or geothermal) would not completely solve the energy problem. If utility companies are not able to increase energy production, it may be time to look at the other side of the equation and try to trim energy consumption.



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