Timber joist joints,wooden name crafts ideas,wood shelf building materials,how to make a simple computer table price - .

Note: The browser you are using (Internet Explorer 7) is 10 years old and is not fully supported by this website. Angles Metal Systems, Technical Data Sheets 101, 102, 107, 108, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, and 120; 1984, Los Angeles, CA. Dietrich Industries, Inc., a portion of a brochure published concerning J-Track, published at least as early as Dec.
We stock a wide range of galvanised timber to timber joist hangers to accommodate almost every joist.
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Traditionally roofs were constructed on site using sawn timber, typically with all joints simply nailed together. There are a wide variety of truss designs available to cope with a range of roof design requirements. Unless attic trusses are specified at the outset, they create a loft space that is difficult to use for storage, and requires a lot of extra work to convert to a living space.
A more modern enhancement to this technique is to include metal straps that help tie the wall plate to the walls. Finally purlins are usually installed before any significant loading is applied to the rafters. A hip jack rafter, has a birdsmouth joint at the bottom, but is cut at a compound mitre at the top so at to intersect with a hip rafter.
Valley jack rafters meet the ridge in the normal way, with a simple mitre, but have a compound mitre on the base and no birdsmouth joint. Cripple jack rafters, have compound mitres at both ends, intersect with both a hip and a valley rafter, and do not make contact with either wall plate or ridge beam.
The latter stages of construction (felt, battening, tiling) remain the same regardless of the framing method used.
The sarking is usually left a little long at the facia end, so that it can overhang the facia, and deposit any water on it directly into the gutter.
Once all the tiles are in place, the ridge tiles can be bedded onto a mortar mix, and the gaps between them pointed.
The vast majority of domestic flat roofs consist of timber rafters and a timber 'roof deck'. These are most most commonly in the form of 225mm x 75mm (9' x 3') floor joists sat on a timber wall plate, which is 'bedded' on mortar mix on to the innner leaf of the building's perimeter wall. Above the rafters and firrings, a 'roof deck' is typically constructed in a suitable timber sheet product such as 18mm plywood or sterling board. These days a construction method referred to as "Warm Deck" is often used, where insulation is placed directly beneath the decking material on top of the joists and firrings. Bituminous roof coverings pre-date the romans and take many forms, examples include; torch applied felts, hot pour and roll felts, self adhesive felts, asphalt. Polymeric Membranes are widely used in commercial applications today thanks to their swift clean reliable installation process and long lifespans. Load span tables can be used to provide designs, however this is a method which can result in excessive floor joist specification or may not catter for all loads applied. In one embodiment, the apparatus may include a joist rim having a web and first and second rim legs extending substantially perpendicularly from the web.
Field of the InventionThe subject invention relates to building components and, more particularly, to floor joists and floor systems fabricated from metal.2.
It is two hundred and fifty (250) stronger than glass, fifty (50) times stronger than acrylics.
These are built off-site in a controlled environment and delivered ready to be positioned on the roof. Most truss manufacturers will have extensive catalogues with styles available like: this, or this. This is simply a timber beam that is fixed to the top of all the walls (typically by nailing through it directly into the brickwork below).
Typically these nail over the wall plate and are then fixed to the inner surface of the wall. These are skew nailed into the wall plates at each end, and may also be nailed together where there meet on the central spine wall. This will need to be accurately measured and marked out with the correct angles at both ends and the position of the birdsmouth joint before cutting.
Until now all rafters shown have been "common" rafters that run from the wall plate to the ridge board.
This is either a tiler's felt (like normal roofing felt, but with a hessian re-enforcement), or a breathable membrane like Tyvek sheeting. Typically spaced evenly at 100mm intervals, these not only provide a fixing and hanging location for the tiles, they also greatly strengthen the roof and consolidate its structure. That way the facia can hold up the bottom row of tiles at the same angle as subsequent rows (that partially rest on the rows below). The first row may need to be shortened a little to prevent them protruding beyond the facia board too far - ideally they want to drain into the middle of the gutter. Although widely regarded as unreliable, problematic, and prone to leaking, correct design can increase the longevity of a flat roof substantially. In reality, flat roofs should not be completely flat, a slight gradient or fall should be built in to a flat roof to ensure drainage and prevent the ponding of water which is not only unsightly, but can lead to more serious issues. Due to its lower cost, in the past chipboard was widely used in many flat roofs, this lead to a number of problems and is not acceptable today.
Here at AMSD we aim to provide the most cost effective solution by producing a tailored design for your project.
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The apparatus may also include a plurality of joist attachment tabs integrally formed in the web.
Description of the Invention BackgroundTraditionally, the material of choice for new residential and commercial building framing construction has been wood. In addition to making a working platform for the remainder of the roof assembly, they also help resist the forces applied by the rafters when loaded that would otherwise attempt to spread the supporting walls.
With a symmetrical roof the forces applied to either side of it from the rafters and the weight of the tiles etc should balance, hence there is no need for this to be a particularly substantial timber.
The purlins themselves are often fixed to gable end walls when available - often resting on a small projection of corbelled brickwork. With hipped roof designs there are also "Hip" and "Valley" rafters that form the external and internal "corners" of the roof, plus a number of "Jack" rafters. Flat roof rafters will typically be a maximum of 225mm x 75mm (9' x 3'), and in some cases may be as small as 75mm x 50mm.
The effects of sagging can create a vicious circle whereby water cannot escape the roof and ponding occurs, this increase in weight in turn causes greater sag, which aggravates the problem further.
Each of the joist attachment tabs may extend from the web at an angle relative to the web and form a corresponding opening in the web. However, over the years, the rising costs of lumber and labor required to install wood framing components have placed the dream of owning a newly constructed home out of the economic reach of many families.
This helps ensure that all the rafters are the same, and so long as the final brickwork level of the house is plumb, the roof should be also. In the absence of gable ends (or when additional support is required) struts may be used to prop the purlin and transfer some of the load either to the spine wall of the building or possibly to the loft floor. Jack rafters are ones that have one end (or both) that does not meet a wall plate or ridge beam. Timber straps are usually added to span a number of trusses (often diagonally behind the roof face) to add to the rigidity prior to the tile battens going on. Each strip (typically a rolls width at 1.2m) should overlap the previous one by a few inches to ensure that any water that runs down the sarking will not penetrate the roof space. Tiles are placed side by side, but (with plain flat tiles) small gaps can be left to maintain the aesthetic spacing of the tiles. Rafter spacings or 'centres' can also vary, from the traditional 400mm (16') up to 600mm (24').
Since warm moist air is able to meet cold timber, care must be taken to ventilate the roof void to minimise condensation and the possibility of rot. The apparatus may include at least two reinforcing ribs between at least two adjacent openings.
Likewise such increasing costs have contributed to the slowing of the development and advancement of urban renewal plans in many cities. Typically an end pair of rafters can be fixed in place at the base first, and then one end of the ridge inserted between them and tacked in place.


Sarking is traditionally fixed either with large head clout nails, or more commonly, ordinary wire nails hammered partially in, and then bent over. However the actual level of fixing will depend on the location and the likelihood of extreme weather. Tapered timber firrings should be fixed on top of the rafters in order to create sufficient gradient or 'fall' so that water drains freely from the roof.
In another embodiment the apparatus may include joist locator tabs not attached to the joists.
Additional problems specifically associated with wooden floor joists include cost, availability and quality. These problems are particularly acute with respect to larger joists which must be harvested from large old growth forests which are becoming depleted.In recent years, in an effort to address such problems, various alternative building materials and construction methods have been developed.
While such system purports to reduce assembly costs and the need for welding or separate fasteners, several different parts are, nonetheless, required to complete the wall frame system which can be time consuming and expensive to inventory and assemble. Such components must also be manufactured to relatively close tolerances to ensure that they will fit together properly thereby leading to increased manufacturing costs. Other wood beam members, commonly referred to as joists, are used to span from wall to wall between the headers and are usually connected to the headers by nails. The joists are typically arranged parallel to each other with 8?, 16? or 24? between their respective centers, depending upon the load characteristics that the floor must accommodate.
A sheathing material such as plywood is then nailed to the upper edges of the joists to form the floor surface.
To prevent the joists from inadvertently twisting or moving laterally, small pieces of wood, known as blocking pieces, are commonly nailed between adjacent joists to form, in many instances, X-shaped braces between the joists. Insulation is sometimes installed between the joists and sheathing, drywall, plasterboard, etc. For example, when connecting the joists to their respective headers, the carpenter must first measure and mark the headers to establish the desired joist spacing.
This additional step increases the amount of construction time required to install the floor system and, thus, results in increased construction costs.
If the carpenter has access to the opposite side of the header from which the joist is to be installed, the nails are hammered through the header into the end of the respective joist. If, however, the carpenter cannot access the opposite side of the header, nails must be inserted at an angle (commonly referred to as “toenailing”, through the joist and into the header.
Care must be taken to avoid inadvertently splitting the joist and to ensure that the nails extend through the joist and into the header a sufficient distance. Such attachment process can be time consuming and may require the use of skilled labor which can also lead to increased construction costs. If toenailing is not structurally acceptable, another piece, called a joist hanger must be added which also increases labor and material costs.It is also often desirable to install ductwork, piping, electrical wires, etc. Another shortcoming associated with such floor joist systems is the difficulty of installing insulation between the joists due to the blocking members.As noted above, there are many shortcomings associated with the use of wood floor joists and headers.
In an effort to address some of the above-noted disadvantages, metal beams have been developed.
4,866,899 to Houser discloses a metal stud that is used to support wallboard panels for forming a fire-rated wall and is not well-suited for supporting structural loads. 5,527,625 to Bodnar discloses a roll formed metal member with reinforcement indentations which purport to provide thermal advantages. The studs and metal members disclosed in those patents, however, fail to address many of the above-noted shortcomings and can be time consuming to install.
While such arrangement may reduce assembly costs at the construction site, such brackets must be welded or separately affixed to the C-shaped channel which is time consuming and leads to increased manufacturing and fabrication costs.
Furthermore, significant skill is typically required to properly layout and align the brackets.Currently, metal floor joist material is generally cost-competitive with wood material.
The member may include a C-shaped rim member that is fabricated from metal and has a web and two leg portions. In addition, a plurality of joist attachment tabs are integrally formed in the web wherein the joist attachment tabs are provided at predetermined distances on the web relative to each other.
At least one reinforcing rib corresponding to each tab is provided in the web adjacent the corresponding tab. The hole provided in the web when the tab is formed provides a convenient opening for passing pipes, wires, etc. The apparatus may comprise a metal blocking member that has a body portion that is sized to extend between the two joists.
The body portion may also have two opposing end tabs that are integral with the body portion and are substantially coplanar therewith. Each central web portion has at least one opening therethrough that has a circumference and a reinforcing lip that extends around the circumference.
The subject invention may also include at least one metal joist rim that is substantially C-shaped and has a rim web and an upper and lower rim leg protruding therefrom. The rim web is sized such that the end of a corresponding metal joist can be abutted substantially perpendicularly to the rim web of the corresponding joist rim and be received between the upper and lower rim legs thereof. The rim web of each joist rim further has at least one attachment tab integrally formed therein corresponding to each end of each corresponding joist. The attachment tab is substantially parallel to the corresponding joist end for attachment thereto.
The subject invention may further include at least one blocking member that has a body portion sized to extend between two joists. The blocking member has a body portion and two opposing end tabs integral with the body portion wherein each end tab corresponds to one of the joists for attachment thereto.The subject invention may also comprise a method for constructing a floor between two spaced-apart support structures.
The method may include supporting a joist rim on each support structure wherein the joist rim has a plurality of attachment tabs integrally formed therein. The joist rims are supported on said spaced-apart support structures such that the attachment tabs of one joist rim are substantially aligned with corresponding attachment tabs on the other joist rim. The method may also include attaching a joist corresponding to each pair of aligned attachment tabs such that the joists extend between the joist rims and are attached thereto. Each joist has a top surface such that when the joists extend between the joist rims and are attached to the aligned attachment tabs, the top surfaces of the joists are substantially coplanar with each other.
4a is an outside isometric view of another embodiment of the joist rim of the present invention;FIG.
6 is a partial cross-sectional view of a floor system of the present invention wherein a duct has been inserted through openings in the joists;FIG. 7 is another partial cross-sectional view of a floor system of the present invention wherein insulation material is supported between the joists;FIG.
8 is another partial perspective view of the floor system of the present invention illustrating a portion of an upper wall structure attached thereto;FIG.
9 is a partial perspective view of a floor system of the present invention attached to a wall structure having a door or window opening therein;FIG.
10 is a partial perspective view of the floor system of the present invention supported between two dissimilar wall structures;FIG. 11 is a partial perspective view showing a floor support system of the present invention attached to a concrete block support wall;FIG.
12 is a perspective view of another embodiment of a blocking member of the present invention; andFIG. 12 attached to two joists.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTSReferring now to the drawings for the purposes of illustrating the present preferred embodiments of the invention only and not for the purposes of limiting the same, the Figures show a floor system 10 of the present invention that may be used advantageously in residential and commercial applications, alike.
1, a floor system 10 of the present invention may include at least two headers or joist rims 20 that are supported on corresponding wall structures 12. 1, the wall structure 12 may comprise a C-shaped metal top track member 14 and a plurality of metal wall studs 16 that are attached to the top track member 14 by conventional fastener screws and techniques. Those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that the floor system 10 of the present invention may be successfully employed with a variety of different wall or other supporting structures that may be fabricated from wood, concrete block, etc.The floor system 10 may also comprise a plurality of joists 40 that are adapted to span between wall structures 12 and have their respective ends attached to the joist rims 20. The reader will appreciate that the joists 40 may span from one wall structure 12 to another wall or support structure (not shown) and are attached to corresponding joist rims 20 in a manner described in further detail below.FIGS. The joist rim 20 may be fabricated from, for example, cold rolled galvanized steel or other suitable metal, the gauge of which may be dependent upon the amount and types of loads that the floor system 10 must support. For example, for a floor system that is designed to support loads of forty pounds per square foot, the joist rim 20 may be fabricated from 16 gauge cold rolled steel. 1-3, a joist rim 20 may be substantially C-shaped when viewed from the end and have a central web portion 22 and an upper rim leg 24 and a lower rim leg 26. The skilled artisan will appreciate, however, that the overall size of the joist rim 20 will be somewhat dependent upon particular design characteristics, such as floor loading, joist spacing, deflection criteria, etc. The reader will also appreciate that the joist rim 20 may be initially formed utilizing conventional roll forming techniques. 2 and 3, a joist rim is provided with a plurality of integrally formed attachment tabs 30 for affixing the ends 41 of the joists 40 thereto.
The attachment tabs 30 may be provided in the joist rim 20 at any desired interval (distance “B” in FIG.
However, those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that it may be advantageous to provide the attachment tabs 30 at intervals of 8?, 16?, or 24?.
It will be further appreciated that, depending upon the particular wall structure construction, wall studs 16 are often spaced at such intervals. Thus, by integrally forming the attachment tabs 30 at those intervals, the joists 40 can be arranged to overlay corresponding studs 16 in the wall structure 12 for load distribution purposes.


In the alternative, due to the load distribution capabilities of the joist rim of the present invention, the studs forming the wall structures could be dissimilarly spaced relative to the joists. That is, the unique and novel characteristics of the present rim joist can eliminate the need for vertically aligning wall studs over corresponding joists.
In a preferred embodiment, the tabs 30 are bent at 90° relative to the web 22 (angle “C” in FIG. However, the tabs 30 could be oriented at other suitable angles depending upon the application. The tabs 30 may be punched into the web 22 utilizing conventional metal punching techniques and equipment.
Also, to facilitate quick attachment of the joists 40 to the tabs 30, a series of fastener holes 34 may be punched through the web to accommodate conventional sheet metal fasteners such as, for example, self-drilling screws. For example, in applications wherein distance A is approximately 10?, the length of a tab 30 may be 6? (distance “D”, and the width of a tab 30 may be 1? (distance “E”). The skilled artisan will appreciate that the integrally formed tabs 30 may be provided in a variety of different sizes and shapes without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. It will be further appreciated that when the integral tabs 30 are formed and bent to a desired angle relative to the web portion 22, an opening 36 corresponding to each tab 30 is formed through the web 22 of the joist rim 20 which may also be used to permit the passage of wires, pipes, etc. To facilitate such attachment, a plurality of holes 25 are pre-punched through the upper leg 24 for receiving fastener screws therethrough. 2, the centerlines of the holes 25 may be equally spaced on each side of the tab centerline “T” approximately 1? (distance “U”). Similarly, to facilitate attachment of the rim joist 20 to the structure 14 below, a series of pre-punched holes 27 may be provided in the lower leg 26. For example, holes 27 may be spaced approximately 4? from the centerline “T” of the attachment tab 30 (distance “V”) as shown in FIG. Those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that when the joists are attached to the leg 24, there is generally no need to attach the ends of the joists 40 to the tabs 30 in many loading applications. Conversely, in many cases, if the ends of the joists 40 are attached to the tabs 30, there is no need to attach the joists to the leg 24 of the joist rim 20. Such arrangement also eliminates the need for joist hangers.Also, reinforcing ribs 38 may be provided on each side of each opening 36 to provide reinforcement to the web 22 and to permit the attachment tab 30 to function as a structural connection between the joist rim 20 and the corresponding joist 40. We believe that for many applications, such reinforced integral tabs provide sufficient strength to negate the need to fasten the bottom leg of the joist to the bottom leg of the joist rim which can be difficult to make in the field.
The ribs 38 may comprise indentations that are embossed into the outer surface 23 of the web 22. Ribs 38 may be ?? wide and ?? deep and be spaced, for example, approximately 1? from the edges of each corresponding opening 36 (distance “F”). The size, shape and location of ribs 38 may be advantageously altered depending upon the loads applied to the joist rim 20 and the size of the joist rim 20. Those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that such ribs 38 and tabs 30 may also eliminate the need to employ joist web stiffeners, which could lead to lower joist fabrication costs. It will be further appreciated that the rim joist of the present invention has sufficient load distribution characteristics to generally eliminate the need for extra parts commonly associated with prior joist header arrangements. For example, the unique capabilities of the present rim joist 20 eliminates the need to use double 2??4? plates to distribute the load from the joists to the wall studs—a common practice employed in the past.Another embodiment of the rim joist of the present invention is illustrated in FIG.
In this embodiment, the rim joist 20? is essentially identical in construction to the rim joist 20 described above, except for the configuration of the ribs 38?. Furthermore, the diagonal ribs 38? may be crossed as shown to provide additional strength and stiffness to the web portion 22?. By pre-punching the holes 34 at desired locations, the installer is assured that the fasteners used to fasten the tab 30 to a joist 40 are placed in the proper location to ensure adequate structural integrity of that connection. By way of example, an attachment tab 30 that is 6? long and 1? wide may have three attachment holes 34 therein with their centerlines being approximately 1.5? apart. As can be seen in those Figures, a joist 40 is C-shaped and has a web portion 42 and an upper leg 44 and a lower leg 46. Joists 40 may be fabricated from cold rolled galvanized steel or other suitable metal utilizing conventional roll forming techniques and be sized to accommodate various loading characteristics.
For example, a joist 40 sized for use in connection with the joist rim example discussed above may have a height of approximately 10? (distance “G”) and the upper and lower legs (44, 46) may each be approximately 1.75? long (distance “H”). The skilled artisan will appreciate that the sizes of the web 42 and the upper and lower legs (44, 46) can vary depending upon the application and may or may not be symmetrical. In addition the ends of the upper and lower legs (44, 46) are bent inwardly to provide the joist 40 with reinforcing lips (45, 47).
For example, reinforcing lip 45 may be approximately ?? long (distance “I”) and be bent at an angle of approximately 90° relative to the upper leg 44.
Similarly, reinforcing lip 47 may be approximately ?? long (distance “J”) or some other length and may or may not be symmetrical.Preferably, joists 40 are sized such that the ends 41 thereof may be abutted against the web portion 22 of a corresponding joist rim 20 such that the lower leg 46 of the joist 40 is received on the lower leg 26 of the joist rim 20 and the upper leg 44 of the joist 40 is under the upper leg 24 of the joist rim 20.
To attach the end 41 of the joist 40 to the joist rim 20, conventional fasteners, such as for example, self-drilling screws are inserted through the holes 34 in the corresponding tab 30 and into the web portion 42 of the joist 40. If desired, the lower leg 46 of the joist 40 may be fastened to the lower leg 26 of the joist rim 20 by conventional fasteners.
Similarly, the upper leg 44 of the joist 40 may be fastened to the upper leg 24 of the joist rim 20 by inserting conventional fastener screws through pre-punched holes 25 in the upper leg 24.To permit utility elements such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning ducts, wires, piping, etc. 1, openings 50 may be oval-shaped to accommodate a variety of differently shaped components. The size, location and number of such openings 50 may be dependent upon considerations such as loading characteristics, and the location and the size of the ducts, pipes, etc. To provide the web portion 42 of the joist 40 with additional strength and reinforcement around each opening 50, a rim 54 of material is formed around the circumference 52 of each opening 50. Rim 54 may be formed around the opening 50 by a two progression, one hit, wipe bend draw process. 6 depicts the floor system 10 described above wherein a section of duct work 60 extends through aligned openings 50 in the joists 40. We have found that the configuration and size of rim 54 permits relatively large openings to be provided through the joist web. For example, a joist manufactured from cold rolled galvanized steel and having a length of 16 feet and that is supported at its ends and placed under a load of forty pounds per square foot can be successfully provided with up to eight equally spaced openings 50 that are approximately 6.25? wide and 9? long. We have also found that the rim 54 prevents the creation of sharp edges that are inherent to punched holes. Thus, rim 54 provides a safer work environment as well as reduces the need for protective devices such as grommets to be installed within such openings to prevent inadvertent damage to the ducts, wires, pipes, etc. 7, the retainer holes 62 are adapted to receive the ends of U-shaped wire retainers 64 therethrough. Each end of the wire retainers 64 may be provided at an angle sufficient to retain it within the retainer hole 62 after it is inserted therein. Other retainer configurations could also be used without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.
However, in this embodiment, the retainer wires 64 are first installed and thereafter the insulation is placed over the retainers 64 from the upper side of the joists.
After the insulation 70 is installed over the retainers 64, the floor sheathing material 100 may be installed.
Such insulation installation method eliminates the need for installers to work from an often cramped crawl space to install the insulation.
Also, the unique U-shaped configuration of the retainers 64 enables insulation that is substantially as deep as the joists to be easily installed while standing on the upper legs of the joists.The present floor joist system 10 may also comprise unique and novel preformed blocking members 80 that are installed between joists 40 to provide lateral support thereto. A blocking member 80 may be preformed from cold rolled galvanized steel or other suitable metal in a C-shape utilizing conventional metal stamping methods.
A connection tab portion 86 that is substantially coplanar with the web 82 is formed at each end of the blocking member 80. At least one, and preferably two, fastener holes 88 are provided through each connection tab portion 86 web to enable conventional fasteners such as sheet metal screws 90 to be inserted therethrough into the lower legs 46 of corresponding joists 40. 1, the blocking members 80 may be slightly staggered relative to each other to enable the connection tab portions 86 of each blocking member 80 to be attached to the corresponding lower joist legs 46 without interfering with each other. Also, by utilizing preformed blocking members 80, the often time consuming task of cutting and notching the blocking members within the field may be avoided.
Furthermore, the skilled artisan will appreciate that cuts made in the field with hand tools are often ragged which can be hazardous to the installation personnel and which can result in premature failure of the part. Thus, by preforming the blocking members 80,installation time is reduced, the blocking members are safer to handle and are more structurally sound. In addition, by pre-punching fastener holes in the connection tab portions 86 of the blocking members 80, the installer is assured of proper placement of fasteners through the connection tab portion.To install the floor system illustrated in FIG.
1, the joist rims 20 are supported on the upper wall tracks 14 of the corresponding wall structures 12. Fasteners are inserted through the lower legs 26 of the of the joist rims 20 to attach the joist rims 20 into the upper wall tracks 14 as shown.



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