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Do you want to raise your own chickens in your backyard so that you will have the organic eggs every day? These cubby cups are perfect ways to store your office supplies or makeup accessories on your desk and in your bathroom.
A PVC strawberry tower is an innovative and fun way to grow lots of strawberries on limited yard spaces. Plastics (polymers, more precisely) possess the characteristic that they do no change directly from solid to liquid like many other materials. The concern with plasticizers is that they can evaporate or leach out of the PVC or other plastics. Fortunately, although engineering can lead to unexpected problems, it can also address those problems. This technique was used to provide a different method for plasticizing where the additive is covalently bonded to the PVC. Initially, the rate of evaporation of additives in plastics is much higher, so the scent is stronger. Use your PVC pipe cutter or, if in survival situation, your survival multi-tool saw bit to cut your main bow pipe to 62-inches in length. PVC tools like this cut like butter, and with no mess, so no evidence of your work is left behind. Start by taping together all of your rods so that you have two cores, each made from two rods taped side-by-side.
These standard rods are not long enough to go all the way down the bow by themselves, but that is okay, because we are going to layer them on top of each other. We line up our second rod pair so that it reaches to the other end of the bow, also accounting for the insert, and tape this whole system together. FRPs are commonly used in the aerospace, automotive, marine, construction industries and ballistic armor. A polymer+ is generally manufactured by Step-growth polymerization+ or addition polymerization+. He announced his invention at a meeting of the American Chemical Society+ on February 5, 1909. The development of fibre-reinforced plastic for commercial use was being extensively researched in the 1930s.
Mass production of glass strands was discovered in 1932 when Games Slayter+, a researcher at Owens-Illinois+ accidentally directed a jet of compressed air at a stream of molten glass and produced fibres.
Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented "fibreglas" (one "s") in 1936. A suitable resin for combining the "fibreglas" with a plastic to produce a composite material, was developed in 1936 by du Pont+. Ray Greene of Owens Corning+ is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used. The first fibre-reinforced plastic plane was either the Fairchild F-46+, first flown on 12 May 1937, or the Californian built Bennett Plastic Plane. Carbon fibre+ production began in the late 1950s and was used, though not widely, in British industry beginning in the early 1960s.
Global polymer production on the scale present today began in the mid 20th century, when low material and productions costs, new production technologies and new product categories combined to make polymer production economical. FRP involves two distinct processes, the first is the process whereby the fibrous material is manufactured and formed, the second is the process whereby fibrous materials are bonded with the matrix during moulding.
The moulding processes+ of FRP plastics begins by placing the fibre preform on or in the mold. Individual sheets of prepreg material are laid up and placed in a female-style mould along with a balloon-like bladder.
When the raw material (plastic block,rubber block, plastic sheet, or granules) contains reinforcing fibres, a compression molded part qualifies as a fibre-reinforced plastic. Wet layup forming combines fibre reinforcement and the matrix as they are placed on the forming tool. Continuous strands of fibreglass are pushed through a hand-held gun that both chops the strands and combines them with a catalysed resin such as polyester.
Machines+ pull fibre bundles through a wet bath of resin and wound over a rotating steel mandrel in specific orientations Parts are cured either room temperature or elevated temperatures. Fibre bundles and slit fabrics are pulled through a wet bath of resin and formed into the rough part shape. FRP allows the alignment of the glass fibres of thermoplastics to suit specific design programs. The matrix must also meet certain requirements in order to first be suitable for FRPs and ensure a successful reinforcement of itself.
Fibre fabrics are web-form fabric reinforcing material that has both warp and weft directions.
Carbon fibres are created when polyacrylonitrile fibres (PAN), Pitch resins, or Rayon are carbonized (through oxidation and thermal pyrolysis) at high temperatures. Fibre-reinforced plastics are best suited for any design program that demands weight savings, precision engineering, finite tolerances, and the simplification of parts in both production and operation.
Aluminium windows, doors and facades get thermally insulated by using thermal insulation plastics made of glass fibre reinforced polyamide. FRP can be applied to strengthen the beams+, column+s, and slabs+ of buildings and bridges.
Two techniques are typically adopted for the strengthening of beams, relating to the strength enhancement desired: flexural strength+ening or shear strength+ening. For the shear strengthening of a beam, the FRP is applied on the web (sides) of a member with fibres oriented transverse to the beam's longitudinal axis.
In June 2013, KONE elevator company announced Ultrarope for use as a replacement for steel cables in elevators. FRP is used in designs that require a measure of strength or modulus of elasticity that non-reinforced plastics and other material choices are either ill suited for mechanically or economically. As a subset of plastic FR plastics are liable to a number of the issues and concerns in plastic waste disposal and recycling. Fibre-reinforced plastic+ Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) (also fibre-reinforced polymer) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres.
Build a little covered parking out of PVC pipes to store and organize all your kids’ vehicles.
PVC pipe is one of those ordinary construction materials that is cheap to buy, readily available and easy to work with. It is light weight and easy to move and if the dog makes a mistake it can make the brunt of it easier on the dog versus wood elements.
It shows up in everything from electrical cords to plumbing; even as some very snazzy pants. If you have worked with PVC you may have noticed it is not typically not brittle even though it is often used well below that temperature. These chemicals, often phthalates, have been found to pose health hazards such as endocrine disruption. The replacement chemistry is very similar to phthalates in structure and achieves the same end, but with a more permanent connection to the PVC. It is the outgassing of the many additives used to improve the look, mechanical properties, and longevity of plastics. Ideally something cheap to bond with the kids over, or maybe to be ready when you need to survive a real world situation?
There are many supplies available to use that might be more readily available to you, including scraps of PVC. It will be a tight fit for the core, and tape may make it impossible for you to pack the core inside the bow if you put on too much. We know this because our pipe is 62-inches, and it has (or will  have) the smaller 2-inch inserts on either end. Once you get to the last inch of rod sticking out, use a pipe, stick (or in our case, a socket wrench extension) to push the rods the rest the way into the pipe. When combined with various agents to enhance or in any way alter the material properties of polymers the result is referred to as a plastic+.
Originally, fibreglas was a glass wool+ with fibres entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator, especially at high temperatures.
In 1939 Russia was reported to have constructed a passenger boat of plastic materials, and the United States a fuselage and wings of an aircraft. A fibreglass fuselage was used on a modified Vultee BT-13A+ designated the XBT-16 based at Wright Field+ in late 1942.
Aramid fibres were being produced around this time also, appearing first under the trade name Nomex+ by DuPont+. The industry finally matured in the late 1970s when world polymer production surpassed that of Steel+, making polymers the ubiquitous material that it is today.

This means that no fibres are aligned in the through thickness or the z-direction+, this lack of alignment in the through thickness can create a disadvantage in cost and processing.
The development of three-dimensional orientations arose from industry's need to reduce fabrication costs, to increase through-thickness mechanical properties, and to improve impact damage tolerance; all were problems associated with two dimensional fibre-reinforced polymers. Fibre preforms are often manufactured in sheets, continuous mats, or as continuous filaments for spray applications.
However, multilayer weaving is required to have multiple layers of warp yarns to create fibres in the z- direction creating a few disadvantages in manufacturing,namely the time to set up all the warp+ yarns on the loom+. Braiding is suited to the manufacture of narrow width flat or tubular fabric and is not as capable as weaving in the production of large volumes of wide fabrics. Developments in electronic controls for needle selection and knit loop transfer, and in the sophisticated mechanisms that allow specific areas of the fabric to be held and their movement controlled. Basically stitching consists of inserting a needle, carrying the stitch thread, through a stack of fabric layers to form a 3D structure. Parts can be laid up on a flat surface referred to as a "caul plate" or on a cylindrical structure referred to as a "mandrel". The fibre preform can be dry fibre, or fibre that already contains a measured amount of resin called "prepreg".
More typically the plastic preform used in compression molding does not contain reinforcing fibres.
Reinforcing Fibre layers are placed in an open mould and then saturated with a wet resin+ by pouring it over the fabric and working it into the fabric. The impregnated chopped glass is shot onto the mould surface in whatever thickness and design the human operator thinks is appropriate. Saturated material is extruded from a heated closed die curing while being continuously pulled through die. Specifying the orientation of reinforcing fibres can increase the strength and resistance to deformation of the polymer.
The matrix must be able to properly saturate, and bond with the fibres within a suitable curing period. These textile fibres are different from other forms of glass fibres used to deliberately trap air, for insulating applications (see glass wool+). These threads are then commonly used for woven reinforcing glass fabrics and mats, and in spray applications.
Through further processes of graphitizing or stretching the fibres strength or elasticity can be enhanced respectively. Aramids are generally prepared by the reaction between an amine group and a carboxylic acid halide group (aramid); commonly this occurs when an aromatic polyamide is spun from a liquid concentration of sulphuric acid into a crystallized fibre.
A moulded polymer artefact is cheaper, faster, and easier to manufacture than cast aluminium or steel artefact, and maintains similar and sometimes better tolerances and material strengths. It is possible to increase the strength of structural members even after they have been severely damaged due to loading+ conditions.
Resisting of shear forces is achieved in a similar manner as internal steel stirrups+, by bridging shear cracks that form under applied loading.
This will result in better flexural performance, since the tensile resistance of the slabs is supplemented by the tensile strength of FRP. This means that the primary design consideration for using FRP is to ensure that the material is used economically and in a manner that takes advantage of its structural enhancements specifically.
Plastics pose a particular challenge in recycling because they are derived from polymers and monomers that often cannot be separated and returned to their virgin states, for this reason not all plastics can be recycled for re-use, in fact some estimates claim only 20% to 30% of plastics can be recycled at all. Fiberglass+ Fiberglass (or fibreglass) is a type of fiber reinforced plastic where the reinforcement fiber is specifically glass fiber. But if you don’t want to spend the money or if you want to make a customized one, you can check out the DIY tutorial on how to make these cute organizing cups with PVC. You can create this PVC wine glass holder by cutting a channel in the pipe and hanging it upside down. The shape of this PVC pipe connector makes it the perfect spot to store your hair dryer and flat iron.
The strawberries are grown vertically, keeping them away from harmful insects on the ground, and collecting less dirt. The problem with PVC is that it requires potentially hazardous additives to be most useful. Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a good example of a plasticizer which has received a good share of negative publicity recently.
Innovative methods to mimic plasticizers with covalently bonded alternatives can lead to a cleaner, fresher smelling future. A PVC cutting tool like the one below works best, and leaves no traces of work behind like plastic shavings. These rods will eventually sit inside the bow pipe in-between the space left by the 2-inch inserts on either end.
Leo Baekeland+ had originally set out to find a replacement for shellac+ (made from the excretion of lac beetles). In 1943 further experiments were undertaken building structural aircraft parts from composite materials resulting in the first plane, a Vultee BT-15+, with a GFRP fuselage, designated the XBT-19, being flown in 1944. Today, each of these fibres is used widely in industry for any applications that require plastics with specific strength or elastic qualities. Fibre-reinforced plastics have been a significant aspect of this industry from the beginning.
Costs and labour increase because conventional processing techniques used to fabricate composites, such as wet hand lay-up, autoclave and resin transfer moulding, require a high amount of skilled labor to cut, stack and consolidate into a preformed component. The four major ways to manufacture the fibre preform is through the textile processing techniques of Weaving+, knitting+, braiding+ and stitching+. Therefore most multilayer weaving is currently used to produce relatively narrow width products, or high value products where the cost of the preform production is acceptable. Braiding is done over top of mandrels that vary in cross-sectional shape or dimension along their length.
This has allowed the fabric to form itself into the required three-dimensional preform shape with a minimum of material wastage. The advantages of stitching are that it is possible to stitch both dry and prepreg fabric, although the tackiness of the prepreg makes the process difficult and generally creates more damage within the prepreg material than in the dry fabric. However most fibre-reinforced plastic parts are created with a mold or "tool." Molds can be concave female molds, male molds, or the mold can completely enclose the part with a top and bottom mold. Dry fibres are "wetted" with resin either by hand or the resin is injected into a closed mold. Finally, the bladder is pressurized forcing the layers of material against the mould walls. A vacuum is pulled on part and the entire mould is placed into an autoclave (heated pressure vessel).
The mould is then left so that the resin will cure, usually at room temperature, though heat is sometimes used to ensure a proper cure. This process is good for large production runs at economical cost, but produces geometric shapes with less strength than other moulding processes and has poor dimensional tolerance.
Resin is typically pressurized and forced into a cavity which is under vacuum in resin transfer molding+. Glass reinforced polymers are strongest and most resistive to deforming forces when the polymers fibres are parallel to the force being exerted, and are weakest when the fibres are perpendicular.
The matrix should preferably bond chemically with the fibre reinforcement for maximum adhesion.
Mats are manufactured in cut dimensions with chopped fibres, or in continuous mats using continuous fibres. Carbon fibres are manufactured in diameters analogous to glass fibres with diameters ranging from 9 to 17 µm. Fibres are then spun into larger threads in order to weave into large ropes or woven fabrics (Aramid).
In the case of damaged reinforced concrete+ members, this would first require the repair of the member by removing loose debris and filling in cavities and cracks with mortar+ or epoxy resin+.
For the flexural strengthening of a beam, FRP sheets or plates are applied to the tension face of the member (the bottom face for a simply supported member with applied top loading or gravity loading). FRP can be applied in several configurations, depending on the exposed faces of the member and the degree of strengthening desired, this includes: side bonding, U-wraps (U-jackets), and closed wraps (complete wraps). In the case of beams and slabs, the effectiveness of FRP strengthening depends on the performance of the resin chosen for bonding. Unlike steel cable, Ultrarope was designed for buildings that require up to 1,000 meters of lift. This is however not always the case, the orientation of fibres also creates a material weakness perpendicular to the fibres.
Fibre-reinforced plastics and their matrices share these disposal and environmental concerns.

Plasticizers lower the glass transition temperature to keep the component flexible, even at low temperature. The polymer is usually an epoxy+, vinylester+ or polyester+ thermosetting plastic+, and phenol formaldehyde resin+s are still in use.
Chemists had begun to recognize that many natural resins and fibres were polymers, and Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. Glass fibres are the most common across all industries, although carbon-fibre and carbon-fibre-aramid composites are widely found in aerospace, automotive and sporting good applications.
Another one of the main problems facing the use of multilayer woven fabrics is the difficulty in producing a fabric that contains fibres oriented with angles other than 0" and 90" to each other respectively. Stitching also utilizes the standard two-dimensional fabrics that are commonly in use within the composite industry therefore there is a sense of familiarity concerning the material systems.
Resin is entirely pulled into cavity under vacuum in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. Thus this ability is at once both an advantage or a limitation depending on the context of use. The matrix must also completely envelop the fibres to protect them from cuts and notches that would reduce their strength, and to transfer forces to the fibres. These mixtures are then heated through direct melting to temperatures around 1300 degrees Celsius, after which dies are used to extrude filaments of glass fibre in diameter ranging from 9 to 17 µm.
Chopped fibre glass is used in processes where lengths of glass threads are cut between 3 and 26 mm, threads are then used in plastics most commonly intended for moulding processes.
These fibres wound into larger threads for transportation and further production processes.
Aramid fibres are manufactured with varying grades to based on varying qualities for strength and rigidity, so that the material can be somewhat tailored to specific design needs concerns, such as cutting the tough material during manufacture. Once the member is repaired, strengthening can be achieved through wet, hand lay-up of impregnating the fibre sheets+ with epoxy resin then applying them to the cleaned and prepared surfaces of the member. Principal tensile fibres are oriented in the beam longitudinal axis, similar to its internal flexural steel reinforcement.
Thus the use of fibre reinforcement and their orientation affects the strength, rigidity, and elasticity of a final form and hence the operation of the final product itself. In addition to these concerns, the fact that the fibres themselves are difficult to remove from the matrix and preserve for re-use means FRP's amplify these challenges.
He first produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde shellac called "Novolak" that never became a market success, then turned to developing a binder for asbestos+ which, at that time, was moulded with rubber. The Ford prototype+ of 1941 could have been the first plastic car, but there is some uncertainty around the materials used as it was destroyed shortly afterwards.
These three (glass+, carbon, and aramid+) continue to be the important categories of fibre used in FRP.
Unlike standard weaving, braiding can produce fabric that contains fibres at 45 degrees angles to one another. The use of standard fabric also allows a greater degree of flexibility in the fabric lay-up of the component than is possible with the other textile processes, which have restrictions on the fibre orientations that can be produced. Compression moulding offers excellent detailing for geometric shapes ranging from pattern and relief detailing to complex curves and creative forms, to precision engineering+ all within a maximum curing time of 20 minutes. This is a very common process in the aerospace industry because it affords precise control over moulding due to a long, slow cure cycle that is anywhere from one to several hours. Glass fibres are most commonly used for this process, the results are widely known as fibreglass+, and is used to make common products like skis, canoes, kayaks and surf boards. These materials can be used to create all sorts of fibreglass structures such as ladders, platforms, handrail systems tank, pipe and pump supports.
This moulding process allows precise tolerances and detailed shaping but can sometimes fail to fully saturate the fabric leading to weak spots in the final shape.
Weak spots of perpendicular fibres can be used for natural hinges and connections, but can also lead to material failure when production processes fail to properly orient the fibres parallel to expected forces. The fibres must also be kept separate from each other so that if failure occurs it is localized as much as possible, and if failure occurs the matrix must also debond from the fibre for similar reasons. These filaments are then wound into larger threads and spun onto bobbins for transportation and further processing.
This increases the beam strength and its stiffness+ (load+ required to cause unit deflection), however decreases the deflection capacity+ and ductility. It provides the least amount of shear strengthening due to failures caused by de-bonding+ from the concrete surface at the FRP free edges.
Columns are typically wrapped with FRP around their perimeter, as with closed or complete wrapping. The company estimated that in a 500-meter-high building, an elevator would use 15 per cent less electrical power than a steel-cabled version.
Orienting the direction of fibres either, unidirectional, 2-dimensionally, or 3-dimensionally during production affects the degree of strength, flexibility, and elasticity of the final product. FRP's are inherently difficult to separate into base materials, that is into fibre and matrix, and the matrix into separate usable plastics, polymers, and monomers. From a smart storage solution for your hair dryer, a modern wine rack, organizers, home decors to kids’ toys and garden planters, we hope that you will enjoy these creative ideas and be inspired to think about your next PVC projects. By controlling the pressure and temperature applied to phenol+ and formaldehyde+, he found in 1905 he could produce his dreamed-of hard mouldable material (the world's first synthetic plastic): bakelite.
Braiding three-dimensional fibres can be done using four step, two-step or Multilayer Interlock Braiding.Four step or row and column braiding utilizes a flat bed containing rows and columns of yarn carriers that form the shape of the desired preform. This precise control creates the exact laminate geometric forms needed to ensure strength and safety in the aerospace industry, but it is also slow and labour-intensive, meaning costs often confine it to the aerospace industry. When forces are exerted perpendicular to the orientation of fibres the strength and elasticity of the polymer is less than the matrix alone. Finally the matrix should be of a plastic that remains chemically and physically stable during and after the reinforcement and moulding processes. Glass fibre is by far the most popular means to reinforce plastic and thus enjoys a wealth of production processes, some of which are applicable to aramid and carbon fibres as well owing to their shared fibrous qualities. For U-wraps, the FRP is applied continuously in a 'U' shape around the sides and bottom (tension) face of the beam.
This not only results in higher shear resistance, but more crucial for column design+, it results in increased compressive strength under axial loading. Fibres oriented in the direction of forces display greater resistance to distortion from these forces and vice versa, thus areas of a product that must withstand forces will be reinforced with fibres in the same direction, and areas that require flexibility, such as natural hinges, will use fibres in a perpendicular direction to forces. Additional carriers are added to the outside of the array, the precise location and quantity of which depends upon the exact preform shape and structure required. In cast resin components made of glass reinforced polymers such as UP and EP, the orientation of fibres can be oriented in two-dimensional and three-dimensional weaves. If all faces of a beam are accessible, the use of closed wraps is desirable as they provide the most strength enhancement.
The FRP wrap works by restraining the lateral expansion of the column, which can enhance confinement in a similar manner as spiral reinforcement does for the column core. Using more dimensions avoids this either or scenario and creates objects that seek to avoid any specific weak points due to the unidirectional orientation of fibres.
Plastics do often offer savings in energy and economic savings in comparison to other materials. There are four separate sequences of row and column motion, which act to interlock the yarns and produce the braided preform. This means that when forces are possibly perpendicular to one orientation, they are parallel to another orientation; this eliminates the potential for weak spots in the polymer.
Closed wrapping involves applying FRP around the entire perimeter of the member, such that there are no free ends and the typical failure mode is rupture+ of the fibres. The properties of strength, flexibility and elasticity can also be magnified or diminished through the geometric shape and design of the final product. In addition, with the advent of new more environmentally friendly matrices such as bioplastics and UV+-degradable plastics, FRP will gain environmental sensitivity. The yarns are mechanically forced into the structure between each step to consolidate the structure in a similar process to the use of a reed in weaving. For all wrap configurations, the FRP can be applied along the length of the member as a continuous sheet or as discrete strips, having a predefined minimum width and spacing.
These include such design consideration such as ensuring proper wall thickness and creating multifunctional geometric shapes that can be moulding as single pieces, creating shapes that have more material and structural integrity by reducing joints, connections, and hardware.

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