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When wire is coiled, it takes on various characteristics that are different from straight wire. This characteristic is used for the ripple filter circuit of a power supply where it transforms alternating current(AC) to direct current(DC).
When a rectifier is used to make DC from AC, the output of the rectifier without a ripple filter circuit is ripple current. The input coil that gives the electric power is called the primary side, while the output coil that takes out the electric power is called the secondary side. The output voltage is determined by the ratio of turns of wire between the primary coil and secondary coil. Some transformers have a tap (or several) on the secondary coil to provide multiple voltage levels. When the current flows to the coil of relay, the magnetic field attracts a steel plate, and the switch that is attached to the steel plate goes ON. When a coil and a capacitor are combined, the resulting circuit has special characteristics. The component on the left is wound with thin copper wire to a small barbell-shaped ferrite core, and has a value of 100µH. The value of the small coil like this is indicated with a color code, just like a resistor. The second coil from the left has thin copper wire wound around a stick-shaped ferrite core.
They are used for intermediate frequency (455KHz) tuning of transistor radios, or for oscillator circuits. To shield the coils from magnetic flux, and to prevent the coils from interfering with other circuits, the high frequency coils are housed in a metal case called shield case. By moving the ferrite core in or out of the coil, the value of the coil's inductance can be changed. The value of inductance can also be changed by changing the number of turns of wire that comprise the coil, but in fact it is not possible in any practical way.
To adjust the inductance value of a hollow coil, the spacing between the loops of the coil is changed.
A typical power supply filter circuit can be best understood by dividing the circuit into two parts, the reservoir capacitor and the low pass filter. Once the input wave passes Vpk the rectifier anode falls below the capacitor voltage, the rectifier becomes reverse biased and conduction stops.


Of course, even though the reservoir capacitor has large value, it discharges as it supplies the load, and its voltage falls, but not by very much. The amount by which the reservoir capacitor discharges on each half cycle is determined by the current drawn by the load. To obtain the least AC ripple and the highest DC level it would seem sensible to use the largest reservoir capacitor possible. Therefore the shorter the charging time, the larger current the diode must supply to charge it. There is an advantage therefore in reducing the value of the reservoir capacitor, thereby allowing an increase in the ripple present, but this can be effectively removed by using a low pass filter and regulator stages between the reservoir capacitor and the load.
With full wave rectification the performance of the reservoir capacitor in removing AC ripple is significantly better than with half wave, for the same size of reservoir capacitor, the ripple is about half the amplitude of that in half wave supplies, because in full wave circuits, discharge periods are shorter with the reservoir capacitor being recharged at twice the frequency of the half wave design. Either LC or RC low pass filters can be used to remove the ripple remaining after the reservoir capacitor. The reactance(XC) of the capacitor in the either of the filters is very low compared with the resistance of resistor R or the reactance of the choke XL at the ripple frequency. The LC filter performs much better than the RC filter because it is possible to make the ratio between XC and XL much bigger than the ratio between XC and R. With a combined reservoir capacitor and low pass filter it is possible to remove 95% or more of the AC ripple and obtain an output voltage of about the peak voltage of the input wave. These problems can be largely overcome by including a regulator stage at the power supply output as described in Power Supplies Module 2. Capacitors have capacitance, resistors have resistance, and Inductors (coils) have inductance. When current decreases, the coil makes current continue to flow (briefly) at the previous rate.
The coil resists the change of current and capacitors supplement the flow of current by discharging into the circuit if the input voltage drops. The impedance (resistance to current flow) of the circuit changes with the frequency of the voltage.
It is possible to make it so that the magnetic flux which occurs within the coil doesn't leak out, the coil efficiency is good, and that the magnetic flux has little influence on other components. Each of these parts contributes to removing the remaining AC pulses, but in different ways.
The load circuit is now supplied by the reservoir capacitor alone (hence the need for a large capacitor). At some point during the next cycle of the mains input, the rectifier input voltage rises above the voltage on the partly discharged capacitor and the reservoir is re-charged to the peak value Vpk again.
The higher the load current, the more the discharge, but provided that the current drawn is not excessive, the amount of the AC present in the output is much reduced.
Adding the capacitor increases the DC level of the output wave to nearly the peak value of the input wave, as can be seen from Fig.
If the capacitor is very large, its voltage will hardly fall at all between charging pulses; this will produce a very small amount of ripple, but require very short pulses of much higher current to charge the reservoir capacitor.
In RC designs the resistance of R must be a fairly low value as the entire load current, maybe several amperes, must pass through it, generating a considerable amount of heat. Typically the ratio in a LC filter could be 1:4000 giving much better ripple rejection than the RC filter.


A simple power supply consisting of only transformer, rectifier, reservoir and low pass filter however, does have some drawbacks.
The most common versions comprise a transformer, bridge rectifier and sometimes a reservoir capacitor. PIERRE AND MIQUE SUDAN SURINAME SVALBARD AND JAN MAY SWAZILAND SWEDEN SWITZERLAND SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC TAIWAN, REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN TANZANIA, UNITED REP THAILAND TOGO TOKELAU TONGA TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO TUNISIA TURKEY TURKMENISTAN TURKS AND CAICOS ISL TUVALU UGANDA UKRAINE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES UNITED STATES MINOR URUGUAY UZBEKISTAN VANUATU VATICAN CITY STATE ( VENEZUELA VIET NAM VIRGIN ISLANDS (BRIT VIRGIN ISLANDS (U.S. When alternating current flows through a coil, the magnetic flux that occurs in the coil changes with the current. Current will flow easily at a given frequency, but has difficulty flowing at another frequency. The rectifier diode supplies current to charge a reservoir capacitor on each cycle of the input wave. Typically the peak-to-peak amplitude of the remaining AC (called ripple as the AC waves are now much reduced) would be no more than 10% of the DC output voltage. The capacitor supplies the load current for most of the time (when the diode is not conducting). Both the input transformer and the rectifier diodes must be capable of supplying this current. A typical value would therefore be 50 ohms or less, and even at this value, a large wire wound resistor would normally need to be used. Also, since the DC resistance of the inductor in the LC filter is much less than the resistance of R in the RC filter, the problem of heat being generated by the large DC current is very much reduced in LC filters.
If a coil is wound around an iron rod, or ferrite core (strengthened with iron powder), the inductance of the coil will be greatly increased.
The reservoir capacitor is a large electrolytic, usually of several hundred or even a thousand or more microfarads, especially in mains frequency PSUs.
At some point close to Vpk the anode voltage exceeds the cathode voltage, the rectifier conducts and a pulse of current flows, charging the reservoir capacitor to the value of Vpk.
This current partly discharges the capacitor, so all of the energy used by the load during most of the cycle must be made up in the very short remaining time during which the diode conducts in each cycle. This means using a higher current rating for the diodes and the transformer than would be necessary with a smaller reservoir capacitor.
This limits the efficiency of the filter as the ratio between the resistance of R and the capacitor reactance will not be greater than about 25:1.
Coils used in typical electric circuits varely widely in values, ranging from a few micro-henry (µH) to many henry (H).
However modern designs using switch mode supplies, where any AC ripple is at much higher frequencies, much smaller ferrite core inductors can be used.
This is called self induction, the degree of this self induction is called Self Inductance.
By including the low pass filter some voltage is lost across the resistor, but this disadvantage is offset by the better ripple performance than by using the reservoir capacitor alone. Self inductance is a measure of a coil's ability to establish an induced voltage as a result of a change in its current.



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