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Participants (at the Conference on Information Sharing in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies) noted that good preparation should include more than just knowing about the host country and its people.
How does the CA planning team participate in the campaign and operation plan review cycle and contingency planning cycle? Where does the CA planning team physically set up to integrate into the supported staff's operational configuration? What kind of equipment and resources does the CA planning team need to be fully functional with the supported staff? How soon can the CA planning team receive copies of supported command policies, training calendars, or SOPs? Team purpose (to analyze and monitor the civil considerations of the commander's battlespace, focusing on the CASCOPE that may affect or be affected by military operations).
Requirements (for example, access to secure and nonsecure digital networks, security support when traveling to coordination meetings in-theater, and logistics support). Benefits to the organization (for example, increased situational awareness and force protection, links to HNS to augment CSS requirements, links to NGOs and third-nation authorities to alleviate stress to rear-area units from the mounting needs of the local populace, and management of interagency operations through the CMOC). Experience level of the team members, to include mission-related military and civilian skills and backgrounds. Recommendations for team utilization to support the commander's current and future missions, if known. Technical skill is skill with things (equipment, weapons, and systems)-everything from the tactical radio in the team vehicle to the computer that keeps track of CA and CMO activities to the reachback system that provides timely and accurate information to the planning team.
Command relationships (attached, operational control [OPCON], or tactical control [TACON]). Key POCs among the supported staff and the staffs of higher and lower organizational levels, as well as lateral and local civil agencies and NGOs. Locations of higher and lower organizational levels, as well as lateral and local civil agencies and NGOs via map reconnaissance and physical reconnaissance. Threat levels, off-limits areas, ROE, uniform and security requirements within the security perimeter, as well as movement of soldiers outside the security perimeter.
Locations of logistics and administrative support activities; for example, fuel point, postal distribution center, sundry items purchase, laundry and bath facilities, and gymnasium.
Integrate into the security plan of the supported unit according to the supported unit's SOP. Establish communications and digital connections with lower, adjacent, and higher-level CA elements, as applicable, including the establishment of contingency communications plans during periods of disrupted operations. Establish communications and digital connections with key civilian agencies in the AO, as applicable, including the establishment of contingency communications plans during periods of disrupted operations. Set up work area with all additional equipment needed to operate effectively, such as facsimiles (FAXs), computers, and furniture.
Set up map board with overlays showing the tactical situation (location of all units and maneuver graphics) and the civil situation (CMO graphics showing locations of CASCOPE in the AO that affect military operations). Determine the team leader's place in the briefing sequence of the daily briefing to the supported commander. Establish initial personal contact with the indigenous population and institutions, NGOs, international organizations, and FNS personnel. Review UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements to which the United States is signatory. Read the primary planning document (campaign plan, OPLAN, CONPLAN, functional plan, or supporting plan). Analyze the geographic AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the strategic-level civil considerations (Chapter 3). Apportion CA forces against CA task requirements and ensure the forces are included in the time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD). Write the CMO annex to the campaign plan, OPLAN, CONPLAN, functional plan, or supporting plan.
Incorporate CMO considerations into the primary planning document and supporting annexes and appendixes, as appropriate (for example, ROE, indirect fires, IO, logistics, interagency operations, and civil engineering support). Catalog resources and POCs that will be useful in updating future plans and conducting future operations. Monitor and participate in CMO-related boards, such as the joint targeting coordination board (JTCB), Joint Facilities Utilization Board (JFUB), joint civil-military engineering board (JCMEB), and joint environmental management board (JEMB). Review UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements pertaining to the JTF's specified AO to which the United States is signatory.
Understand the subunified or Service component commander's intent and his operational and tactical focus.
Analyze the subunified command or Service component AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the operational-level civil considerations (Chapter 3).
Apportion CA forces against CA task requirements and ensure the forces are included in the TPFDD. On 29 November 1992, the commander of C Company, 96th CA Bn (A) deployed to USCENTCOM to assist in the final planning of Operation RESTORE HOPE.
On 5 December 1992, the commander deployed to Camp Pendleton, California, to be the CA advisor to J-3, JTF Somalia.
At the direction of the J-3, the CA company commander and his team established a CMOC at the United Nations Operation Somalia Humanitarian Operations Center (UNOSOM-HOC), located approximately one mile from the J-3 at the JTF HQ. The physical separation of the CMOC from the JTF HQ and the practice of using a non-CA-trained officer to conduct liaison with the JTF J-3 precluded the CATHST from participating in daily staff operations. Analyze the JTF's AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the operational-level civil considerations (Chapter 3). Although an endstate may be difficult to define in peace operations, strive to refine the mission to ensure one exists.
Review the campaign plans, OPLANs, CONPLANs, and HNS plans, as appropriate, of commands two levels up, as well as the NEO plans of the combatant command and the U.S. Review UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements pertaining to the CSS unit's specified AO to which the United States is signatory. Review the NSS and NMS as they apply to the operation in which the CSS unit is participating.
Analyze the CSS unit's AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the operational-level civil considerations (Chapter 3).
Per funzionare al meglio il ricevitore ha bisogno di avere sopra di se una fascia abbastanza ampia di cielo, ed e per questo che in citta o vicino a delle alte parete verticali puo perdere il segnale. La Garmin costruisce, tra le altre cose, alcuni dei migliori ricevitori GPS per uso outdoor, cartografici e non.
Per spiegarvi meglio come funziona, prendo ad esempio una delle mie escursioni tipo in montagna, durante il quale ho avuto di modo di testarlo. Arrivati alla prima tappa, metto come destinazione la seconda tappa, e cosi via fino a destinazione finale; delle funzioni del software permettono di passare automaticamente da un waypoint all'altro. Estimated delivery dates - opens in a new window or tab include seller's handling time, origin ZIP Code, destination ZIP Code and time of acceptance and will depend on shipping service selected and receipt of cleared payment - opens in a new window or tab. This amount includes seller specified US shipping charges as well as applicable international shipping, handling, and other fees. By clicking Confirm bid, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder. By clicking Confirm bid, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder and have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. By clicking 1 Click Bid, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder. The success of the Torch operation is critically dependent upon the reactions of the authorities, inhabitants, and troops of North Africa. Organize outside agency support to reduce or eliminate redundancy and to synchronize and prioritize relief efforts.
In late January and February of 1993, during Operation RESTORE HOPE, CADST 32 of Company C, 96th Civil Affairs Battalion (Airborne), had met various groups of elders throughout the city of Mogadishu to determine city district boundaries, district demographics, and concerns. Information meetings in which CMOC representatives provide information to the attendees on the security environment (tailored to nonmilitary operations), status of requests for assistance, and so on. Coordination meetings in which participants have decision-making authority to coordinate operations and resources for their particular agency.
Negotiation meetings in which CMOC representatives mediate discussions and agreements between opposing parties. Information-sharing meetings in which participants merely gather in an unstructured atmosphere to discuss issues of their own interest with their counterparts and contemporaries.
Daily Scrimmage with Tactical Support Team-7 (TST-7): Conducted every morning at the Vitina CMOC, inside the UN Building.
Other concerns (cancellation of meetings, future holidays, and cultural significant activities).
Vitina AOR Information Operations Meeting: Held every Sunday at 1200 hours in the TF Plans Room. Vitina Town Hall Meeting: Held every Monday at 1400 hours (1500 hours in the summer during daylight savings) at the Vitina Orthodox Church. Radio Iliria Weekly Meeting: Conducted at any convenient time, based on Monday's morning scrimmage with the TST at the Radio Iliria Studio.
Joint Security Council (JSC) Meeting: Held every Tuesday at 1000 hours in the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Police Station Conference Room. UNMIK Infrastructure Meeting: Held every Tuesday at 1000 hours at the UNMIK Municipality Building in Vitina. KFOR Radio Hour: This radio show begins at 1700 hours and lasts until 1800 hours every Tuesday evening at the radio station studio in Vitina. Serb Mayor's Meeting: Held every Wednesday at 1100 hours in the UN Local Community Office in Vrbovac, across from the Vrbovac School. IO Working Group (IOWG) Meeting: Held every Wednesday at 1130 hours in the Battle Update Briefing (BUB) Conference Room in the TFF TOC. Klokot Town Hall Meeting: Held at 1830 hours every Wednesday, or at the CDR's discretion, at the Klokot School in the middle of town. Pozaranje Town Hall Meeting: Held at 1830 every Friday at the Pozaranje Primary School off of Route Stag. Lidhja Demokraticke e Kosoves (LDK) (Democratic League of Kosovo) Mayors Meeting: Held every Saturday at 1000 hours at the Political Party Headquarters in Vitina across from the UN Municipality Building. NGO Meeting: Held every other Wednesday at 1000 hours at the UNMIK Police Station Conference Room. Company CMO activities as they are reported to the S-5 in the weekly CMO meeting on Saturdays.
Political Leaders Meeting with the TF CDR: Held as needed, at the discretion of the TF CDR, and coordinated by the S-5. Humanitarian Assistance Review Board (HARB): Planned and executed by TFF, the purpose of the board is to process the HA nominations prepared by the units of TFF. Determine the most likely source (person, place, event, reference) from which to obtain the information.
Priority intelligence requirements (PIR): Those intelligence requirements for which a commander has an anticipated and stated priority in his task of planning and decision making. Essential elements of friendly information (EEFI): Critical aspects of a friendly operation that, if known by the enemy, would subsequently compromise, lead to failure, or limit success of the operation, and therefore must be protected from enemy detection.
Friendly force information requirements (FFIR): Information the commander and staff need about the forces available for the operation. While some questions may be asked of all interviewees, other questions should be reserved for specific categories of interviewees based on their specialty, expertise, or knowledge.
The interviewer should include the following two questions on every list: (1) Is there anything else you can tell me about the subject that I may have failed to ask?
Recording devices (optional), such as audiotape, video camera, still camera with extra batteries, film, and cassettes. Who are the key personnel in the AO, to include political officials, business leaders, and criminal figures? What capabilities does the local populace have to sustain and protect itself in the areas of public health, public safety, public works and utilities, civil information, and emergency services? How many civilians intend to evacuate and how many intend to stay put in the event hostilities get close to populated areas?
What are the shortcomings of the force in terms of HNS requirements, medical supplies, and other logistics issues? Schedule the interview meeting at a mutually convenient time to avoid distractions or interruptions. Allocate sufficient time-whole morning or afternoon sessions versus several shorter periods, if possible. Coordinate for a quiet location, if recording-a quiet office or room or under a tree away from big crowds. Relax and put the interviewee at ease-ground field gear if security conditions allow, provide refreshments if possible, or accept refreshments if offered. Explain the overall purpose of the interview and how the session will be conducted; explain that questions and follow-up questions will be asked. Remind the interviewee that there is no rush to answer just because the recorder is running; ensure the recorder is properly set up and is functional by testing it in advance. Have the interviewee explain the meaning of any unfamiliar terms, as well as provide additional information on unfamiliar subjects or individuals mentioned during the interview.
If the discussion digresses from the subject, return to the interview plan by tactfully asking a question from the list.
Debrief all participants of the interview team-interviewer, notetaker, interpreter, and security personnel. If the situation permits, or as appropriate, send a brief letter thanking the interviewee for participating in the session. Getting the leaders of a local populace to support and implement a stay-put policy to prevent DC movement during combat operations.
Appeasing competing vendors who disagree with HNS contracts let by logistics representatives in rear areas.
Assisting representatives of formerly warring factions to work out movement agreements during posthostilities operations.
Deconflicting HA activities of NGOs and international military forces during HA operations. Fairness implies that all or both sides are treated alike, without reference to the feelings or interests of the negotiator.
Efficiency refers to producing a desired outcome with a minimum of effort, expense, or waste.
Durability refers to the stability of the agreement or the ability of the agreement to last. Establish the objectives of the negotiation session, which involves understanding the needs of the participants (physiological, safety, social, self-esteem, and self-actualization).
Establish the schedule and location, which involves coordinating participants' schedules, determining optimum timing, and considering neutral sites.
Plan and prepare the facility, which involves determining the size and shape of the negotiating table, determining seating arrangements and room decor, providing audiovisual aids, and setting the lighting and noise conditions. Establish the rules, which involves determining who will attend, setting an agenda, sequencing presentations, and sticking to the issues.
The CA team needs to coordinate with local leaders or facility managers to facilitate access to areas, structures, and people in support of a detailed assessment or survey. Local NGO representatives desire to voice their concerns to the commander regarding the nature of military operations in the area and to resolve conflicting priorities. The ranking military officer in the theater, region, or local area would like to introduce himself to prominent political leaders and discuss issues of significance to all parties.
Determine the purpose of the meeting, the desired results of the meeting, and implications of the meeting on ongoing operations and initiatives. Make a list of the desired attendees, and identify individual ranks, status, and protocol requirements. Select an appropriate location and consider security of the site, clearance of routes, and travel passes, if needed.
Orient the participants to the layout of the meeting area, including locations of break areas, rest rooms, telephones, FAX machines, and other administrative support. Provide an overview of the meeting's purpose and objectives, relevant background information and assumptions, the time allotted for the meeting, and the expected outcome at the meeting's conclusion.
Monitor the composition and skills of the attendees to confirm that the right people are attending. Break large groups into smaller working groups (no more than 10) to facilitate communication and participation, if necessary. Use the last few minutes of a meeting to review the group's decisions and define the required next steps, if appropriate. A synopsis of all issues and discussions covered during the meeting, decisions made, agreements drafted, topics tabled for future meetings, and further actions to be taken. Understand and respect local customs, especially during interaction with community and government leaders.
Understand your level of authority; don't agree to conditions or make commitments beyond that authority. Ask questions to clarify points, keep a meeting focused, and address issues of importance to the military, but avoid the appearance of taking over the meeting. Information provided by friendly, adversary, and neutral parties has a significant effect on CMO planners' ability to establish and maintain relations between joint forces and the civil authorities and general population, resources, and institutions in friendly, neutral, or hostile areas. Proper and adequate documentation of CA operations is maintained according to federal law (Title 18, United States Code [USC], Section 2071) and AR 25-400-2, The Army Records Information Management System (ARIMS). The daily staff journal is the official chronological record of CA and CMO events that includes summaries of all messages received by the CMO staff officer or CMOC. The CA Workbook is organized by each of the 16 functional specialties, contains detailed and current information about the AO, and is used to prepare CA periodic reports and CMO estimates. CMO situation maps depict current and future dispositions of pertinent friendly, enemy, and civilian organizations, resources, plans, and events.
The lack of a uniform standard for tracking of DC movement throughout the corps led to double counting at both division and corps levels and false reporting of numbers of DCs that had a cascading effect as the exercise lengthened. A database and information management system that contains records of events (both past and future-planned), assessments (including video and audio files), facilities, services, and resources, and a powerful search engine that allows users to find information instantly. A modeling application that allows users to predict potential results of hazardous conditions or military COAs on civil populations and areas. What information needs to be protected (critical information components or categories of critical information)? What countermeasures should the unit take to prevent adversaries from obtaining the information?
Conduct OPSEC awareness training for all individuals, including nonmilitary participants in the CMOC. This action should be taken as soon as possible after linking up with the supported unit or agency. The CA unit commander or team leader gets oriented to the environment in which he will be operating. Designated CA unit or team members set up and establish operations with the supported unit or organization according to the priorities of work established by unit or team SOP.
Integration includes assignment and preparation of fighting positions and briefing on contingency plans in effect. If the map is in an open area, it should be covered when not in use and should contain no classified information. All three teams had freedom of movement in the three allied brigade areas, but had trouble operating in the American brigade sector. It should include orientation on the civil strategic and operational centers of gravity, protection of friendly strategic and operational centers of gravity, phases of operations (such as prehostilities, lodgment, decisive combat and stabilization, follow-through, and posthostilities), and end state. It should include orientation on the civil operational centers of gravity, protection of friendly operational centers of gravity, phases of operations (such as prehostilities, lodgment, decisive combat and stabilization, follow-through, and posthostilities), and end state. In this role, the CATHST coordinated and facilitated all humanitarian relief organization requests for security and other assistance required to support the relief operations. Being prepared early to develop the [CMO] mission statement and coordinate it with higher authority may allow a commander the opportunity to clearly identify an endstate(s).
Ensure CSS unit commanders at all subordinate levels have a CA representative on their staff.
Non e il caso di copiare uno qualsiasi dei tanti articoli che su internet spiegano cos'e il GPS nei dettagli, qui mi basta riassumere che ogni “scatola” GPS riceve il segnale di tre o piu satelliti e, dall'analisi di questi segnali, riesce a stabilire le proprie coordinate. Ovviamente il funzionamento sottoterra e impossibile, come sa bene chi viaggia con un navigatore in auto ed entra in galleria. Sono una comodita, non c’e dubbio, ma c’e bisogno che sul ricevitore sia presente una mappa della zona,  lo schermo dev'essere di una certa dimensione senno non si capisce niente e il consumo aumenta parecchio.
Non sono costruiti per essere venduti solo ai militari, quindi non possono usare le modalita cifrate del segnale GPS, ma e facile trovarli addosso a militari di mezzo mondo, nonche agli escursionisti piu tecnologici. Si lega al polso come un orologio, puo essere agevolmente comandato con una sola mano e il suo peso non appesantisce il polso. Pero permette di fare due cose importantissime: segnare le coordinate di un punto (waypoint) e di calcolare distanza e direzione per un waypoint (inserito manualmente o presente in memoria). Arrivati al parcheggio al fondovalle, lo accendo e, nel tempo che mi infilo gli scarponi e lo zaino, “aggancia” il segnale GPS e mostra il punto dove mi trovo. E possibile registrare il proprio percorso e farsi guidare indietro al punto di partenza dalla funzione “track back”, oltre ad esportare la propria registrazione (track) verso un pc, per condividerlo con altri utenti. Non affatica per niente il polso, e grazie alla possibilita di visualizzare l’ora sostituisce anche l’orologio.
This means the item has been inspected, cleaned, and repaired to full working order and is in excellent condition. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount.
With this in mind, General Eisenhower has on this staff a Civil Administrative Section to coordinate the civil and political matters in immediate relation to the operation.
Noting there were some conflicting claims to control over several of the districts, CADST 32 met with a political officer at the U.S. When agencies have slightly different meanings for terms, confusion and inefficiency result.
Consolidated plans describe goals, operational objectives, and support activities required to meet the common objectives of the various agencies. The purpose of this meeting is for the TF CDR to receive a daily staff update by all staff and special staff. The company commander for Vitina Town conducts this meeting for the K-Serbs; this includes all Serb enclaves in Vitina and can include Binac.
This is an informal meeting conducted by the S-5 with the director of the radio station in Vitina. The purpose of this meeting is for the key organizations, along with representatives from the community, to have an opportunity to specifically address security concerns to the TF CDR. The purpose of this meeting is to gather all infrastructure-related companies in one room and to coordinate their efforts to promote efficiency. This show is the primary means of conveying Task Force Falcon's (TFF) IO Talking Points or other issues raised from the radio station meeting conducted by the S-5 and the director, normally done on Mondays.
The purpose of this meeting is to gather all six K-Serb mayors in one room to discuss and resolve their issues.
The purpose of this meeting is to gather all IO officers from every maneuver unit and supporting units and discuss the IO Execution Matrix and the IO Targeting Synchronization Matrix (TSM).


The purpose of this meeting is to promote discussion among the people of Klokot and provide KFOR security assistance as needed. The purpose of this meeting is to promote discussion with the people of Donja Slatina and Gornja Slatina and identify security or other-than-security needs.
The purpose of this meeting is to gather representatives from each of the Four Pillars to discuss and resolve issues.
The purpose of this meeting is to promote discussion with the people of Pozaranje and to identify security or other-than-security needs.
The purpose of this meeting is for political leaders of LDK throughout the municipality to discuss issues and concerns relating to their respective villages. The purpose of this meeting is to gather all company CMO officers and inform, disseminate, and report information back and forth with the S-5 and TST. The purpose of this meeting is to gather all NGOs that are operating in the Vitina Municipality and attempt to coordinate their efforts. This meeting is essential to the relationships between the TF CDR and the political leadership.
CCIR are information required by the commander that directly affects his decisions and dictates the successful execution of operational or tactical operations. FFIR include personnel, maintenance, supply, ammu-nition, POL status, and experience and leadership capabilities. A thorough METT-TC analysis will yield a list of the various categories of civilians a CA team may encounter in the AO.
This research is accomplished through a review of area studies, current area assessments, and maps of the area. Preparing questions in advance mitigates the need to think of questions on the spot, which is extremely helpful when time is short or when the interviewer encounters a potential source in an unexpected manner. The interviewer should arrange to meet the interviewee at a mutually convenient time and location. Interpreters are a necessity in CA operations, especially when operating in an environment of obscure languages. The security team maintains watch for threats to the interviewer or interview team and serves as additional observers of the behavior of interviewees and passersby.
Through preparation and background research, the material to be covered should be familiar.
The interviewer should try to pace the session so that sufficient time is given to ask all of the questions and get the information wanted from the interview. An example of a leading question is: Is it true that your family or village is suffering from a lack of access to food, water, security, and health care? Direct questions give the interviewee a starting point around which to organize a response. The interviewer should be careful not to confront the interviewee in a manner that challenges his integrity. Interview notes are useful for indicating when follow-up questions are needed, for organizing one's thoughts, and for preparing a preliminary list of items requiring verification.
The interviewer should ask the interviewee to provide proper spellings and draw diagrams, if possible. A pause may signify that the interviewee is thinking of additional information that could be lost if the interviewer is too quick with the next question. The interviewer should thank the interviewee for his time, in the interviewee's language, if possible, and render the appropriate parting gesture, such as shaking hands with or bowing to the individual. Seemingly little things like rendering the appropriate greetings or accepting food and drink from the hosts, for example, often win the respect of the interviewee, gain his cooperation, and help dispel the ugly American myth.
The interviewer loses credibility and the ability to approach the interviewee, as well as others in the community, for information in the future. The interviewer must ensure that he does not inadvertently release critical aspects of a friendly operation to the interviewee. Compare notes and observations of all team members to obtain a more accurate understanding of the reliability, attitude, and intentions of the interviewee as well as any other individuals encountered during the interview process. The SOP should consider the classification and disposition of transcripts, diagrams, maps, and photos as well as courier requirements for the interview products.
It also involves considering accessibility and satisfying the basic needs of the participants. He should also identify potential agenda items among the attendees that may surface before, during, or after the meeting. He should consider the neutrality of the location and the possible message it may send to participants, as well as nonparticipants, and ensure that the location implies no favoritism. He should consider the number of participants, the rank and status of the participants, the size and shape of the room, and local culture and customs.
For example, participants must arrive on time, there should be no interruptions to take phone calls, topics not on the agenda will be tabled for a follow-up meeting, and meetings should always strive to finish on time. Designate an individual to enforce the agenda by keeping time or reminding participants when they are straying from the approved topics. It is almost impossible to effectively run a meeting and take thorough notes at the same time. If follow-up action is necessary, it is important to be specific so that it is clearly understood which individual will handle each outstanding task. Sitting next to or behind someone could be interpreted as implicit support by the military of that person or organization. For example, if a meeting participant states that the military can or will perform certain services, or that the military did or did not do something, the CA soldier's silence may be interpreted as concurrence. CMO overlays show how the situation changes over time, and provide a historical record of events. It also provides a record of resources and services used or provided by military organizations for accounting purposes. Armed with bad data, poor tracking of DCs resulted in faulty planning by CSS BOSs at both division and corps levels causing them to energize CSS assets that were not necessary and could have been used elsewhere. Participants further agreed that responsibility for knowing and sharing this information begins during predeployment planning and continues through mission implementation and into postconflict reconstruction.
It requires continuous coordination between the full-time members of combatant command staffs, the drilling members of CA reserve units, and the members of Active Army CA units.
Planning associations are designed to improve wartime planning, mission capability, mobilization, and deployability. Figure 2-1, depicts the level of commands with which the planning teams are associated and the levels of operation at which each team generally focuses.
Before discussing options to these questions, a general discussion on integrating with supported staffs and organizations is appropriate.
The staff is usually organized according to a traditional staff structure, but a commander may focus and reorganize the staff to conform to his personal decision-making techniques or to the unique demands of a specific mission.
CA teams are not alone in this requirement, but they often are the teams least understood by the commanders and staffs they support.
When the team joins an established group, it changes the makeup of the staff and modifies the staff's method of operations.
Staff members value the contributions and ideas of others, promote interdependencies, and solve problems creatively. This may occur when the mission is complete and the supported unit redeploys as a whole, or when CA team members are replaced by follow-on CA elements. The following paragraphs discuss the role of the CA planning team as strategic-, operational-, or tactical-level staff members.
The commander specifies the CA planning team's authority based on the team leader's maturity and experience, the commander's confidence in the team leader's abilities, and other factors. FM 101-5 discusses the common staff and staff officer responsibilities and duties that achieve this end. CA planning team members must be thoroughly familiar with the unique functions of each staff member and how the various staff sections interact with and relate to CMO.
For CA soldiers, integration may mean participating in the creation of an organization, such as a JTF or a multiagency humanitarian mine action (HMA) team. Planners should seek direct liaison authorized (DIRLAUTH) with the supported organization if authorization was not granted in the warning order, tasking order (TASKORD), or FRAG order.
The purpose of this action is to inform the commander or sponsor that the CA asset has arrived. It should contain an overview of the CA mission, organization, equipment, strength, and status. Doing so involves keeping abreast of current and future operations by participating in routine meetings and briefings, as well as any restricted meetings and briefings in which CA or CMO-related issues may come up.
Whether performed during war or MOOTW, CA operations occur within the operational boundaries of a commander or civilian representative (for example, a U.S. The President of the United States and the National Security Council (NSC) develop the national security strategy (NSS).
For example, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), the JCS, and geographic combatant commanders, in turn, develop the national military strategy (NMS). The National Security Act of 1947, as amended, established the NSC to advise the President on the integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to national security. When commanders and planners identify these objectives, they submit them through the joint force commander (JFC) to the joint staff for consideration and nomination to interagency working groups.
It describes joint doctrine designed to achieve coordination between the combatant commands of the DOD and USG agencies, NGOs, and regional and international organizations during unified actions and joint operations. Coordination between the combatant commander's staff and other USG agencies may occur through a country team or within the combatant command at a CMOC or CMOC variant, such as an interagency planning cell or HA coordination center. Since each theater of operations has unique concerns and considerations, each geographic combatant commander views the conduct of CMO and the employment of CA assets in his theater from a different perspective. Joint operation planning encompasses planning for the full range of activities required for conducting joint operations.
Depending on the factors of METT-TC, the CA planning team may be a CAP3T from a CACOM (Figure 2-9) or a CAPT-B from a CA battalion (Active Army) (Figure 2-10).
Be prepared to offer specific recommendations to assist the commander in defining his intent for CMO. The most logical location for the CA planning team is in the J-5, Plans and Policy Division.
This means the team must be self-sufficient to a certain degree, so it can immediately go to work with minimal disruption to the supported staff.
A subunified command may be established on an area basis (for example, JTF 6) or a functional basis (for example, a theater SOC). In the context of this section of this manual, the Service component HQ is a numbered organization, such as the 3d U.S. As with planning at the geographic combatant command HQ, coordination between the commander's staff and other USG agencies may occur through a country team or within the subunified or Service component command HQ at a CMOC.
The CA planning team must be familiar with the joint and Service-specific operational procedures employed by the subunified command or Service component HQ.
The team also must have transportation and tactical communications capabilities commensurate with that of the supported unit and nonmilitary agencies in the AO. The organizational structure of a JTF will depend on the missions to be fulfilled, the capabilities and strengths of the component elements of the forces assigned and attached, and the phasing of the contemplated operations. The CMOC must be accessible to both USG and non-USG agencies (USAID representatives, special representatives of the UN Secretary-General, NGOs, HN agencies, and businesses). Although he organizes his staff as necessary to carry out all duties and responsibilities, he will normally defer to an organization with which he is comfortable. Army major recommended that CA forces supporting the operation include one CA brigade at the JTF level and one CA battalion to each of the JTF's divisions (the 1st Marine Division and the 10th Mountain Division). A United States Marine Corps (USMC) officer performed liaison duties between the CMOC and the JTF staff.
The commander and his staff develop a detailed campaign plan, OPLAN, or OPORD, along with supporting TPFDD, within the JOPES crisis-action planning guidelines as directed by the establishing authority.
The CA planning team must be familiar with joint operational procedures as outlined in various JPs. Although the organizational structure of these support units may vary over time based on METT-TC, their purpose remains consistent-to sustain military forces throughout war or MOOTW. Each support organization operates within defined geographical boundaries from bases or base clusters. The commander of each organization must provide the basis for a unified effort, centralized direction, and decentralized execution. The CMOC must be accessible to both USG and non-USG agencies, such as USAID representatives, special representatives of the UN Secretary-General, NGOs, HN agencies, and businesses. The members of these sections are normally not trained in CA, but they know the logistics needs of the force and are familiar with the legal and procedural requirements to obtain HNS from the HN in which they are operating. As mentioned previously, the MDMP is a single, established, and proven analytical process used by the Army to assist the commander and staff in developing estimates and plans. The CA planning team for a COSCOM and an ASG is normally a CAT-C from a CA battalion (USAR) (Figure 2-14). Another option is to maintain constant communication with the G-5 or S-3 staff element by using the U.S. If performing as a base cluster commander, the TSC, COSCOM, or ASG commander establishes a base cluster operations center (BCOC) to plan, coordinate, and control rear operations among the bases in the cluster. It must have access to all primary staff sections, as well as to elements such as the HNS section of the TSC and HNS logistics directorate of the ASG. Depending on the situation, the commander and staff, and other factors, CA planning team members may or may not receive the full support they require to accomplish their mission. Mentre in auto ingombro, peso e consumi sono problemi secondari, un soldato (o un escursionista…) deve stare attento a cosa si porta dietro.
Se durante il cammino trovo un punto di cui mi interessa salvare la posizione, il pulsante Mark mi permette di fotografarne la posizione. Per un escursionista non si puo definire indispensabile, visto che sui sentieri delle nostre montagne perdersi e difficile, anche se fornisce molte informazioni utili; ma per un utilizzo militare e uno strumento prezioso, come testimoniano molte foto rintracciabili su internet. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. He urgently requests that men from the State Department be released to serve on this body.. This phase begins when CA elements enter into the AO to establish relationships, develop rapport, and conduct deliberate assessments to confirm or deny the plan. They detect (confirm or deny) the conditions, standards of care, and attitudes, which serve to either cancel or trigger planned and on-call CA activities and CMO branches and sequels to the operation. This chapter will focus on the activities that support and occur during the develop and detect phase. The CMOC's purpose is to support the commander by providing a forum in which trained soldiers and civilian planners analyze the civilian component of an operation, decide how to conduct initial CA activities and CMO during the develop and detect phase, and begin to synchronize a COR in the deliver phase.
Depending on the situation and the operational level at which the CMOC is operating, the CMOC may remain in place or it may deploy forward into the AO. As the situation matures and assessments yield updated information, there are times when deployed CA teams need to gain access to existing databases, products, and analytic expertise resident in national, joint, and Service resources.
Liaison Office (USLO) in an attempt to confirm the validity of the elders' claims to district leadership. As the RFI manager, the IMO is responsible for receiving and routing requests coming into the force HQ and sending all official RFIs generated with the collaborative networks of the force HQ to the appropriate external agencies for resolution. Representatives from nonmilitary organizations that can participate in CMOC operations come from such agencies as the U.S.
The director of the CMOC establishes terminology that is understood by all members of the CMOC. A manageable span of control is the number of individuals one supervisor can manage effectively. More information on conducting meetings and reaching agreements is found later in this chapter.
This meeting is sometimes conducted at close of business (COB) of the day prior, if time permits. The purpose of the meeting is to identify future targets and identify assets against those targets through tasking or future operations.
This is a company-level meeting, and the company can resolve most of the issues brought up at this meeting.
This meeting is to coordinate with the radio station staff and ensure the host of the radio show and the TF CDR are prepared for the possible issues that may be raised. In addition, these companies can inform KFOR and UNMIK of any issues that can be resolved early to prevent potential emergency situations.
Here, the TF CDR has the opportunity to talk and address the people of Vitina Municipality. This meeting is similar to the Vitina Town Hall meeting on Mondays, although it is a different company AOR.
The Mortar Platoon Leader (PL) attached to B Battery runs this meeting, and it occurs at his discretion.
This meeting is very effective in passing pertinent information to the leadership, gathering information on substantial issues in the municipality, and to overall better the working relationship of KFOR with the local populace. As noted in Chapter 3, CA soldiers conduct two types of assessments: the preliminary assessment (conducted during the assess phase) and the deliberate assessment (conducted during the develop and detect phase).
Deliberate assessments can also be directed for emergencies, single issues, or special situations, such as a damage assessment incident to a claim. The objectives or focus of the initial assessment should be broad yet manageable; for example, assess general conditions of the AO in the areas of public health, public safety, public works and utilities, civil information, and emergency services. Using the CA area assessment format found in FM 41-10 and the principles of METT-TC for analyzing a situation, the CA team visits locations that will most likely provide the information it has been directed to find.
The findings of an initial assessment may lead to refined mission statements or reallocation of forces and resources.
The survey can be considered a detailed assessment in which the object of the assessment is examined carefully, as during an inspection or investigation. Using the CA Area Assessment Format, the principles of METT-TC, and objective-specific questions prepared by the assessment team, the CA team visits locations that will most likely provide the information it has been directed to find. The findings of a survey may lead to refined mission statements or reallocation of forces and resources. During the preparatory phase, the interviewer follows a process designed to maximize his knowledge of the subject matter, facilitate actions during the interview phase, and foster a relationship with the interviewee that will allow future contact with the interviewee, if required. Some categories of civilians lend themselves to answering certain PIR or FFIR better than others.
The interviewer reviews these documents to identify where to find potential sources (for example, names and addresses), understand previous conditions, and identify the potential for conflicting points of view. Doing so also demonstrates to the interviewee that the interviewer is professional and prepared. Depending on conditions in the area, this contact may be made by telephone, mail, E-mail, or runner. This individual should be someone other than the interviewer and the interpreter, as these individuals must focus on the answers, tone of voice, and body language of the interviewee.
By rehearsing the interview, the interviewer tests content and delivery of the questions, ensures that the interpreter, notetaker, and security personnel know and understand their roles, and ensures that the equipment functions properly. The interviewer should strive to conduct the interview in the best conditions possible, but he must remain flexible and focused enough to obtain information in any situation. A better phrasing of the question might be: What immediate concerns do you have for your family or village? A frequently successful approach is to acknowledge some confusion before asking additional questions. The interviewer should try not to be distracted or distracting when taking notes; it is often helpful if someone other than the interviewer takes notes. If the interview is being recorded, a good time to take breaks is when it is time to change tapes.
If using local phrases, the interviewer should practice the correct pronunciation and usage in advance. The CA soldier must be able to influence the actions of people to meet both the objectives of a commander and the national policies and objectives of the United States. Each example also demonstrates that the CA soldier must be properly trained and prepared to meet many similar, yet different, challenges.
Knowledge of these techniques does not qualify a CA soldier to act as a hostage negotiator or a trade negotiator for international, national, or regional trade agreements. These appraisals give insight into how individuals and groups react to, and interact in, a conflict situation.
Moreover, CA soldiers will have to negotiate fair outcomes when there is an uneven power dynamic between the parties. This ability enables the CA participants to interact successfully with the population in the host country, and provides a framework in which to work.
Without local support, however, implementing the decision can be extremely difficult or impossible. During mediation, the role of the CA soldier is to act as a facilitator whose aim is to guide the local parties toward an agreement that supports the policy goals of the U.S.
There are numerous groups and individuals that will actively or passively hamper attempts to establish peace. The mediator will have to prepare for that situation by ensuring that throughout the mediation cycle he has remained impartial, clearly outlined what behavior was expected from the participants, and what rewards or punishments would be apportioned.
CA soldiers often find themselves responsible for setting up meetings for various reasons or occasions. Weekly meetings may be appropriate for planning operations, tracking progress, and managing projects. The meeting coordinator is responsible for the planning, coordination, and execution of the meeting.
Successful planning requires the meeting coordinator to approach the task professionally and systematically.
Other rules might include guidelines on sending proxies or on the need for confidentiality. If the atmosphere is too tense or rigid, nommilitary participants may be intimidated or alienated and, therefore, may resist attending future meetings. An aggressive opponent can be temporarily pacified with appeasement signals and submissive gestures. Enthusiasm fosters participation by reinforcing the feeling that each participant's idea counts.
Asking pointed and relevant questions is often a more effective means of promoting communication. It enables the listener to assess the general trends of discussion, formulate arguments, and identify moments when it is most appropriate to act. The purpose of withdrawal is to shock the remaining participants into confusion and disarray and cause them to reconsider the position that prompted the withdrawal.
These meetings are an excellent opportunity to share information, network with influential individuals, and build relationships beneficial to the military mission. Lower-ranking soldiers may consider carrying an official letter of introduction from the commander, especially to initial meetings with nonmilitary groups.
Depending on the status of the military in certain environments, however, the mere presence of military representatives at a meeting is a statement in its own right. Organizations or individuals with antimilitary agendas will attempt to bait the CA soldier into making explicit or implicit statements.


This information, kept current through routine and continuous study and research, is obtained using a combination of open-source and restricted source materials.
Characterized by personal contact and direct observation, this information has associated costs in terms of soldiers' time, effort, and resources, as well as the potential requirement to protect information sources. In the first case, dissemination of politically sensitive information may hurt reputations, cost lives, or hinder the attainment of U.S.
This requirement is especially important during long-term operations when continuity is paramount to success, and knowledge of previous actions must be passed to succeeding CA teams and interagency participants. Separate overlays can be prepared that show demographics of an area, locations of civil supply support, locations and status of public utilities or health service facilities, routes and disposition of DCs, locations of protected targets, and many others.
An automated system maintains the same data as the paper-based system yet offers the advantage of being more versatile and more easily shared with other participants for collaborative planning.
Gathering this information should be part of each organization's preparation, participants said.
These associations are based on current Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) requirements and are included in the campaign plans of the supported combatant commanders. At unified and subunified commands, it is prepared by the J-3 with input by the senior CMO staff officer. Figures 2-2 through 2-4, depict the typical staff structures a CA planning team will encounter at various levels of command. This misunderstanding, coupled with the idiosyncrasies of group dynamics and group development, often put a CA planning team at a disadvantage when trying to establish itself as a contributing element of a supported staff.
The following discussion uses Tuckman's model of group development to illustrate how to meet the challenges of staff integration.
Staff members need to know how each member fits into the organization and how they relate to the organization's goals. Hostility may be expressed subtly, such as failing to include CA team members in important discussions, or openly, such as arguing with team members over perceived encroachments in staff territory. Effective staff members recognize the synergistic effect of various capabilities among the staff and include others in decision-making processes. CA team members contribute to establishing milestones for success and identifying when these points are reached. In the latter case, the supported staff recycles back to stage one with the arrival of the new team. This authority allows the team to exercise initiative to operate within its area of expertise or responsibility when there is a deviation beyond tolerance from the original plan.
Continuous synchronization with the staff is necessary for the four basic timelines used by the staff-troop-leading procedures (TLPs), friendly critical events, logistics, and enemy critical events.
More often than not, however, it means joining with an existing organization that is already in the process of conducting operations. Frequent contact with the supported organization during planning and preparation facilitates successful integration later.
This action affords the opportunity for initial introductions, receipt of initial commander's guidance, and coordination of a time to brief pertinent CA information to the commander, sponsor, and supported staff.
It should also address any unresolved issues of which the commander or sponsor ought to be aware and which possibly could be resolved with their assistance.
During military operations, failure to coordinate or follow procedures established by the commander will often impede the ability of CA soldiers to perform their mission. The DAG and PAG relied heavily on our allied officers, who were exempt from American force protection measures and other restrictions, to get them into and out of the American brigade sector. The NSS establishes how the United States will use its diplomatic, informational, military, and economic instruments of national power to protect or promote the worldwide interests, goals, and objectives that are vital to its national security.
The National Security Council System (NSCS) is a process to coordinate executive departments and agencies in the effective development and implementation of national security policies. Formal and task-specific interagency working groups coordinate policy and assign tasks among the various departments and agencies.
Many military activities require interagency coordination, which the joint staff routinely accomplishes with the OSD, DOS (with many involved offices and bureaus), CIA, NSC staff, Department of Justice (DOJ), USAID, and others, depending on the circumstances. From the JSCP, the combatant commander develops specific strategic objectives and programs in his theater of operations. For most operations, the CMOC must also be accessible to non-USG agencies (special representatives of the UN Secretary-General, NGOs, HN agencies, and businesses) for collaborative planning and coordination. One may look at CMO primarily as a logistics function and assign planning responsibility to the Logistics Directorate (J-4). These activities include the mobilization, deployment, employment, sustainment, and redeployment of forces. Due to the time-sensitive nature of crisis-action planning and the inherent challenges of activating RC soldiers on short notice, the CAP3T will most often participate in deliberate planning. Coordination with nonmilitary organizations during both deliberation planning and crisis-action planning is essential to successful plans and operations.
This division does long-range planning and prepares campaign, concept, and operation plans.
Finally, the team must be thoroughly familiar with all policies and SOPs of the supported element.
Commanders of subordinate unified commands have functions and responsibilities similar to those of unified commands and exercise OPCON of assigned commands and forces within the assigned joint operations area. The commander and his staff develop a detailed OPLAN or OPORD, along with supporting TPFDD, within the JOPES crisis-action planning guidelines as directed by the combatant commander.
The CA planning team participates in operational planning when activated for short-term contingencies or long-term operations. It can be formed by the SecDef, a unified command commander, or another JTF commander to conduct a single mission and be dissolved at the completion of that mission at the direction of the establishing authority. As the operational focal point for interagency coordination, the JTF commander must accommodate additional staff members to meet the requirements of interagency operations.
The JTF commander establishes the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players.
When he was informed that USAR CA assets would not be activated for this mission, he revised his recommendation. They determine applicability of existing OPLANs, CONPLANs, functional plans, and campaign plans, if any, to maximize the benefits of prior deliberate planning. The CA planning team participates in joint operation planning for a JTF when activated for short-term contingencies or long-term operations.
It provides politico-military oversight for all aspects of the JTF's operations, to include FNS, noncombatant evacuation operations (NEOs), HA, and ROE. The senior commander of the base or base cluster normally assumes command and control (C2) responsibility for all logistics functions, as well as rear-area operations, within the defined support area.
As the operational focal point for coordination with nonmilitary organizations in his assigned support area, the TSC, COSCOM, and ASG commander must accommodate additional staff members to meet the requirements of interagency operations. The support unit commander establishes the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players.
To be effective, all members of the CMO staff section must be trained in functional area 39C, Civil Affairs. At the TSC and COSCOM, the CA planning team participates in the planning processes through the ACofS, G-5, according to the TSC or COSCOM SOP.
He forms the BCOC from his own staff assets and from those of other elements in the cluster. CA planning team members must be well versed in the techniques of project management and the challenges of group dynamics on team building and problem solving. FM 100-15, Corps Operations, other doctrinal references, and the corps tactical SOP include more information on how the corps operates. Resiste un po’ alla pioggia, anche se esistono delle custodie che permettono di usarlo sotto la pioggia battente. Poi premo il pulsante Goto e imposto come meta il primo waypoint che ho precaricato in memoria (la procedura per caricare dei punti in memoria e un po’ complessa, e la spieghero in un altro articolo). Arrivati a destinazione, inverto l’ordine dei waypoint e torno indietro… o ne carico di altri per tornare secondo un altro percorso.
E anche possibile montarlo sul calcio dell'M4, immagino per poter leggere le informazioni senza abbandonare l’impugnatura del fucile.
If it deploys or relocates within the AO, CA soldiers follow procedures to establish the CMOC as discussed in Chapter 4. Information in the rear (CONUS) also changes (follow-on unit status, national-level policies, and decisions). The political officer informed the CA team that the DOS database for the city was only current up to 1989, when the U.S.
The span of control for any supervisor falls within the range of three to seven, with five being the optimum. Some special appearances by the S-5 or TST may be necessary for special issues; Company CMO officer may request their presence. The agenda and participants are similar to all other town hall meetings except that this meeting is in the UAE AOR. This meeting is flexible and may be held at the TF Conference Room when a room at CBS is not available. OSCE has produced guidelines and procedures and is actively observing municipality progress. CA teams conducting initial assessments must be aware of the security situation at all times. Sources of pertinent information include municipal government and public safety offices, hospitals, medical clinics, feed centers, and HN, UN, and NGO relief sites. The Hasty Village Assessment sheet in Figure 5-2, shows the type of information that can be obtained during an initial assessment. The objectives or focus of the survey should be well-defined; for example, assess the ability of all municipalities in the AO to perform government functions effectively, or, assess the needs of Town X to sustain the populace for the next 72 hours.
Sources of pertinent information include clergy, major private industry, foreign embassies, and multinational corporations. In other cases, the interviewer must seek out interviewees based on the position they hold in the community or the knowledge they may have on a subject area. The interviewer should recognize that there may be different and conflicting points of view among interviewees. He also reviews cultural items, such as customs, traditions, and local idioms to minimize the chance of offending interviewees.
A well-conducted rehearsal increases the likelihood of a professionally conducted interview.
He must also act in a manner that facilitates approaching the interviewee as a source of additional information at some future time. This facilitates follow-up questions like: To what do you attribute this lack of access to food, water, security, and health care? These types of agreements require specific expertise and legal status that are beyond the normal scope of CA activities. Negotiation and arbitration are likely to place the CA soldier in a position of opposition to one or more of the local parties.
Although they will rarely be called on to negotiate a major agreement in a postconflict environment, CA soldiers at all levels must be competent and knowledgeable in the art of negotiation.
Once any of the local representatives regard the United States as an interested party, the United States surrenders the cloak of neutrality, and all actions become suspect. Many issues will involve intractable conflicts that are considered nonnegotiable when the communication channels have broken down. The assumptions and perceptions about a person, group, or situation affect the outcome of communication; listening skills and questioning techniques are important. An understanding of one's own culture allows him to see cultural differences and similarities with other cultures. Binding arbitration refers to situations where local representatives agree to comply with the arbitrator's decision.
Without local support for the arbitrator's decision, the local commander, and, for that matter, the U.S.
In mediation, the United States is not in a position to support the aims or goals of one of the opposing parties, and therefore the likelihood of persistent animosity and aggression directed at the United States or U.S. Monthly meetings provide a better chance to look at certain long-range or developmental subjects in greater depth. Depending on the circumstances and level of the meeting, the meeting coordinator may or may not also serve as the moderator of the meeting. What some might consider eyewash may be the gauge by which others determine commitment to subsequent or preceding terms of the meeting. In a volatile environment, full constructive challenge, as opposed to destructive confrontation, should be encouraged. To obtain the feedback necessary to resolve issues, the meeting coordinator may have to extract the information by asking direct questions. On the other hand, the meeting moderator must be aware of certain skills or tactics that he or meeting participants may try to employ to turn the meeting in his favor.
The meeting moderator should be wary, however, of giving the impression of false enthusiasm. It is an extremely risky tactic, as the withdrawing party no longer has control over what transpires in the meeting once he has left. CA soldiers must understand their role in such meetings and how to maximize the value of the opportunity. Open-source materials include political, economic, military, cultural, and informational journals, the CIA source book, and numerous public web sites. The CMOC, as the repository for all CA and CMO information, must establish a system that achieves this objective. If compatible with ABCS, this automated system expands the COP, provides greater visibility of CMO and CA operations to the supported commander and his subordinates, and reduces the potential for misinterpreting information transmitted between units.
The mission letter provides unit-specific guidance regarding plans and operations in the supported command's AOR. This model consists of five stages: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. The CA planning team must be able to communicate to the supported commander and staff the team's purpose, mission, capabilities, requirements, and the benefits it brings to the organization, as well as other information pertinent to the mission.
Hostility such as this is usually rooted in a misunderstanding of the CA role on the staff.
They keep focused on setting the conditions for transition of military operations to civilian control. In either case, CA team members execute transition plans, ensure seamless battle handoff and continuity, participate in evaluating staff accomplishments, and provide important feedback regarding staff performance and working relationships.
The responsible commander or civilian representative must be kept informed of all that goes on in his AO, no matter how insignificant an event may seem.
On the other hand, failure to educate commanders on the operational requirements of CA missions leads to misunderstanding and imposition of undue restrictions on CA teams. There are times when the combatant commander may also directly participate IAW the Unified Command Plan (UCP).
From these goals and objectives, the combatant commander can develop campaign plans, theater engagement plans (TEPs), and OPLANs.
If the geographic combatant commander does not have a standing CMOC, he establishes the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players. Another may see CMO as purely a special operations function and assign planning responsibility to the SOC (SO J-7). The JOPES provides single process, interoperable planning and execution for both war and MOOTW.
Members of the team may also augment the J-3, Operations Division, to monitor current CMO, or the J-4, Logistics Division, to integrate FNS into logistics plans. If the subunified command or Service component commander does not have standing CMOCs, they establish the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players. They determine applicability of existing OPLANs, CONPLANS, functional plans, and campaign plans, if any, to maximize the benefits of prior deliberate planning. Two examples are JTF Somalia, which conducted Operation RESTORE HOPE from December 1992 to May 1993, and JTF Bravo, which, at the time of this publication, continues operations that began in 1983 to promote multinational cooperation in Central America.
For most JTF operations, this means establishing the CMOC as early as the initial planning stages of the operation. Support at the JTF level would come from his CATHST of five CA soldiers while each of the JTF's divisions would get three CA CADSTs of four soldiers each.
For most support operations, establishment of the CMOC begins as early as the initial planning stages of the operation. At the ASG, the CA planning team participates in the planning processes through the S-3 according to the ASG SOP. When activated for short-term contingencies or long-term operations, the CA planning team reports to the CSS unit HQ and becomes a full-time, active part of the CSS unit staff. The team must have transportation and tactical communications capabilities commensurate with that of the supported unit and nonmilitary agencies in the AO. The corps conducts Army, joint, interagency, and multinational operations across the full range of military operations and is tailored for the theater and the mission for which it is deployed.
Sul display appaiono distanza in linea d’aria e direzione per il waypoint… che potrebbero non essere la direzione in cui va il sentiero in quel momento, pero con questi dati fare il punto su una cartina e molto piu semplice. Fino all'ultimo waypoint che e quello di inizio escursione, ed avere qualcosa che ti dica “quanto diavolo manca alla macchina” e molto utile psicologicamente J. Charts should depict important ongoing requirements such as work requests, logistic requirements, DC statistics, and SITREP information. Regardless of manning and organization, the CMOC should have sufficient personnel to conduct 24-hour operations. The TST normally always attends this meeting because it is the main means of maintaining contact with the people of Slatina. The TST normally always attends this meeting because it is the main means of maintaining contact with the people of Pozaranje. Accordingly, validation through multiple sources, people, history, and records is critical.
Therefore, if the interview must be by telephone or E-mail, an apology is required.) The unannounced visit is less desirable under some conditions but may be the only means of contacting individuals under other conditions.
If a CA soldier promises something and fails to produce, he has just reduced his credibility and provided propaganda material for his adversaries. As the most effective and least divisive of the three, mediation is the preferred method of reaching agreements. Under normal circumstances, the DOS conducts international negotiations on behalf of the United States.
Learning to recognize his styles of communication and the styles of others and to adapt his processes can lead to more sustainable agreements. Nonbinding arbitration refers to situations where parties are not compelled to comply with the arbitrator's decision.
The mediator is not representing the aspirations of any of the opposing sides, but acts solely to further the altruistic goals of lasting peace, stability, and cooperation within the framework of the military commander's intent and the international agreements that authorized U.S. However, the mediator can prevent long-term friction through effective communication and by eliminating the possibility that the mediator's actions appear arbitrary.
He must be aware of the agendas of attendees and satisfy their need to perceive benefit from attending this and future meetings. Their effectiveness in future collaborative efforts will often be influenced by their military rank, where they sit, how they behave, and what they say or do not say during these meetings.
In the second case, release of proprietary information may diminish the CA soldiers' ability to obtain useful or important information in the future. The system must be initiated early in the operation, simple to maintain, and easily shared with other agencies, as applicable, to facilitate planning and operations.
It greatly influences the way a CA unit may organize, equip, and train to meet mission requirements.
Team members must manage conflict with professionalism, which means being patient, encouraging open discussion of the issues, and continuously educating fellow staff members on how CA activities and CMO relate to their staff functions. CA team members should continue to share information and be open to giving and receiving feedback from fellow staff members.
They write an AAR to assist future or follow-on CA teams, and they submit lessons learned to the Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL), the Marine Corps Lessons Learned System (MCLLS), the Joint Universal Lessons Learned System (JULLS), and the CA database, as appropriate. Regardless of the makeup of the unit or organization, successful integration of CA units, teams, and individuals requires planning, coordination, understanding, and patience.
This is especially critical with CA operations because of the far-reaching implications of some CA activities. These restrictions sometimes influence CA soldiers to take irregular measures to circumvent commanders' authority. Yet another may see CMO as integral to peacetime engagement operations and assign planning responsibility to the staff of a standing JTF. Joint operations planning is categorized as campaign, deliberate, or crisis-action planning. The Service component HQ may function as a joint force component command (for example, joint force land component command, joint force air component command, or joint force maritime component command), or a combined joint task force (CJTF) when designated by the geographic combatant commander.
It responds to short-notice crisis situations, as well as full-scale mobilization as a total force or as a force provider. In extreme cases, the CA soldier may contact potential interviewees by seeking the most likely place a source would be located (a church, hospital, or municipal building) and asking to see the individual who best fits the desired category (religious leader, public health official, or political leader). Typically, exceptions to this rule occur when details of a status-of-forces agreement (SOFA) need clarification or when the U.S. In CA operations, either form of arbitration is ineffective because the arbitrator acts as judge, and as such will make a decision that will adversely affect one or more parties. Unless the United States is willing to commit sufficient resources to enforce compliance, it will appear weak and ineffective. The more care taken in preparing and structuring the meeting, the more likely the outcome of the meeting will be favorable. Often, a well-timed apology can put even the most abusive attacker off guard and bring a situation back under control. In the latter case, information obtained in confidentiality must be protected according to the desires of the confidant. Table 2-1, depicts the command and support relationships and their inherent responsibilities (per FM 3-0). To approach this end state, the combatant commander conducts continuous engagement throughout the geographic region, sometimes overseeing multiple operations across the range of military operations simultaneously. Since this is virtually always a decision on a subject where contention is so rampant that the participants could not bring themselves to agree, the arbitrator's decision will in all likelihood anger everyone involved and decrease the chances of future cooperation with U.S. Joint Forces Staff College (JFSC) Pub 1, The Joint Staff Officer's Guide, and the combatant command staff SOP provide more information on how the combatant command staff operates.
He must be in a position to influence the commander's thought processes in the operational and tactical application of CA forces and activities, as well as the CMO of his subordinate unit commands. These responsibilities are replicated or modified when working in interagency or multinational environments.



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