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During this session we shall look at segmentation techniques to understand why companies identify attractive market segments, what targeting strategies they will use and how they will position their products for maximum advantage. Business can not always effectively sell to all of their customers using the same mix so instead their will target their marketing efforts.
Firstly a company will have an understanding of the variety of customers they deal with as they will hold data and information on them. The final step will be to design a marketing mix tailor-made’ to meet the needs of the target market.
Jobber (2010 p261) points out that ‘marketing segmentation is useful when spotting opportunities and threats. A very good example of the statement above has been the development of the hugely successful Innocent drinks.
The article below (in the Reading box) charts the rise of this company launched by three university friends who had a very good idea which turned into a multi-million pound reality. So Innocent noticed a gap and went for it……and who can blame them when after only a decade they now operate a multi-million pound business, albeit with a little help from Coca Cola! As identified by the success of Innocent (detailed articles above) it can help a business to identify opportunities and gaps in the market. Accessible Here, the base(s) used should ideally lead to the company being able to reach selected market targets with their individual marketing efforts. Meaningful The base(s) used must lead to segments which have different preferences or needs and show clear variations in market behaviour and response to individually designed marketing mixes.
Develop an appropriate marketing mix for each chosen target segment in order to support the product positioning strategy.
The first segmentation method looks at buying behaviour and this links into much of the theory and debate added in Week 2 as well as an understanding of customer value reviewed in Week 1. Benefits sought - with Innocent the benefits sought by customers were mostly concerned with pure ingredients in a tasty recipe.
Purchase Occasion - customers can be segmented according to how times they purchase the product. Usage - customers are segmented on the basis of whether they are heavy users, light users or non-users. Companies can chose their segments based on the whether the consumer will take the risk and buy at the beginning of the product lifecycle. What are the differences in pricing from the early adoption stage through to selling to laggards? Values and Lifestyles segmentation have been researched and used in the USA to combine demographic variables with people’s needs and wants.
There are links between the personality of the buyer and the perceived personality of the brand.
Demographics = the physical characteristics of a population such as age, sex, and marital status, size of family, education, geographic location, and occupation.
Age is a good segmentation variable for such items as clothes where the fashion-conscious young are more susceptible to regular changes in style and older segments are perhaps more concerned with such factors as quality and comfort. Sex is a strong segment in terms of goods that are specifically targeted towards males or females and again an obvious example is clothing.
Income as a segmentation base is more popular in certain countries like the USA than others who regard such matters very privately.
The household is classified according to the CIE’s occupation, but social grade data are also available for the respondent themselves (if they are not the CIE). Education is often related to social class, because, as a generalisation, the better educated tend to get the better jobs. Nationality or ethnic background now constitutes a growing and distinctive segment for potential target marketing. Family size will have an effect on the amount or size of purchases, so this is certainly a meaningful segmentation variable. Family life cycle (FLC) is a logical follow on to the above and this will tend to determine the purchase of many consumer durable products. There are some really good acronyms relating to family lifestyle but maybe COCOON is a little unkind!! This is a relatively new method based on the classification of homes rather than individuals. This can help you to target, acquire, manage and develop profitable relationships and improve business results. Segmentation for industrial products uses some of the bases for consumer segmentation and adds other variables. Types of application or uses - so types of adhesives for the home, office and industrial use.
Benefits - as with consumer segmentation - the benefits of using a product so for instance industrial glass for cutting or glass for our household windows. A combination of some the segments stated above provide business will a multi-variable approach to segmentation. Occasionally, a market analysis will show no differences in customer characteristics that have implications for marketing. In comparison when a business has identified a range of customer or B2B segments they might use a differentiated marketing mix strategy.
For example, BMW promote their cars to range of identified segments moving from the 1 series as an entry-level model to the X6 which according to BMW has been designed for the well-off empty nesters! Levis jeans have identified a range of differing consumer segments and have designed for each a differentiated marketing mix.
This session started by stating some definitions of segmentation and each finished on the importance of positioning.

Consistency - we received no end of messages in a day whether on the TV, reading the newspapers, posters and billboards etc, so the consistency of the message is important. Competitiveness - to remain in the minds of customers the business offering must be competitive.
A useful tool for mapping the position of a brand in the market place is the perceptual map. The perceptual map below shows and plots some of the UK supermarkets based on research in to consumer preferences centred on the two dimensions of price and range of products. Some of the publishers of recommended text books have their own learning sites on-line designed for students. There are case studies, internet exercises and concept tests for each chapter covered in the book. Consumer behaviour is a complex concept, which is influenced by many different variables and situations. Think of a product you would like to own, it may be something that you really need or something you have always thought you would like to own. Keep a note of how many web sites you visit, how long you spend on searching for the product you would like to buy, and the criteria you use to make your selection. Please note: The aim of this exercise is to analyse your own purchase behaviour up to the point of purchase.
Marketing strategies can be developed with techniques like target marketing, niche marketing, branding and others. These technique target consumers based on characteristics they already have such as age, psychological profile, and special interests.
These are marketing techniques that actually place a thought, impression or feeling into the minds of consumers.1.
Hopefully, this list helps you understand some of the techniques most often applied to strategy development.Whether it's target marketing, niche marketing, branding, positioning, focus, or differentiation, the next step is deciding which of these methods are right for you, then applying them to your website design, advertising, packaging, pricing and the rest of your marketing efforts. Doug is a seasoned leader & Wharton MBA with expertise in Marketing Strategy, New Product Development and Innovation. While there are many ways to harness the power of segmentation, one of the broadest and most valuable applications is for designing your marketing strategy – a strategy that clearly defines who you’re targeting, what you’re going to offer them, where you’re going to reach them, and how you’re going to sell them on your product & brand.
In the first step you identify “the who”.  Who are those consumers in the population who have expressed interest in your product category or who have needs addressed by your product category?  In this step you’re simply separating out those interested consumers from the rest of the general population. These segments will become your target segments and along with their distinct marketing mixes represent your marketing strategy.  To reiterate from the intro, the beauty of this approach is that by basing part of your segmentation on similarities shared by consumers across key components of your marketing mix, the segments you derive come with their “marketing instructions” already included. So what about segments that don’t meet enough of your targeting criteria?  What should you do about them?  The answer is that it depends. For those segments large enough in size & profit potential you may consider developing new products, building out new channels, or creating communication strategies that better meet their needs and more effectively “speak to them”. On the other hand, for those segments that are very small or that would require major retooling of your operations, extensive employee training, or significant stretching of your brand, you would likely leave to other companies to pursue. Target your niche market by reaching out to corporate decision makers involved in the segment. I actually went to business school and never had the process explained so succintly and directly. Due to its massive marketing and adoption, it would seem that Coca Cola’s target market is EVERYONE. As charming as it sounds, this took place 40 years ago – and the world and advertising have undergone massive change since. You have trusted our products and brought them in to your home to be enjoyed by the whole family. For example, Coca-Cola’s diet soft drinks are targeted at consumers who are older in age, between the years of 25 and 39.
The Coca-Cola Company when advertising, has a primary target market of those who are 13-24, and a secondary market of 10-39. Target markets and market segmentation both stipulate in their own terms that marketing is about grouping people.
There’s no product or service in the modern world today that can survive from mass marketing.
You would have to be ignorant or in the business for the wrong reason to truly think you can market one product to the entire world. As customers become more affluent, seek new experiences and develop new values, new segments emerge. It should also be capable of measurement in terms of the potential customers in each segment.
Jobber (2010) illustrated this point as well by giving an example of Classic FM who identified a segment based on benefits sought. Those who are heavy users of the product often link to customer loyalty and the Pareto Rule of 80:20. He started with innovators who are adventurous and eager to try new ideas to the final category of laggards, the last to adopt new products. When Sony first produced a range of plasma TVs, pricing was high and innovators wanted the products at any price. Here, fashion is a powerful element when purchasing, and a whole industry surrounds this criterion. Questions include not only what the CIE’s job is, but also details such as their qualifications and the number of people they are responsible for. Accordingly, (a generalization too!) newspapers are designed to aim their news and newspaper content towards either the upper (Sunday Times) or lower ends (The Daily Mirror) of the social spectrum, and encourage advertisers to target their advertising appropriately.
Food products, clothing and hair care products are obvious examples of products that fit into this segmentation variable.

An individual’s political leanings might well influence the way he or she behaves in terms of purchases made. This is based on the notion that consumers pass through a series of quite distinct phases in their lives, each phase giving rise to different purchasing patterns and needs.
It helps you learn the who, what, where, when, how, and why of their relationship with you. They will listen to their key account customers and devise pricing, promotional campaigns to the needs of their customers. This exercise should enable you to analyse parts of the buying process in an online context. Although these techniques can seem confusing, with understanding they can give you a solid framework to begin developing a strategic competitive advantage.
In step 2 you take the population of interested consumers and group them based upon their similarities with respect to “the what, why, where & how” of your product category. But to respond thoughtfully I thought to do some further research into the subject: Is there a case for such wide segmentation of a target market? The Coca-Cola Company respects and supports your role as a parent and a caregiver (…) and we do not market any products directly to children under 12. Is there room for Mojo’s larrikin and irreverent approach in today’s marketing and advertising strategies? By properly identifying your target market you can then identify where you can communicate your message to them. The more open the target market, the more generic the message – and therefore less effective.
We live in a marketplace where competition is fierce, substitutes come along more than ever and access to products and services globally has grown astronomically.
Now that mind sound harsh, but in my marketing world of the 21st century it just has to be the reality. One size does not fit all, and consumers have all the power at their fingertips to find what matches their needs.
Through research they discovered that consumers were concerned about what went into their drinks and also where the materials needed for manufacture were sourced from. A group of music lovers wanted to listen to accessible ‘classical music with pleasant down-to earth presenters.
The laggards will wait until pricing has reduced (social class might be important here) but on the whole laggards are suspicious of anything new and will wait until any problems are ironed out. Whereas now the same model of TV is available in supermarkets at a fraction of the original price. Such purchases are of course reflected in the types of newspaper and other media that is read, and this, in turn, contains advertising which is aimed at people who read such media, so political leanings might be more significant than it initially seems.
For example, an unmarried person living at home will probably have very different purchasing patterns from someone of the same age who has left home and is recently married.
In the example below an industrial electronics supplier sells to a range of B2B customers who all have varying needs and who operate in very different market sectors.
Have a look at the link below - Fortnum and Mason have done rather well in this very ‘well to do’ niche sector! This means we will not buy advertising directly targeted at audiences that are more than 35% children under 12. Does it help your brand to think of your target market as “Anyone with a wallet”? In some cases a highly targeted market segment can become a macro-niche when the scale is large enough. Not every consumer is the same, and thus their needs and wants must be taken into consideration.
They have access to more variety of products than ever before – and therefore the freedom to choose exactly what they want and which brand they want to represent them.
This is done principally to alert advertising agencies who will place their clients’ advertising according to social class and product positioning.
Our policy applies to television, radio, and print, and, where data is available, to the Internet and mobile phones.
Ironically though, Innocent has kept where their manufacturing takes place, a well guarded secret. This was based on buying behaviour, social class, customer loyalty and usage, so a range of multi-variable segmentation options. It is further proof that although everyone thinks they target to everyone, they in fact still group up their products with particular differences involved. Psycho-graphic TargetingThough this sounds like a psychological technique, it's really a target marketing technique because it targets consumers based on their pre-existing psychological characteristics. These characteristics can be general, such as conservative or liberal, outgoing or introverted, social or private.
Marketing professionals have even created their own psychographic categories with names like 'early adopters', 'opinion leaders' and more.3. Niche marketing.Niche marketing simply means finding a specific group of customers from within a larger group of customers and basing your small business marketing strategy on that. Some have estimated that royalties from products bearing his name could generate $1 Billion in royalties!Focus can be a powerful part of a marketing strategy because it goes beyond just promoting products and services and actually infuses your marketing strategy into the product line itself.4. DifferentiationDifferentiation means just that; making yourself different from the competition.

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