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Aeronautical decision making (ADM) is a systematic approach to the mental process used by airplane pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances.
Figure 3: When situationally aware, the pilot has an overview of the total operation and is not fixated on one perceived significant factor. Figure 5: Prior to flight, pilot fitness should be assessed the same as the airplanea€™s airworthiness is evaluated. Figure 6: The pilot should examine decisions carefully to ensure that the choices have not been influenced by a hazardous attitude. Figure 7: The pilot must be able to identify hazardous attitudes and apply the appropriate antidote when needed. Figure 10: All experienced pilots have fallen prey to, or have been tempted by, one or more of these tendencies in their flying careers. Please enter at least one email addressYou are trying to send out more invites than you have remaining.
And because HONESTe Online can deliver this new eBook as an instant download, the cost of giving it away is affordable. While progress is continually being made in the advancement of pilot training methods, airplane equipment and systems, and services for pilots, accidents still occur. Despite all the changes in technology to improve flight safety, one factor remains the same the human factor. Some situations, such as engine failures, require a pilot to respond immediately using established procedures with little time for detailed analysis.
The decision-making process involves an evaluation of each of these risk elements to achieve an accurate perception of the flight situation. The pilot must examine decisions carefully to ensure that the choices have not been influenced by hazardous attitudes and be familiar with positive alternatives to counteract the hazardous attitudes.
For example, including relaxation time in a busy schedule and maintaining a program of physical fitness can help reduce stress levels. It is estimated that approximately 75 percent of all aviation accidents are human factors related.
Traditionally, pilots have been well trained to react to emergencies, but are not as well prepared to make decisions requiring a more reflective response. Delving deeper into accident statistics can provide some important details that can help in understanding the risks involved with specific flying situations. However, effects of stress are cumulative and, if not coped with adequately, they eventually add up to an intolerable burden. Learning to manage time more effectively can help avoid heavy pressures imposed by getting behind schedule and not meeting deadlines. Typically during a flight, there is time to examine any changes that occur, gather information, and assess risk before reaching a decision.
During a flight operation, it is important to be able to recognize a hazardous attitude, correctly label the thought, and then recall its antidote. Performance generally increases with the onset of stress, peaks, and then begins to fall off rapidly as stress levels exceed a persona€™s ability to cope. The majority of weather-related accidents occur after attempted VFR flight into IFR conditions. From a broader perspective, the phrase a€?human factors relateda€? more aptly describes these accidents since it is usually not a single decision that leads to an accident, but a chain of events triggered by a number of factors.
Defining the problem begins with recognizing that a change has occurred or that an expected change did not occur. A problem is perceived first by the senses, then is distinguished through insight and experience. Since useful tools and sources of information may not always be readily apparent, learning to recognize these resources is an essential part of ADM training. Maintaining situational awareness requires an understanding of the relative significance of these factors and their future impact on the flight.


These same abilities, as well as an objective analysis of all available information, are used to determine the exact nature and severity of the problem.
The ability to make effective decisions as pilot in command depends on a number of factors. Resources must not only be identified, but a pilot must develop the skills to evaluate whether there is time to use a particular resource and the impact that its use will have upon the safety of flight. Some circumstances, such as the time available to make a decision may be beyond a pilota€™s control.
For example, the assistance of air traffic control (ATC) may be very useful if a pilot becomes lost.
After assessing fitness as a pilot, it was decided that it would not be wise to make the flight.
However, one can learn to recognize those factors that can be managed, and learn skills to improve decision-making ability and judgment. However, in an emergency situation when action needs be taken quickly, time may not be available to contact ATC immediately.
The boss was initially unhappy, but later convinced by the pilot that the risks involved were unacceptable.
To effectively exercise that responsibility and make effective decisions regarding the outcome of a flight, a pilot should be aware of personal limitations.
Since some of the most valuable internal resources are ingenuity, knowledge, and skill, a pilot can expand cockpit resources immensely by improving these capabilities. For example, an accurate perception of pilot fitness can be achieved through self-assessment and recognition of hazardous attitudes. Performance during a flight is affected by many factors, such as health, recency of experience, knowledge, skill level, and attitude. This can be accomplished by frequently reviewing flight information publications, such as the CFRs and the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM), as well as by pursuing additional training. A clear assessment of the status of navigation equipment can be obtained through workload management, and establishing a productive relationship with ATC can be accomplished by effective resource use. Although the quantity of oil seemed insignificant at the time, the pilot decided to delay the takeoff and have a mechanic check the source of the oil. The pilota€™s good judgment was confirmed when the mechanic found that one of the oil cooler hose fittings was loose. The pilot then circled north of the town, then back over the town, then flew to the west, then turned back to the east.
Based on insight, cross-country flying experience, and knowledge of airplane systems, the pilot considers the possibility that there might be enough fuel to reach the destination. Factors that may increase the fuel burn rate could include environmental factors, such as higher-than-expected headwinds and lower-than-expected groundspeed. To determine the severity of the problem, recalculate the fuel consumption and reassess fuel requirements. When activities become routine, there is a tendency to relax and not put as much effort into performance. The pilot assumed that wake turbulence would not be a problem since landings had been performed under similar circumstances. The expected outcome of each possible action should be considered and the risks assessed before deciding on a response to the situation.
However, complacency is harder to recognize than fatigue, since everything is perceived to be progressing smoothly. Passengers can help watch for traffic and may be able to provide information in an irregular situation, especially if they are familiar with flying. For example, a pilot has not bothered to calculate the CG of the airplane because it has never been a problem.
Without the pilot realizing it, a passenger loads a heavy piece of equipment in the nose baggage compartment.
A pilot in command should brief passengers before the flight to make sure that they are comfortable voicing any concerns.


The pilot notices severe nose heaviness during climb-out after takeoff, and finds it necessary to use full nose-up trim to maintain level flight.
The pilot must evaluate the three previous areas to decide on the desirability of undertaking or continuing the flight as planned. The pilot understood that fatigue and hunger could affect the ability to fly safely, but let the desire to stay on schedule override the concern for a safe flight. It is worth asking why the flight is being made, how critical is it to maintain the schedule, and is the trip worth the risks?
It is important to think ahead and determine how the decision could affect other phases of the flight.
Pilots, particularly those with considerable experience, as a rule, always try to complete a flight as planned, please passengers, and meet schedules.
The basic drive to meet or exceed goals can have an adverse effect on safety, and can impose an unrealistic assessment of piloting skills under stressful conditions. These tendencies ultimately may bring about practices that are dangerous and often illegal, and may lead to a mishap. A pilot will develop awareness and learn to avoid many of these operational pitfalls through effective ADM training.
Proceeding to the airport, continue to monitor the groundspeed, fuel status, and the weather conditions to ensure that no additional steps need to be taken to guarantee the safety of the flight. As experience is gained, a pilot learns to recognize future workload requirements and can prepare for high workload periods during times of low workload. Approaching the airport environment and flying around the area at traffic pattern altitude in hazy conditions could have interfered with other air traffic, and the potential for a midair collision is obvious.
For example, the accident rate during night VFR decreases by nearly 50 percent once a pilot obtains 100 hours, and continues to decrease until the 1,000-hour level. Reviewing the appropriate chart and setting radio frequencies well in advance of when they are needed helps reduce workload as the flight nears the airport.
The data suggest that for the first 500 hours, pilots flying VFR at night might want to establish higher personal limitations than are required by the regulations and, if applicable, apply instrument flying skills in this environment.
In addition, a pilot should listen to ATIS, ASOS, or AWOS, if available, and then monitor the tower frequency or CTAF to get a good idea of what traffic conditions to expect. Checklists should be performed well in advance so there is time to focus on traffic and ATC instructions.
These procedures are especially important prior to entering a high-density traffic area, such as Class B airspace.
Only after the first two items are assured should the pilot try to communicate with anyone. Human factors-related accidents motivated the airline industry to implement crew resource management (CRM) training for flight crews. The focus of CRM programs is the effective use of all available resources; human resources, hardware, and information.
Human resources include all groups routinely working with the cockpit crew (or pilot) who are involved in decisions that are required to operate a flight safely.
These groups include, but are not limited to: dispatchers, cabin crewmembers, maintenance personnel, and air traffic controllers. Although the CRM concept originated as airlines developed ways of facilitating crew cooperation to improve decision making in the cockpit, CRM principles, such as workload management, situational awareness, communication, the leadership role of the captain, and crewmember coordination have direct application to the general aviation cockpit. This also includes single pilot operations since pilots of small airplanes, as well as crews of larger airplanes, must make effective use of all available resourcesa€”human resources, hardware, and information. AC 60-22, Aeronautical Decision Making, provides background references, definitions, and other pertinent information about ADM training in the general aviation environment.



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