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Author: admin | Category: Tattooing | 03.04.2014

A projectile or shell is a missle fired from the muzzle of a gun; it is always the projectile, whether issuing from the muzzle of a Breech-Loading Rifle, using separate ammunition, or from the muzzle of a Rapid-Fire Gun, using fixed, cartridge-case ammunition. The first projectiles used were stones thrown from slings (afterwards lead bullets were projected in the same way), arrows from the long bow, and darts andjavelins thrown by hand.
Projectiles can be broadly classified according to three main types: spin-stabilized, fin-stabilized, and rocket assisted (both fin- and spin-stabilized).
FIN-STABILIZED PROJECTILES These projectiles obtain stability through the use of fins located at the aft end of the projectile. In contrast to conventional spin-stabilized projectiles which derive their in-flight stability from the gyroscopic forces resulting from the high rate of spin, the finned projectiles are stabilized during flight by aerodynamic forces acting on the projectile. Fin-stabilized projectiles are ideally launched from smooth bore guns which, due to the absence of rifling, do not impart a rolling motion. Automatic cannons having calibers ranging approximately from 12.7 to 40 millimeters have almost exclusively rifled barrels and generally fire various types of spin-stabilized projectiles, including armor-piercing projectiles.
Commonly, fin-stabilized projectiles consist of a subcaliber penetrator and a fin assembly of four or more fins attached to the rear of the penetrator.
Fin-stabilized projectiles reflecting the current state of the art incorporate a sliding seat between the rotating band and the sabot body. There are two problem areas encountered with this method of firing fin-stabilized projectiles from a rifled cannon. Secondly, centrifugal forces acting on sabot components are very effective in initiating the instantaneous and symmetric separation of the sabot from the penetrator upon exit from the muzzle of the gun. The access of aerodynamic forces to the projectile is delayed by the efflux of high velocity propellant gasses upon exit of the projectile from the muzzle of the gun. Fin-stabilized projectiles equipped with discarding sabots incorporating slipping rotating bands experience considerable variations in spin rate at exit from the muzzle due to deviations in the friction coefficient within the sliding seat of the band. SABOT A sabot is a lightweight carrier used both to position a missile or subcaliber projectile inside a gun tube and to transmit energy from the propellant to the projectile. Three types of armor piercing projectiles are currently utilized in small caliber gun systems. It has been demonstrated that sub-caliber high density rod type penetrators are capable of penetrating significantly more armor than the full-bore projectiles at target ranges beyond several hundred meters. It has been demonstrated that armor piercing fin stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) projectiles penetrate more armor at greater ranges than spin stabilized APDS projectiles, due to the longer allowable penetrator lengths that can be launched and flown to the target with accuracy and stability. Prior art delay discarding sabot projectiles has typically taken the form of a metal pusher having a forward facing recess surrounding a high density metal penetrator, both pusher and penetrator typically being right circular cylindrically shaped members.
It would, of course, be desirable to reduce the retardation effect of the fins which may prevent the penetrator from moving as far through the armor as possible. When using aluminum alloys, the fins tended to shear readily from the penetrator body when the fins reached the surface of the armor being penetrated and did not produce a substantial retardation force against continued movement of the penetrator rod into their armor. In principle it might seem easy to slow down a bullet: just put less powder behind it, right? Given that I wanted to work with 7.62x39mm AR-15s with their small bolt were immediately ruled out. The machinists at Robinson Armament, maker of the XCR, were also willing to build some custom barrels for this project at a reasonable price.
Would it be better to stay with a 1:10 twist if I want to run it supersonic or will the 1:8 still get the job done? If you want to run specific scenarios the Miller Stability formula gives a good idea of what will work.
No doubt the difference in diameter is miniscule but for the sake of safety it seems worth considering.
Just a quick question, great info but I have a Sig 556R 7.62×39 that I was going to suppress (paperwork in) and I thought about subsonic loads, but after reading your Blog I have been educated, so will a 9 to 1 twist work? Yes, 1:9 will be sufficient to stabilize any bullet you can buy or cast if muzzle velocity is at least 900fps.
PS steve I have the SIG 556R too, use the 2nd position on ur gas valve and you should be able to fire the 215gr without a suppressor.
Projectiles for guns of and above seven inches in caliber are called major-caliber projectiles.
In the sieges of walled towns, in very early days, ballista, and catapults were used as a species of heavy ordnance, the former to hurl large stones, and the latter, wooden beams shod with iron and often covered with inflammable material. A sabot, wood or metal fitted around the projectile, is used to center the projectile in the bore and provide a gas seal.

Although projectile spin does not contribute to the stabilization of finned projectiles, a low rate of roll around the longitudinal axis is desired to minimize the adverse effects of mass and configurational asymmetries which may result from material imperfections and from manufacturing tolerances.
Such weapons are installed, for instance, on advanced battle tanks and commonly have calibers of 60 millimeters or more. In order to improve the armor penetration of such weapons, it is desirable to develop technology permitting successful employment from rifled gun barrels of fin-stabilized armor-piercing projectiles with their inherent high degree of terminal effectiveness. The projectile assembly is symmetric to its longitudinal axis and is fired from the gun by means of a discarding sabot.
The sliding seat is designed such as to reduce by approximately 70 to 90 percent the amount of spin transmitted from the rotating band, which picks up the full spin, to the sabot body.
Firstly, it is difficult to control the spin reduction in the sliding seat with a degree of repeatability necessary to assure acceptable projectile accuracy over the entire range of operating conditions specified for military employment.
With reduced projectile spin the centrifugal forces acting on the sabot components are reduced by the square of the spin ratio.
As a result the subsequent acceleration or deceleration of the projectile spin may result in conditions where the spin rate is equal to the nutation frequency of the projectile and resonance instability will occur. The sabot works much like a person throwing a dart, where the thrower's arm movement acts as both the propellant-driving gas and the sabot's energy-gathering pusher. The sabot is necessary to transfer propellant energy but is a parasitic weight in terms of projectile target performance.
One of the designs is of a conventional projectile shape and is full-bore diameter, consisting of a combination of high strength steel or high density material as a penetrator swaged or inserted into a suitable jacket or sleeve material.
This is due to the high density rod's more efficient armor penetration geometry and the greater mass per cross sectional area of the sub-caliber rod flight projectile, which results in it losing less velocity from aerodynamic drag. APFSDS projectiles utilizing high density sub-caliber rod penetrators have been developed for both rifled barrel and smooth bore guns from caliber 25 millimeter through 140 millimeter, and these designs have permitted the incorporation of an adequate tracer cavity in the rear of the flight projectile without degradation of the rod's armor penetration performance. Long rod penetrators have stabilizing fins which are either welded to the penetrator rod or threadably fixed to the penetrator rod. This problem is intensified when using stronger ferrous type materials for the guide fins and penetrator rod to accommodate new propellants which expose the assembly to higher temperatures. However, higher strength stabilizing fins do not shear until a considerably higher force is applied between the rod body and the fin so that a substantial retardation force is present as the penetrator shaft enters the armor and the fins encounter the armor surface. The projectile, as it is understood in modern times, came in with the use of gunpowder in warfare, and developed with the improvements in weapons using it.
In this case, successful employment means compatibility of the ammunition with the gun and feeder system, which in turn requires the necessary structural integrity to function reliably under all operating conditions specified for such weapons while at the same time providing a projectile accuracy which is equal to or better than that of spin-stabilized projectiles fired from the same weapon.
Two important functions of the discarding sabot are to support and guide the subcaliber projectile along the centerline of the gun barrel during acceleration and to form a seal to contain the propellant gasses during travel in the barrel. The degree of spin transmission within the seat of the rotating band is determined by sliding friction. As a result, the sabot separation is neither as rapid nor as precise as with a nonslipping rotating band and is increasingly more dependent on aerodynamic forces. Only upon entering into the ambient air, which occurs at a range of approximately 30 calibers from the muzzle, do the aerodynamic forces become fully effective in sabot separation.
The lower projectile spin rate at muzzle exit and consequent reduction in centrifugal forces acting on the sabot decrease the rapidity and symmetry of the discard of the sabot components and therewith result in increased projectile dispersion.
At the projectile base is an opening for a tracer cavity of adequate depth and diameter to provide a clear visual trace of the entire projectile trajectory. To take advantage of the rod's high ballistic coefficient and to provide increased initial launch velocities, sabots were designed to encapsulate the rod penetrator during handling, storage, and gun firing, and to discard shortly after exiting the muzzle, thus allowing only the rod penetrator to continue in flight toward the target. But researchers were continually frustrated by failure-metal composites simply were too brittle. Thus, armor is constantly being improved in toughness, hardness, obliquity and is being constructed in multilayer fashion.
In other words, a portion of the energy which propels the rod into the armor will be used up by "dragging" the fins through the rod cavity in the armor or in shearing or tearing the fin from the rod. Seems even easier when Robinson Armament and other companies are providing readily available custom barrels. It would be really nice if they had an off the shelf barrel option in your 7.62 Thumper cartridge. The principal function of the projectile is to carry its charge intact to the enemy's most vulnerable point, and its relative efficiency will be in a measure proportional to its carrying capacity.
While lead answered all the purposes in small-arms, it was found too soft for battering with larger guns, and stone shot being not only too light for good flight, but also deficient in tenacity, early gave way to iron.

The latter function is accomplished by the rotating band which engages the rifling grooves of the gun barrel and in doing so imparts spin to the projectile commensurate with the rifling twist of the barrel and the projectile muzzle velocity. Thus, upon exit from the muzzle of the gun the fin-stabilized projectile has a rate of spin equal to approximately 10 to 30 percent of that of a spin-stabilized projectile launched at the same muzzle velocity. The magnitude of the aerodynamic forces prevailing for sabot separation is only a fraction of the centrifugal forces available when launching at full spin and therefore a considerably more fragile sabot construction is required to assure its fracture and separation. This type of full-bore projectile utilizes the high density or high strength penetrator and to some extent the jacket or sleeve material and its geometry to affect armor penetration. One type of discarding sabot projectile has been demonstrated in small caliber guns to provide increased armor penetration over full-bore projectiles. Attention then shifted toward polymer-based composites, which were being used extensively in thin structures for aerospace applications. In conventional long rod penetrators, if armor is thick enough, it is possible that the long rod remains unpenetrated if the fins remain at least partly locked to the penetrator or are only partly sheared from the penetrator as the penetrator moves through the armor.
All of these changes require improvements in penetrators by increasing penetrating power and range. As a result, the full impact energy of the rod is not used in accomplishing its primary objective of passing through a given armor thickness.
However, fin-stabilized projectiles are disadvantageous because the extra length of the projectile must be accommodated and the payload volume is comparatively low in relation to the projectile length. In addition, because of size limitations of ammunition of calibers up to 40 millimeters, the physical dimensions of sliding rotating bands, inclusive of their seats, are small, thus resulting in rather delicate and vulnerable components. But materials used to fabricate sabots can only be as lightweight as they are strong enough to withstand great pressures and loads during gun-tube acceleration. This type of projectile has severely limited armor penetration capability at target engagement ranges beyond several hundred meters, due to its high drag configuration. This is the Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot (APDS) projectile, which utilizes a spin stabilized sub-caliber penetrating core as the flight projectile. Researchers began to consider fiber composites for complex shaped structures that needed to survive multidirectional stresses. Such improvements are accomplished by adjustment of the length to the diameter ratio of the penetrator, the use of new material such as tungsten and depleted uranium, the use of new propellants, new sabots and new stabilizing fin structures and materials, therefore, and the like.
At a nominal muzzle velocity of 2800 feet per second, spin rates on the order of 250 revolutions per second are encountered. In contrast, utilization of a nonslipping rotating band allows for the use of a stronger sabot which is advantageous when employed from high rate of fire cannons and their correspondingly high structural loads during feeding and ramming. APDS projectiles using high density rod penetrators have been developed for guns from caliber 5.56 millimeter through caliber 120 millimeter. Some engineers refer whimsically to a fiber composite as "string and glue." It consists of high-strength carbon fibers, which must be laid down and oriented to yield maximal strength and handle maximal stress. The new propellants require the penetrator to withstand higher temperature in the gun tube since the rod and the guide fins are heated to higher temperatures. Spin-stabilized projectiles are full bore (flush with the bore walls) and are limited approximately to a 5:1 length-to-diameter ratio.
Given aerodynamic considerations, APDS projectile designs below caliber 25 millimeter do not allow the inclusion of a tracer cavity without degrading penetrator performance.
Polymer is used to glue together layers of these fibers in a process similar to that used to manufacture plywood. Consequently, stabilizing fins which conventionally were made from aluminum alloys are now being made of ferrous alloys which have much higher strength and are capable of withstanding higher temperatures. The tracer cavity in these projectiles significantly reduces the available high density rod material required for armor penetration.
When layers are glued together, the grains of adjacent layers are arranged either at right angles or at some wide angle to each other. In high trajectory applications they tend to overstabilize (maintain the angle at which they were fired) and, therefore, do not follow the trajectory satisfactorily.
Once a piece of the material has been fabricated, it can be machined into the required form.
Fairly thick pieces that can withstand high three-dimensional stress are used for sabot material.

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