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Author: admin | Category: Tattoo Website | 20.06.2014

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If any post or images that appear on the site are in violation of copyright law, please email me and I will remove the offending information as soon as possible. Grand Bahama's Tiger Beach is considered one of the best locations in the world for diving with tiger sharks.
You may notice a hook on the right side of the shark's mouth, showing that this shark was fished at one time. A large ragged-tooth shark at a South Korean aquarium has been caught in the act of swallowing a smaller hound shark. With Discovery Channel’s Shark Week underway, we'll be lining up interviews with shark scientists from around the globe. We have such a copious record of heavily armored Early Paleozoic forms that it is tempting to forget that the group's most basal members (like Haikouichthys and Myllokunmingia) essentially lacked hard tissues. Hagfish and lampreys, as the only living jawless vertebrates, provide an interesting glimpse of early vertebrate evolution, however they lack the proper hard tissues by which we know the vast diversity of early vertebrates - bone. Among living craniates, bone in an form only occurs among members of Vertebrata - craniates with vertebral elements protecting their spinal cords. The earliest vertebrate hard tissues are small acellular elements: conodont elements, which show outer layers of enamel covering layers of dentin. Indeed, in many early vertebrates, there seems to have been little difference between teeth and scales, which took the form of little denticles with a pulp cavity, dentin, and enamel. The phylogeny of Sansom et al., 2010 was made possible by reexamination of these important early vertebrate, often previously cited as the ancestral vertebrate or close to Hyperoartia.
Hard tissue in the form of acellular plate-like scales, reminiscent of those of Jaymoutius, however these extend onto the head.
Hard tissue Entirely consists of small scales that usually disarticulate when the animal dies. The earliest well-preserved vertebrate, the Ordovician form Sacabambaspis, ironically represents a more derived form of hard tissue, in which individual denticles are integrated into broad head-shield composite elements and joined to one another through dermal layers of aspidin, a composite of thelodont-like denticles, lamina of dentin, and cellular dermal bone.
Impressions of otic capsules on the underside of the dorsal shield indicate the presence of two sets of semicircular canals - similar to lampreys.
Single median nostril leads to a single olfactory pouch (like in lampreys) and doesn't communicate with the pharynx.
But the big thing: Paired pectoral fins (complete with endochondral skeleton elements and muscle) present. Pharyngeal calcifications involving endodermal interaction with neural crest ectoderm - i.e. Jaw anatomy: Up until now, when we have spoken of a "skull" we have meant only a plating of dermal bone around the head, or, in the case of Galeaspids and Osteostraci, that plus in endochondrally ossified neurocranium or braincase. Note: In vertebrates with bony skeletons, these components can ossify in different patterns and into different numbers of elements, but the underlying identity of the cartilage precursors remains the same.


The following illustrations show its components using the fossil bony fish Eusthenopteron as an example. Note, whereas the branchial arches are separated from the hyoid arch and from one another by gill slits, the space between the hyoid and mandibular arches is either closed or perforated by the spiracle. Placodermi: Silurian to Devonian armored gnathostomes experienced a rapid worldwide diversification and sudden decline. Predation; Some of the largest predatory fish ever , such as Dunkleosteus, belonged to the placoderm group Arthrodira. Some placoderms are long known to have had claspers - intromittant organs for transferring sperm to the female system - suggesting that they practiced internal fertilization. Placoderm surprise: Over the decades, numerous phylogenetic analyses have yielded radically different interpretations of placoderm phylogeny. But they all assumed that Placodermi was monophyletic, so there was no need to include a wide variety of other basal gnathostomes in the analyses.
Recently, Martin Brazeau, 2009 has analyzed basal gnathostome phylogeny and found that placoderms are paraphyletic, with some groups, including the arthrodires being more closely related to living gnathostomes and others, including the antiarchs, being more basal. For our purposes, Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) is defined as all organisms more closely related to modern sharks and chimaeras than to any other gnathostomes. Synapomorphy: It is often said that chondrichthyans are characterized by lack of internal bone. Fossil Material: Chondrichthyans are arguably the oldest known gnathostomes, but their fossil record is poor because their bodies lack preservable hard parts that stay articulated when they die. Dermal skull bones with internal descending laminae that interact with endochondral elements. Lungs: The presence of lungs - outpouchings of the esophagus used to obtain suplimentary oxygen from "swallowed" air. Operculum: A large plate of dermal bone suspended from the hyoid arch covering and protecting the gill arches.
Extensive endochondral ossification of the postcranial body, including limb skeleton and vertebral column. This creature has features seen in both primitive sarcopterygians and actinopterygians, but retains others typical of primitive stem osteichthyans and stem gnathostomes, such as the stout pectoral spine. Bipartite cranium: Endocranium ossifies as front and rear parts that meet at a hinged articulation. Tristichopteridae: A group of fish with choanae - internal nostrils - ranging from the Devonian to the early Permian. Their disproportionately small eyes compare well with living fish that inhabit muddy bodies of water (Estuarine or near-shore).
Biological interpretation: Panderichthyes, although still aquatic, was anatomically somewhat specialized for shallow water, possibly stalking prey on shore.
From Daeschler et al., 2006, this creature has become the new poster-child of vertebrate evolution.


In its general profile, it's similar to Panderichthys, there are two important differences.
Its skull and pectoral girdle were no longer in contact, allowing the head to be flexed with respect to the torso - the beginnings of the neck.
From this it seems that Tiktaalik could support at least a little of its weight on its paired fins.
Could it have been pushing the top of its head out of the water to breathe in through its spiracles?
Notch in rear of skull apparantly accomodated fish-style spiracle, not an impedance-matching ear. First vertebra is enlarged, but otherwise no specialization of the vertebral column, such as zygapophyses (intervertebral articulations) .
Overall impression is of an aquatic animal that perhaps primarily used hands and feet in walking on bottom or through underwater vegetation. Rich, crystal clear waters and a well-protected marine reserve set the perfect scene to view the sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in their natural habitat. The nictitating membrane (from Latin 'nictare', meaning 'to blink') helps protect the eyes when feeding. Conodonts were not the only representation of craniate hard tissues in the Cambrian, however. The head shield is a composite of the endochondral braincase and composite dermal bone like that of pteraspidomorphs. As in Galeaspida, the head shield is a composite of the endochondral braincase and composite dermal bone like that of pteraspidomorphs. One group, Antiarchi, had greatly expanded box-shaped thoracic armor and pectoral fins enclosed in arthropod-like armor as well. Described in 2009) is our closest well-known approximation of the last common ancestor of Osteichthyes. Mary’s Medical Center will be gathering data from sharks captured during The Blacktip Challenge, a 72-hour South Florida fishing tournament to fish blacktip sharks from the beach. In this and similar creatures, histologically tooth-like denticles complete with enamel and dentin formed a composite superficial body armor. Remarkably, it is actually a basal sarcopterygian but also the oldest well-known gnathostome!




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