Create video intro template,small business digital marketing strategy 7th,mobile marketing best practices - Review

18.11.2015
This feature isn’t yet available on HTML5 templates, but we plan to add it in the near future. Promote your business, showcase your art, set up an online shop or just test out new ideas. The Survey System (and this Web site) includes a sample size calculator that can help you decide on the sample size (jump to the calculator page for a general discussion of sample size considerations).
If you are interviewing users of a particular type of product, you probably want to ensure that users of the different current brands are represented in proportions that approximate the current market share. An interview is called personal when the Interviewer asks the questions face-to-face with the Interviewee.
You can dial random telephone numbers when you do not have the actual telephone numbers of potential respondents.
CATI software, such as The Survey System, makes complex questionnaires practical by offering many logic options.
Skilled interviewers can often elicit longer or more complete answers than people will give on their own to mail, email surveys (though some people will give longer answers to Web page surveys). Some software, such as The Survey System, can combine survey answers with pre-existing information you have about the people being interviewed.
Many telemarketers have given legitimate research a bad name by claiming to be doing research when they start a sales call.
This is the only kind of survey you can do if you have the names and addresses of the target population, but not their telephone numbers. Mail surveys allow the respondent to answer at their leisure, rather than at the often inconvenient moment they are contacted for a phone or personal interview.
In populations of lower educational and literacy levels, response rates to mail surveys are often too small to be useful. One way of improving response rates to mail surveys is to mail a postcard telling your sample to watch for a questionnaire in the next week or two. Remember that if you want a sample of 1,000 people, and you estimate a 10% response level, you need to mail 10,000 questionnaires. These are interviews in which the Interviewees enter their own answers directly into a computer.
As with mail surveys, computer direct interviews may have serious response rate problems in populations of lower educational and literacy levels. The novelty element of an email survey often stimulates higher response levels than ordinary “snail” mail surveys. Email surveys cannot automatically skip questions or randomize question or answer choice order or use other automatic techniques that can enhance surveys the way Web page surveys can. Many email programs are limited to plain ASCII text questionnaires and cannot show pictures. Although use of email is growing very rapidly, it is not universal - and is even less so outside the USA (three-quarters of the world's email traffic takes place within the USA).
Web page questionnaires can use complex question skipping logic, randomizations and other features not possible with paper questionnaires or most email surveys.
Web page questionnaires can use colors, fonts and other formatting options not possible in most email surveys. A significant number of people will give more honest answers to questions about sensitive topics, such as drug use or sex, when giving their answers to a computer, instead of to a person or on paper.
On average, people give longer answers to open-ended questions on Web page questionnaires than they do on other kinds of self-administered surveys. If your survey pops up on a web page, you often have no control over who replies - anyone from Antartica to Zanzibar, cruising that web page may answer. Depending on your software, there is often no control over people responding multiple times to bias the results. In any case, be sure your survey software prevents people from completing more than one questionnaire. Scanning questionnaires is a method of data collection that can be used with paper questionnaires that have been administered in face-to-face interviews; mail surveys or surveys completed by an Interviewer over the telephone.
Scanning is less forgiving (accurate) than a person in reading a poorly marked questionnaire. If you are planning to do a Web survey, please also see Additional Tips for Web Surveys following this section.
Allow a “Don't Know” or “Not Applicable” response to all questions, except to those in which you are certain that all respondents will have a clear answer.
For the same reason, include “Other” or “None” whenever either of these is a logically possible answer. On paper, computer direct and Internet surveys these four choices should appear as appropriate. Researchers use three basic types of questions: multiple choice, numeric open end and text open end (sometimes called "verbatims"). Rating Scales and Agreement Scales are two common types of questions that some researchers treat as multiple choice questions and others treat as numeric open end questions. There are two broad issues to keep in mind when considering question and answer choice order.
Whenever possible leave difficult or sensitive questions until near the end of your survey.
If you are using telephone, computer direct or Internet interviewing, good software can help with this problem. Another way to reduce this problem is to ask only a short series of similar questions at a particular point in the questionnaire. Reassure your respondent that his or her responses will not be revealed to your client, but only combined with many others to learn about overall attitudes. If the survey contains commercially sensitive material, ask a "security" question up front to find whether the respondent or any member of his family, household or any close friend works in the industry being surveyed. The overriding consideration in questionnaire design is to make sure your questions can accurately tell you what you want to learn. If you are comparing different products to find preferences, give each one a neutral name or reference.
Avoid technical terms and acronyms, unless you are absolutely sure that respondents know they mean. If you want only one answer from each person, ensure that the options are mutually exclusive. This question ignores the possibility of someone living in a house or an apartment in the suburbs. Giving a verbal or written label to each point on a scale, instead of just the endpoints, will usually yield higher-quality data, though this may not be practical when there are more than five points on the scale. Another issue on which researchers differ is whether to use a scale with an odd or even number of points.
A question phrased like the one above will force most answers into the middle category, resulting in very little usable information. If you have used a particular scale before and need to compare results, use the same scale.
The desire to please translates into a tendency to pick agreeing answers on agreement scales. Because people like to think of themselves as normal or average, the range of answer choices you give when asking for a quantity or a frequency can affect the results.
The first list of choices makes 4 hours sound extreme, while the second list of choices makes it seem typical. In personal interviews it is vital for the Interviewer to have empathy with the Interviewee. Leave your demographic questions (age, gender, income, education, etc.) until the end of the questionnaire. Exceptions to this rule are any demographic questions that qualify someone to be included in the survey.
Paper questionnaires requiring text answers, should always leave sufficient space for handwritten answers. Leave a space at the end of a questionnaire entitled "Other Comments." Sometimes respondents offer casual remarks that are worth their weight in gold and cover some area you did not think of, but which respondents consider critical.
The Survey System lets you create a Questionnaire Form with the answer choices in two columns. Questions and answer choice grids, as in the second of the following examples, are popular with many researchers. The second example shows the answer choices in neat columns and has more space between the lines. Surveys are a mixture of science and art, and a good researcher will save their cost many times over by knowing how to ask the correct questions. You may want to design your pages to be up to 980 pixels wide (leaving room for the browser edges and a scrollbar). Recognize that requiring that questions be answered will likely increase the number of people who drop out of a survey in the middle.
Researchers have been looking into the issue of whether it is better to present a survey in one or more long scrolling pages or in a series of separate pages that do not need scrolling. If you have any questions that require qualifying instructions, include the instructions above or before the question, rather than after it.
When you have finished creating the survey and have it up on your Web site, test it thoroughly. Some survey software lets you rank items by dragging and use sliders to collect numeric input or ratings. You might want to avoid these techniques, if you think people will take your survey on touchscreen devices. The most effective cover letters and invitations include the following elements: Ask the recipient to take the survey.


Number mail questionnaires on each page and include the return address on the questionnaire itself, because pages and envelopes can be separated from each other. If you hand out questionnaires on your premises, you obviously cannot remain anonymous, but keep the bias problem in mind when you consider the answers.
The last step in questionnaire design is to test a questionnaire with a small number of interviews before conducting your main interviews.
If you change any questions after a pre-test, you should not combine the results from the pre-test with the results of post-test interviews. Autobiographies and oral histories are both narratives, but they have distinct differences. Many famous writers adopt pseudonyms that mask their identity, even to the extent of changing their gender on paper. The speaker (also called the personae) is the personality the writer assumes when telling a story. The first woman to earn her living as an author seems to have been Aphra Behn (1640-1689), who wrote a number of popular poems, plays, and novels, including the romantic novels The Fair Jilt, The Rover, and The Amours of Philander and Sylvia.
If you're writing a novel, you've got the room for a shipload of characters, but in a short story, space is at a premium, so keep the guest list short. I lay there in the grass and cool shade thinking about things and feeling rested and ruther comfortable and satisfied. In some narratives, the setting can even function as a character, as in Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Effective narratives do more than entertain; they often suggest a truth about life, a theme.
You can state the story's theme directly in the story, or have readers infer it from details about plot, characters, and setting.
In narration, the point of view is controlled by the grammatical person in which an author chooses to write. It was about this time I conceived the bold and arduous project of arriving at moral perfection.
As the boy grew up to 10 or 12 years old, his father gave him a writing-table in one of the alcoves of his Boston library, and there, winter after winter, Henry worked over his Latin Grammar and listened to these four gentlemen discussing the course of politics.Which point of view should you select? The content you display on it should be processed quickly and lead them to dig dipper into your website. This guide teaches Wix users how to work with the Wix Editor and create their own website for free. Wix is a website builder thathas everything you need to build a fully-personalized, high-quality free website. News media, government agencies and political candidates need to know what the public thinks. It discusses options and provides suggestions on how to design and conduct a successful survey project. Statisticians know that a small, representative sample will reflect the group from which it is drawn.
Totally excluding all bias is almost impossible; however, if you recognize bias exists you can intuitively discount some of the answers. For example, a survey for a product aimed at retirees will not be as biased by daytime interviews as will a general public opinion survey. It is sometimes useful to establish quotas to ensure that your sample accurately reflects relevant sub-groups in your target population.
Alternatively, you may want to ensure that you have enough users of each brand to be able to analyze the users of each brand as a separate group. Personal interviews can take place in the home, at a shopping mall, on the street, outside a movie theater or polling place, and so on.
For example, you can find people who have seen a film much more easily outside a theater in which it is playing than by calling phone numbers at random. It draws its clientele from a specific geographic area surrounding it, and its shop profile also influences the type of client. If the Interviewers are using CATI (computer-assisted telephone interviewing), the results can be available minutes after completing the last interview. It can automatically skip questions, perform calculations and modify questions based on the answers to earlier questions. Consequently, many people are reluctant to answer phone interviews and use their answering machines to screen calls. This, in effect, eliminates many immigrant populations that form substantial markets in many areas.
Another is to follow up a questionnaire mailing after a couple of weeks with a card asking people to return the questionnaire. One possibility is to send a dollar bill (or more) along with the survey (or offer to donate the dollar to a charity specified by the respondent). You may want to check with your local post office about bulk mail rates - you can save on postage using this mailing method. Recent studies of potential blood donors have shown respondents were more likely to reveal HIV-related risk factors to a computer screen than to either human interviewers or paper questionnaires. The Survey System can ensure people are not asked questions they should skip based on their earlier answers.
Computer-aided interviewing is still novel enough that some people will answer a computer interview when they would not have completed another kind of interview. Many programs have no check to eliminate people responding multiple times to bias the results. People who have email are different from those who do not, even when matched on demographic characteristics, such as age and gender.
Many “average” citizens still do not possess email facilities, especially older people and those in lower income and education groups. The Survey System can produce paper questionnaires that can be scanned using Remark Office OMR (available from CRS).
Scanning programs have various methods to deal with text responses, but all require additional data entry time.
If you present a 20-page questionnaire most potential respondents will give up in horror before even starting. If you are surveying members of an organization, the members may be more likely to respond if they think the organization is asking their opinions on how it can best meet their needs. If you want to limit the survey to users of a particular product, you may want to disguise the qualifying product.
The lowest figure is probably truest, since it represents the percentage that favor that option regardless of the alternatives offered.
Avoid questions such as "Do you buy frozen meat and frozen fish?" A "Yes" answer can mean the respondent buys meat or fish or both. You will get different answers from asking "What do you think of the XYZ proposal?" than from "What do you think of the Republican XYZ proposal?" The word "Republican" in the second question would cause some people to favor or oppose the proposal based on their feelings about Republicans, rather than about the proposal itself. Do not call one "A" and the second one "B." This immediately brings images of A grades and B grades to mind, with the former being seen as superior to the latter.
LAUTRO, AGI, GPA, EIEIO (Life Assurance and Unit Trust Regulatory Organization, Adjusted Gross Income, Grade Point Average and Engineering Information External Inquiries Officer) are all well-known acronyms to people in those particular fields, but very few people would understand all of them.
A question like "Do you use regular or premium gas in your car?" does not cover all possible answers.
While logically the percentage that strongly agrees that "X is good" should exactly equal the percentage that strongly disagrees that "X is bad," in the real world, this is unlikely to be true. In general, Interviewers should try to "blend" with respondents in terms of race, language, sex, age, etc.
By then the interviewer should have built a rapport with the interviewee that will allow honest responses to such personal questions. Many products have a wide range of secondary uses that the manufacturer knows nothing about but which could provide a valuable source of extra sales if approached properly.
Using answer grids and presenting answer choices in two or more columns can look attractive, save space and help avoid vertical scrolling.
The one exception to this rule is if the section start includes some instructions, and you have decided to randomize the order of the questions in the section.
Make sure that all the pages look as you wish and that all skips, randomizations and other logic work as you intend.
Some people will put in their names, making it possible for you to recontact them for clarification or follow-up questions. Ideally, you should test the survey on the same kinds of people you will include in the main study.
The Survey System will invariably provide you with mathematically correct answers to your questions, but choosing sensible questions and administering surveys with sensitivity and common sense will improve the quality of your results dramatically.
Now he was a sturdy straw-haired man of thirty with a rather hard mouth and a supercilious manner. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, Chapter 1A character is a person or an animal in a story. He gorged himself habitually at table, which made him bilious, and gave him dim and bleared eyes and flabby cheeks. I could see the sun out at one or two holes, but mostly it was big trees all about, and gloomy in there amongst them.
The Mississippi River may not say anything, but it's as important as any of the characters with speaking roles! Capote's finest example is In Cold Blood, the gripping tale of a pair of murderers on a Midwestern killing spree.
Laura Ingalls Wilder, for example, originally wrote the first novel in her famous Little House series in the first-person. You have three choices: first-person point of view, third-person omniscient point of view, and third-person limited point of view.


The narrator is one of the characters in the story and explains the events through his or her own eyes, using the pronouns I and me.
The narrator tells the story through the eyes of only one character, using the pronouns he, she, and they.
You love both iOS users and Android users the same so you’re going to release your app to both the Apple App Store and Google Play.
You need an icon image optimized for toolbar, navbar, launcher, tile view, menu, etc and across two platforms.
There, you will see a bread toaster; this is where you will drag or icon to, to upload the image. In conclusion, this is a really simple to use app to help you resize your app icons into the right dimensions and correct file names for easier app submission.
It does not provide instruction on using specific parts of The Survey System, although it mentions parts of the program that can help you with certain tasks. If you are doing telephone or Web page interviewing, The Survey System's optional Sample Management or Internet Module can help you enforce quotas. These characteristics may differ from the target population and create a non-representative sample.
It can check the logical consistency of answers and can present questions or answers choices in a random order (the last two are sometimes important for reasons described later). Since over half of the homes in the USA have answering machines, this problem is getting worse.
However, most researchers do not use bulk mail, because many people associate "bulk" with "junk" and will throw it out without opening the envelope, lowering your response rate. The National Institute of Justice has also found that computer-aided surveys among drug users get better results than personal interviews.
These automatic skips are more accurate than relying on an Interviewer reading a paper questionnaire. The Survey System’s Email Module will only accept one reply from each address sent the questionnaire.
Other software can scan questionnaires and produce ASCII Files that can be read into The Survey System. They (or family or friends) may work for the company that commissioned the survey - or for a competitor.
For example, a number of recent polls that ask Americans if they support the death penalty "Yes" or "No" have found 70-75% of the respondents choosing ”Yes.” Polls that offer the choice between the death penalty and life in prison without the possibility of parole show support for the death penalty at about 50-60%.
Similarly with a question such as "Have you ever bought Product X and, if so, did you like it?" A "No" answer can mean "never bought" or "bought and disliked." Be as specific as possible. It is better to give each a "neutral" reference such "M" or "N" that do not have as strong a quality difference image. Many surveys use a ten-point scale, but there is considerable evidence to suggest that anything over a five point scale is irrelevant.
Someone who rates an item "4" on a five-point scale might rate that item anywhere between "6" and "9" on a ten-point scale.
Mail and Internet questionnaires should do the same, although the rapport must be built by good question design, rather than personality. In one third world market, a major factor in the sale of candles was the ability to use the spent wax as floor polish - but the manufacturer only discovered this by a chance remark. If your sample consists of people at work, you may use more graphics, since those people usually have faster connections, but even they appreciate faster downloads. Whenever you require an answer make sure the available options include all possible answers, including “don’t know,” “decline to state,” or “not applicable,” if there is any chance that these may represent some people’s answers.
Unfortunately, these formats are a bit harder for some people to understand than a simple vertical list of answer choices.
There is some evidence that grouping several similar questions on a page may result in answers that are more similar than if the questions were on different pages. A test on your own PC or a paper copy of the questionnaire does not guarantee that the copy on the Web will look and act the same.
Include the name and telephone number of someone the respondent can call if they have any questions.
Using a postage stamp often increases response rates, but is expensive, since you must stamp every envelope - not just the returned ones. If that is not possible, at least have a few people, other than the question writer, try the questionnaire.
You can tell a novel from a short story, too, even when you're bleary-eyed from staying up until 3:00 to find out whodunit. The writer (that's you!) arranges the events of the plot to keep the reader's interest and convey your message about life. Two shining arrogant eyes had established dominance over his face and gave him the appearance of always leaning aggressively forward.
Main characters have important roles in the narrative; minor characters have smaller parts.
There was freckled places on the ground where the light sifted down through the leaves, and the freckled places swapped about a little, showing there was a little breeze up there. It didn't allow her the distance she needed, however, so on the advice of her editor, Wilder retold the story from the third person. Unless the narrator is Carnack the Magnificent, he or she doesn't know the other characters' thoughts. For example, if you use the first-person point of view for your narrative, readers see the experience through your eyes and your eyes only. Henry Adams decided on the third-person point of view for his classic autobiography, The Education of Henry Adams (1918). For example, if you want to achieve some distance from your topic, the third-person point of view is a good choice. But did you know that there are different image dimensions required of each app submission? If you conduct an employee attitude survey or an association membership survey, the population is obvious. If you want your survey to accurately reflect the general population's opinions, you will want to ensure that the percentage of men and women in your sample reflect their percentages of the general population. As a rule of thumb, the best response levels are achieved from highly-educated people and people with a particular interest in the subject (which, depending on your target population, could lead to a biased sample). If you have purchased a mailing list from a supplier, you may also have to pay a second (and third) use fee - you often cannot buy the list once and re-use it. Employees are also more often willing to give more honest answers to a computer than to a person or paper questionnaire. On the other hand, email surveys are limited to simple questionnaires, whereas Web page surveys can include complex logic. At this stage they are probably best used in a corporate environment where email is common or when most members of the target population are known to have email.
Many firms create a separate research company name (even if it is only a direct phone line to the research department) to disguise themselves. Polls that offer the alternatives of the death penalty or life in prison without the possibility of parole, with the inmates working in prison to pay restitution to their victims’ families have found support for the death penalty closer to 30%. One way to eliminate this problem is to ask half your respondents if they agree that "X is good" and the other half if they agree that "X is bad." You could then reverse the answers given by the second group. For example, always use the same color to represent an instruction, which is not part of a question per se.
If you think your target population may have some trouble understanding how to fill out the survey, use these formats sparingly. Some people may dislike scrolling down a long page, while others may dislike the brief wait between questions when each is on a different page.
This kind of test run can reveal unanticipated problems with question wording, instructions to skip questions, etc.
Not even the effeminate swank of his riding clothes could hide the enormous power of that body—he seemed to fill those glistening boots until he strained the top lacing, and you could see a great pack of muscle shifting when his shoulder moved under his thin coat. As a result, the first-person point of view allows an immediacy and intimacy absent from the third-person point of view. If you are trying to determine the likely success of a product, the target population may be less obvious. This is to avoid possible bias, since people rarely like to criticize someone to their face and are much more open to a third party. It does not tell you whether the pasta was dried, frozen or canned and may include someone who had pasta in a restaurant. This is extra work, but it may be worth it if it is important to get the most accurate percentage of people who really agree with something. If you present a list of choices that people have to think about, and only some of the choices are initially visible, there will be a bias in favor of those initially visible choices.
Ben Franklin chose the first-person point of view for his Autobiography (1771), as the following excerpt shows. You must make a decision about your sample size based on factors such as: time available, budget and necessary degree of precision.
It is better to say "Have you bought pasta (other than in a restaurant) in the last three months?" "If yes, was it frozen, canned or dried?" Few people can remember what they bought more than three months ago unless it was a major purchase such as an automobile or appliance. If you do not interview the right kinds of people, you will not successfully meet your goals.
Similarly, it is best to eliminate people working in the advertising, market research or media industries, since they may work with competing companies.




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