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ConceptDraw MINDMAP and Evernote has a multitude of options for users — you can save any part of a mind map: including topics, branches, and entire maps to your Evernote. If, the next time the show is on the air, 32 percent are tuned in, you have a total of 25 + 32 = 57, and so on through the campaign.
Gross Rating Points could also be applied to other media besides television: radio, print, billboards, the web, and so on. In only a handful of luxury categories automobiles, cosmetics and beauty, watches, consumer electronics do a majority of affluent consumers rate the brand as 'very important' in their purchase decision. To better understand the role of the luxury brand in affluent consumers' purchase decisions, we conducted seven focus groups, followed by two annual consumer surveys that asked about the influence of brands on purchase. Only in a handful of categories, generally mechanical or highly personal, is it a 'very important' purchase driver. A luxury brand justifies its purchase by confirming that the product is of outstanding quality, is a classic, is well worth the price, will be admired and noticed, and so on. Marketing investment decision-makers realize that a strong fully integrated program must include high-visibility public relations strategies to maximize the impact of their marketing mix. PR's evolution comes not only as a result of technology, the economy, media upheaval, or the speed of business, but also because consumer preferences and marketing messages have and will continue to change. With this in mind, let's provide a single-phrase context for understanding the new public relations imperative: Return on Investment.
The key to undertaking marketing ROI analysis is the need for a distilled score to represent PR's unique contribution within the mix, a 'PR Gross Rating Point', to coin a phrase. Limited marketing resources no longer allow territorialism: ROI must be found where it can be found. As such, public relations executives must be prepared to facilitate and marketers must demand PR's positive contribution to the overall marketing goals of the organization. In this period of economic uncertainty, global marketing professionals must use the greatest discretion when choosing activities to include in their marketing budgets. Now that global marketers understand the benefits, sponsorship marketing is quickly gaining ground in the race for marketing dollars.
In the past, large advertisers, such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever, have been reluctant to invest in or even to consider sponsorship marketing as a way of increasing visibility, building brands and fostering long-term relationships with potential customers. However, Sergio Zyman, former marketing director of Coca-Cola, noticed a change in the effectiveness of sponsorship marketing. As part of an integrated marketing communications effort, sponsorship marketing provides heightened visibility, a focus on niche marketing, merchandising opportunities, an additional platform from which to shape consumer attitudes, and special perks for clients. As a case in point, when American Express sponsored the 1999 World Golf Championships, it was able to offer special access to its cardholders and even invited a select group to participate in an afternoon clinic with American Express endorser Tiger Woods. In addition to its brand-building capacity, the strength of sponsorship marketing lies in its ability to be leveraged as part of a multi-channel platform . There is growing consensus that the truth about globalization of brands lies somewhere between the extremes of Ted Levitt's thesis of homogenization (Levitt, 1983) and Naomi Klein's more recent prediction of a 'no logo' backlash (Klein, 2000). The ideas presented here are largely based on the Research International Observer (RIO) qualitative study of consumer understanding of and reactions to global brands conducted in late summer and early fall of 2002. The initial 2002 RIO findings (Baker and Sterenberg, 2002) have been further analyzed to produce a 'road map' for brand managers based on our brand typology and decision criteria for globalization versus localization.
Ted Levitt's globalization of markets thesis asserted that global companies and their brands would grow inexorably, offering global consumers an unbeatable combination of quality, availability, reliability and low price. What balance do consumers seek between their need to feel part of a global tribe and their desire to be more individual? To what degree do mainstream consumers hold brands accountable for the practices of the companies behind them? To begin to answer these questions, it is necessary to review a few key findings from the 2002 RIO study. Brands may be constructs created by marketing companies and their agencies that sit on supermarket shelves in the real world. What was perhaps most remarkable in the RIO study was the degree to which consumers feel protective about their brands. While consumers are not actively looking to make a connection between the brand and the company behind it, they may react to information from activists and the media and will respond to bad company behavior that cannot be denied. Agencies have developed their own, mostly very similar, briefing forms, as an essential element in their production processes - though the UK’s 2005 APG awards (available in full on WARC Online) saw a wider variety of brief formats than in previous years. The changing nature of marketing communications has made the development of effective creative briefs a greater challenge than it used to be in the days when the default ad campaign consisted of 30-second TV spots, and the creative team simply of an art director and copywriter (9, 16).
It is by no means clear, however, that best practice has fully caught up with the changes, and typical ad agency briefing forms seem substantially unchanged. This paper, therefore, can be regarded as an interim view, for which the input material is more to be found in critiques of traditional planning processes than in published descriptions of new briefing formats and practice. The creatives will need, too, an actual briefing that enables them to get, as far as possible, under the skin of the brand and its target consumers. The changing nature of the typical communications campaign means that the development of the creative communication is likely to be a matter of several stages. It can be argued that the most significant change to campaign planning in recent years has been the rise in importance of media, or more widely channel, planning (6, 8): the need to define as far as possible in advance of creative content development the range of channels and disciplines to be deployed against the target audience, and the definition of the roles that each should perform (5, 7). It is, arguably, only once the shape of the campaign has been broadly agreed (with the recognition that it may need to be modified in the light of the ultimate creative proposals) that the next stage, of developing the campaign Idea (aka the Big Idea) should be undertaken (13, 15).
As it is recognised that the campaign Idea must be capable of implementation across a range of disciplines and media, it is important for media-neutral planning that it should not be too dominantly (for example) a TV idea. It is only when the Idea has been developed and agreed that it can then be reflected in specific creative briefs for the individual elements within the campaign. The effect of this change in emphasis should be to change the role of, in particular, the agency planner. In recent years, there has been a clear tendency for planning to move closer and closer to the creatives, with an expectation among creatives that the brief they receive from the planner will provide both clear direction and creative inspiration, so much that the resulting campaign might almost be a joint effort (10, 12). The new scenario outlined above places much more emphasis on the planner’s ability to understand the complete communication process whereby the target audience can be influenced to buy the brand: and the resulting brief is likely to be more focused on the answer to questions like ‘what do we expect people to do as a result of seeing our (ad, promotion, sponsorship, placement, and so on)?’ (19, 20, 23). As if effective marketing communication were not hard enough to achieve, even if we succeed in getting our message attended to and processed, and a positive intention formed, the very nature of memory may step in and upset everything.
In this paper we will be looking at what Daniel Schacter (2001) has called 'the seven sins of memory': transcience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. Imperfections in memory have obvious implications for the successful processing of advertising. Advertising implication: The sin of transience implies that what people 'recall' from advertising is much more likely to reflect a generic description of what is expected about a brand rather than the specific benefits that are part of the message.
The problem of memory transience can be mediated by more elaborative encoding, essentially by stimulating the lower left frontal cortex.
Advertising implication: However, one way to encourage more elaborative encoding to help reduce transcience is to relate information the target audience is interested in remembering with something they already know.
When one fails to pay proper attention to something and as a result does not encode it properly, or when the information is actually in memory, but overlooked when needed to be retrieved, one experiences the sin of absent-mindedness. Unfortunately, routine behaviour (which certainly includes such things as reading magazines and watching television) is associated with low levels of prefrontal cortex activity in the left inferior area, which makes it difficult to form vivid memories.
Advertising implication: Because one is more likely to pay partial attention rather than full attention to advertising, familiarity with advertising is more likely than recollection of specifics from the advertisement. Why people experience prospective memory failure is that they are usually so preoccupied with other things in their lives that when the event occurs, or the time arrives when it is necessary to remember to do something, the correct associations in memory are not activated. Advertising implication: Prospective memory failure may be minimised in advertising by using distinctive cues that are unlikely to be associated with other long-term memories (especially for competitive brands). Before using a famous person sell a brand, marketers and their advertising agencies need to ask themselves four questions. Of these six, the use of stars in testimonials, and specifically in advertising campaigns, is the focus here. Just because this is the most straightforward and obvious way of using a celebrity to promote a brand doesn't mean it is ineffective quite the contrary.
Here were a number of famous people, such as Joan Bakewell, John Barnes, Chris Bisson, Bob Geldof, Lennox Lewis, Patsy Palmer and Simon Weston, all known for their personal strengths (integrity, bravery, selflessness, etc.), revealing their inadequacy as a potential police officer and admitting that 'I couldn't'.
The campaign featuring celebrities playing themselves generated 101,795 relevant enquiries up to May 2002, leading to 5,998 recruits an increment of 52%. An excellent example is that of Barclaycard and the famous comedian Rowan Atkinson, who starred in an outstanding series of commercials featuring the character that has now reappeared in the Hollywood movie Johnny English. Multi-branding is by far the most popular brand strategy, and is used by many companies in all types of business.
In spite of this, the volume of scientific research and papers on the phenomenon of multi-branding is very small. It is generally recognised that multibranding offers a fine opportunity to grow a business, simply because one brand cannot really cover all customer needs in all the various segments of a market.
Branding strategies are always highly important for companies, as brands are regarded as the ultimate business driver. As many companies over the past years have reviewed their core strategies, they have often discovered that a defined type of service or defined product group is driving their results. So, multi-branding is the most frequently used brand strategy within many companies and categories. The basic choice between a mono-brand and a multi-branding strategy depends, of course, on quite a range of both external and internal factors. Most markets provide scope for multibranding operations but, of course, monobrands or global brands are vividly alive as well; all are active and successful in penetrating different markets and segments. Many of the existing brands really cannot allow themselves, because of their (price) positioning, to enter these segments, and so we see more new brands from existing market players entering these segments. Multi-branding is not a simple game of creating more brands within the same company the following points must be considered. Market segmentation must allow each brand's positioning to be strongly differentiated and, when entering new segments, it must be established that these segments are of sufficient economic interest. The brand-owner organisation needs to be structured and aligned to this strategy, and management must be prepared to invest in all the (multi)brands.
Since starting Fallon Brand Consulting four years ago we have had a tremendous opportunity to see the inner workings of marketing and brand management at a wide variety of companies.
There is a sense of hopelessness in many marketing departments where few dare strive for dramatic, exponential growth through brand initiatives. In the US, brands like Campbell's, Kodak, K-Mart, Polaroid, Oldsmobile and Levi's were once standard-bearers for the power of brands. In 2000, two research companies in the US teamed up to do a study of how well brands were differentiated in a diverse set of categories . In four categories the leading brands were perceived to be maintaining their level of differentiation and in only two were they perceived to be getting more differentiated.
Now any student of marketing can tell you that brands need to be relevant to their targets and differentiated from their competitors to be successful. The inability to differentiate suggests that our downfall as marketers is our lack of original thought, a lack of creativity in strategic matters. Too often marketers try to cover up a me-too strategy based on the category benefit by asking their ad agencies to make unique ads. Overall, marketers seem to have lost the ability to think creatively when developing their brand strategies. Marketing science is a cluster of processes and beliefs that has arisen out of the need of business schools and big businesses to systematise the activities of marketing.
There is a belief that a well-organised process can help us solve virtually all complex business problems.
The processes managers learn help create clarity and enable decisions with forthright rationales. This often leads to clients who have much stronger relationships with their 'testing partners' than with their idea generators (ad agencies and such). We inhabit a world in which qualitative modes of thought are highly relevant, even essential. Brand integration, too, means that unpicking how brands and people relate  to each other will become more relevant to more parts of more organisations. The challenge for qualitative research has always been turning a hard-to-pin-down mode of knowledge generation into a set of research products.
The term 'marketing mix' was first used in 1953 when Neil Borden, in his American Marketing Association presidential address, took the recipe idea one step further and coined the term "marketing-mix". Product - A tangible object or an intangible service that is mass produced or manufactured on a large scale with a specific volume of units. Products have perishable distinctiveness from competitor's product, assuming the product features are medium distinctiveness. Selling a product at a high price, sacrificing high sales to gain a high profit, therefore ‘skimming’ the market.
The idea of segmenting markets is almost as old as marketing - though first formalised in the 1950s.
Does the segmentation generate clusters that fit what we think we understand about our market? Are the clusters ‘usable’, in terms of either creative approaches or media planning (preferably both)? Affiliate Marketing is a revenue sharing venture between a website owner and an online merchant. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) is a collection of processes and knowledge areas generally accepted as best practice within the project management discipline. As an internationally recognised standard (IEEE Std 1490-2003) it provides the fundamentals of project management, irrespective of the type of project be it construction, software, engineering, automotive etc. PMBOK recognises 5 basic process groups and 9 knowledge areas typical of almost all projects. This objective was identified from our research into the opinions of CEOs and CMOs and highlights the importance of good marketing in running a successful company. In an increasingly clamorous society with a proliferation in the sheer volume of offerings, strong brands are significant assets in enabling companies to compete effectively. A customer focused business ethos is a proven method to increase the chances of a sustainable and profitable future. The plan is a detailed written document which can be used to promote a single product, of form the annual business strategy.
Stage 1: Research and planningUnderstand your customer and the marketing environment, look for opportunities for growth.
Stage 2: Developing your marketing strategyIdentify objectives and choose the right path to exploit opportunities highlighted in the research stage.
The marketing plan should provide direction for all relevant members of the organization and should be referred to and updated throughout the year.
Examining both the internal and external marketing environments can identify both opportunities and threats to the business and is a core component of the plan. A commonly used method of quantifying the macro external environment is with a PEST analysis.

The micro-environment includes factors which are still not directly under the control of the company, but more directly relevant to strategy such as consumer trends, stakeholders, suppliers and competitors. The internal marketing environment includes factors that the business can directly influence. Once you have completed the internal and external environmental audit, you can summarise your findings using a SWOT analysis which can be used to make key decisions.
A 'SWOT analysis' is a useful way of summarizing the results of the environmental audit and presenting the current status of a business.
A vision statement is a more long term, ideal-world statement which outlines where you would like to take the business in the long run. Combined with the mission statement, your objectives should be the key statements that drive your business. Most businesses need to grow, and the Ansoff Matrix (below) is a method of determining the best course of action if growth is your priority. Once you have determined the product and market you want to be in, the next problem will be setting a price. The marketing mix is a selection of customer focused business elements which work together as a toolkit to market your product or service. Market penetration strategy – deliberately low pricing in order to enter or control a market quickly. Place refers to the method of getting your product to the consumer - this could be a dealership or an online shop.
Promotion is much more than just advertising - this is the discipline of marketing communications. People refers to all the customer facing staff in your organisation, not just the sales staff. Process refers to the procedures which are followed when delivering a service to a customer.
This element of the marketing mix should also include your customer relationship management (CRM) process, or in other words, how you manage customers through the purchasing funnel.
When using the marketing mix, it is important to keep in mind the three generic stages of marketing - segmentation, targeting and positioning. An action plan is core to the marketing process – a constantly evolving document which is cascaded to the relevant people and monitored regularly.
The final stage of the action plan is the implementation of measurements and controls and reporting results. The balanced scorecard approach is a widely used method of monitoring overall performance and ensuring daily work is focused on the strategic objectives.
Traditionally, businesses have tracked success based on just one measure – financial results.
Now that you have an accurate picture your plan's success it is important to feedback this information in order to fine tune the strategy and update your actions accordingly. The marketing planning process is a comprehensive method for examining your business, your market and the environment in order to develop a strategy to exploit opportunities.
Notes, images, web sites and other information that you want to have at your fingertips is always available. The word "gross" reflects that the calculation double-counts (actually multiple-counts) the audience; that is to say, it is possible to reach a percentage higher than 100.
If you attach a United Way banner to your corporate headquarters building, and 3 percent of your target population drives by the billboard twice every day for 120 days, then GRPs = 3 x 2 x 120 = 720.
Be it status, badge value, or a desire to feel part of the in-crowd, some people buy Burberry for its plaid, Mercedes for its hood ornament, Chanel for the 'CC'.
In every other category in our annual luxury surveys and quarterly tracking studies, the brand plays a supporting role . This gives brand owners and retailers a new perspective and provides actionable strategies for building brands that will resonate with today's luxury consumer.
Despite the widely held belief that brands are the main attraction in the luxury market, our research does not provide any supporting evidence. The more extravagant the purchase, or the more cautious the shopper, the more justifiers one needs to tip the equation in favour of purchase. The role of purchase justifiers is hardly insignificant, but is clearly not the reason why people buy. Public Relations is gaining elusive corner-office recognition as a valuable element not to be overlooked. Unlike other vehicles, public relations engenders the involvement that marketers crave to build awareness, shape attitudes, and, yes, even drive sales. Just as other areas of organizational life are under increased scrutiny for improved quality, efficiency, and return-on-investment, the expectation is to see a greater alignment of PR and advertising with business goals.
A GRP, of course, is a distilled measure for planning and evaluating one's advertising investment. Sponsorship marketing, as a component of the marketing mix, has not enjoyed the same prominence as other marketing activities, namely, print advertising and PR.
This change is evidenced by the long-term trend towards centralization of the decision-making process and of human and financial resources. Regarding the lack of specificity in both decision-making and results, Zyman commented, 'What happened in the past is starting to be challenged very aggressively.' In his most recent book, The End of Advertising as We Know It, Zyman concludes 'Sponsorship is a great way to build a brand'. To move beyond a sterile debate about globalization in the abstract, brand strategists need decision criteria based on a typology of brands and environments that they can apply to make informed decisions about whether, when, where and how to globalize or localize a brand. We believe this to be the largest and most comprehensive study of its type ever conducted, involving over 1,500 young urban consumers (ages 18-35) in 41 countries and 52 cities around the world. A secondary source of data and insights for our current efforts is a quantitative global survey recently conducted on behalf of the Harvard Business School (jointly funded by our parent company, WPP). He described a Brand Utopia in which tastes and needs would become increasingly homogenised, with successful companies focusing on what 'everyone' wants. The ubiquity of global brands has become one of the defining features of modern life and one of the core tenets of modern marketing. Because consumers have such a strong investment in what brands mean to them, they disconnect their idealized world from the real world - as they do the consumer self from the political self.
Historically, advertisers have not been particularly good at providing the sort of briefs that agency creative people find inspiring (1, 3), and it has become the role of the agency planner to translate the advertiser’s intentions into a more focused and directly relevant brief to the creatives (1, 12).
This may, still, include a brand positioning statement, a core proposition and, perhaps, a ‘brand story’ (14).
This has been, and remains, an area where planners and account managers have the opportunity to make a genuinely creative contribution to the creative development process, which may involve a variety of forms of ‘theatre’ to embody the key insights about the brand (e.g.
At this stage, the process becomes closer to traditional creative briefing, as applied in a variety of rather different ways to different disciplines (11).
Most of what Schacter is dealing with involves declarative memory and not procedural memory, and as a result is highly dependent upon activity in the hippocampus. Even if a positive intention is formed as a result of exposure to an advert, if a memory malfunction interferes with that intention, the advertising will be ineffective.
While the memory of what one did yesterday may be all but perfect, over time those memories tend to become more a generic description of what one expects to happen under those circumstances rather than what actually did happen.
While older adults those over 50 years of age have the same ability to remember in the short term as younger people, over time, memory of specific detail deteriorates  more rapidly.
One popular way of trying to encourage more elaborate encoding is by using visual imagery mnemonics to facilitate memory. Absent-mindedness manifests itself both in failing to remember past experiences as well as in failing to remember to do something in the future. Such automatic or superficial levels of encoding can also lead to something known as 'change blindness' (Simons & Levin 1998), where people fail to detect changes over time, because of an inability to recall details.
This underscores the importance of maintaining a consistent 'look and feel' over time (Percy et al.
It is important to establish links in memory with the appropriate category need in such a way that when a purchase or usage occasion occurs, it will trigger a memory of the intention to act. All the evidence shows that, when done professionally, use of celebrities in advertising can be enormously profitable for brands. At that time he was riding high on his performances as a gangster in films such as The Long Good Friday and had great credibility with the male audience. By definition, the star is well known to the audience and thus able to convey instantly an enormous depth of imagery and associations.
As with other public service jobs, recruiting people for the police is not an easy task, especially in London.
Once this has been created, using a famous star to play the part is one of the most effective ways of establishing a long-running brand-building campaign. Atkinson as bungling secret agent Richard Latham and his hapless sidekick Bough produced a series of commercials that capitalised on the theme of foreign travel originally built into the brand heritage by the Alan Whicker campaign. The reason could be simply that companies are unwilling to have other people look into their strategy.
Multi-branding can, in fact, be considered as one of the most effective brand strategies, but it requires professional skills and ongoing management and marketing focus from companies. Brands today are acknowledged as the driver for better, more sustainable results and as an internal as well as external source of inspiration, which creates both high recognition and relationships. However, many mature markets today are strongly segmented, because of widely differing customer needs and, in addition, many customers today are no longer loyal to one single brand.
Looking at the various multi-brand portfolios, brands are often positioned with specific roles such as prestige brand, flanker brand or fighter brand. One important factor influencing brand strategy towards multi-branding is the current economic situation in Europe.
Overall, the value of the marketing department seems on the wane and many CEOs have focused on cost-cutting because they no longer believe dramatic top-line revenue growth is possible. Now all are very ill or, as is the case with Oldsmobile, dead; Levi's has experienced breathtakingly precipitous declines over the last seven years. But there is ample evidence that marketing has somehow lost the capacity to create and manage differentiated brands. The problem is that a tired strategy anchors down everyone trying to be original in any aspect of execution. Or  perhaps we are being constrained by a belief system that works against original thinking. As regards budgeting, managing promotions, pricing and many of the operational aspects of marketing, it has worked out fine. Business schools teach managers how to use a general process for problem solving, and specialised processes in specific fields such as operations, finance and marketing. As a result, quantitative market research is the only research that is thought to be really defensible in the culture of business today. As businesses get to grips with postmodern marketing, and struggle to turn data into information, the days of 'soft' thinking are with us. We may well see qual researchers, who know about these things, working in new areas such as HR or customer services.
We have to take the qualitative 'idea' systematic but interpretative analysis of the world and turn it into things clients can understand, see the benefit of, and be willing to pay for.  We have to turn intellectual skills into hard, tradable merchandise. For over 20 years, focus groups and depth interviews have reigned supreme, and for good reason. Intangible products are service based like the tourism industry & the hotel industry or codes-based products like cellphone load and credits.
It is determined by a number of factors including market share, competition, material costs, product identity and the customer's perceived value of the product. Promotion has four distinct elements - advertising, public relations, word of mouth and point of sale.
The firm calculates the cost of producing the product and adds on a percentage (profit) to that price to give the selling price. Usually employed to reimburse the cost of investment of the original research into the product – commonly used in electronic markets when a new range, such as DVD players, are firstly dispatched into the market at a high price. Company's management demands such high revenue growth rate - that everyday of work starts to look like running a championship race. It is intuitively and empirically clear that some people represent more fruitful targets than others, by virtue of their physical characteristics, economic or social status, education, habits, attitudes, values and mindset.
The marketing planning process is at the heart of any truly marketing orientated company, and ensures the customer is at the centre of all key decisions. We have split the marketing plan into three steps, which are easy to follow and equally relevant to both small and large businesses.
The main purpose of the marketing plan is to provide a structured approach to help marketing managers consider all the relevant elements of the planning process. The whole area is usually broken down into the macro, micro and internal environments as summarised in the diagram below. PEST is an acronym which divides the macro-environment into four areas – Political, Economic, Social, and Technological, examples of which are explained below. Use the primary and secondary (first and second hand) market research information at your disposal to describe your customer.
SWOT simply stands for the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats which have emerged from examining the macro, micro and internal marketing environments.
It should explain to customers concisely what the nature of your business is and where you are going, and also provide a motivational tool for employees. The Boston Consultancy Group matrix is a method of determining which to invest in, and which to drop, shown below.
The tactical section of a marketing plan summarises how you intend to use each element of the marketing mix, which can be summarised in seven 'Ps' as shown in the illustration below. Your product based tactics link back to your overall strategy - if your strategy is market penetration (see the Ansoff matrix), then there may be little need to do anything to the product. Examples of physical evidence include a brochure for a holiday tour, customer testimonials for a dentist, or a portfolio for a website design company.
Segmentation is the detailed breakdown of your customers into as much detail as practical, targeting then ensures all elements of the mix are tailored to your identified consumer group. Most action plans are relatively short term documents which focus on the coming year, but longer term implications should also be considered. Many models for monitoring the performance of businesses have emerged, many of which address the needs of key stakeholders and allow them to evaluate the overall success of a company. However, the scorecard system views the business from four external perspectives to gain a more relevant approach to performance metrics.
This is a vital process which should be used by almost every company to ensure a profitable and sustainable future. Store your critical information for future reference and it is synced to all of your devices for ease of access.
For example, if 25 percent of all targeted televisions are tuned a show that contains your commercial, you have 25 Rating Points. The fact is that among luxury consumers, the affluent top 20% of US households with incomes of $75,000-plus, the brand is not why people buy.

Luxury consumers do not buy because of the brand, nor do they use it as a criterion to define luxury. The practice of PR has transformed from an awkward adolescent into an imposing and confident adult.
And through media relations, PR also delivers a sponsor's message with the credibility that viewers, readers, and listeners demand if they are expected to make meaningful purchasing decisions. Ancient arguments about the inability to measure PR have fallen by the wayside as organizations demand and PR pros provide hard, integrable data to demonstrate the extent to which PR can generate a solid return – both independently and in conjunction with other forms of marketing communication. But for public relations, which is only semi-controllable at best, reach and frequency aren't enough: What's needed is a measure for the quality and tone of a company's message as it actually appears in the media. However, the balance is shifting – advertising now represents less than half of most marketing budgets. Centralization prevents waste, offers greater consistency to the brand, and enables businesses to better monitor their investments.
While over 100 specific global and local brands were included in the study, its purpose was not to determine consumer images of these brands per se. This study involved a total of 1,800 consumers in 12 countries selected to represent a mix of developed and less-developed economies and Western and non-Western cultures. That's where the real connections are made and where brands are invested with personal meaning and relevance. Consumers are reluctant to accept negative messages from the real world that challenge their view of brands. Although other brain structures are involved in mediating declarative memory, the hippocampus is critical, especially for tasks emphasising the representational as opposed to temporal properties of declarative memory.
The problems associated with these 'seven sins of memory', and what advertisers can do about it, are discussed below. But, more importantly, it also suggests that the specific content of marketing communication should be consistent with, or carefully integrated with, prior understandings of the brand.
As a result, older adults tend to rely upon a general sense of 'knowing' rather than specific recall.
This has obvious implications for the introduction of new benefits over time in advertising campaigns, or for repositioning. 2001), encouraging familiarity, and utilising imagery that will elicit a positive benefit (associated with the brand) even at low or even sub-cognitive levels of attention. Einstein and McDaniel (1990, 1997 with Shaw) have offered a useful way of looking at this idea of prospective memory, distinguishing between what they call 'event-based' prospective memory, where we want to remember to do something at a specific event, and 'time-based' prospective memory, when one wishes to remember to do something at a specific time in the future.
This is especially true for recognition-driven brand awareness, which means for most package goods products.
Indeed, 13% of the prize-winners in the Institute Practitioners in Advertising's Effectiveness Awards have used stars as a key part of their campaign idea.
BBDO's 'It's Good to Talk' campaign, featuring star presenter Bob Hoskins, revealed that one of the barriers to increased telephone usage was the 'gatekeeper' role adopted by males in many households. He was therefore able to take the essentially instructional scripts and educate men as to the benefits of allowing women to talk for longer on the phone, and further how they too might improve their key relationships by doing a little of the same. In effect, the famous person is a form of communication shorthand that accelerates understanding and enhances audience participation.
Not only is it necessary to appeal directly to the right kind of candidates, but there must also be a climate of approval for this career choice among the candidate's family and friends. But it also sought to communicate other benefits of the card, such as insurance on purchases. Since many markets are strongly fragmented, it makes sense to introduce extra brands in order to compete effectively across a category. Also important is the type of company: is it local or international, and centrally directed and controlled, or not? And does the brand architecture make it possible to expand from existing brands and differentiate further? As economic growth in most countries is negative or stable, we see in very many consumer markets a development or evolution into value or discount segments. What does it say about our ability to manage brands when such an incredibly strong one can fall so far so fast? This lack of differentiation forces brands to compete on the basis of price and undermines the business reasons why brands exist in the first place. Therefore, creativity is vital to developing successful brand strategy (the positioning or brand theme, as we call it).
However, when applied to brand creation and management, we see that the core tenets of marketing science are often wildly at odds with the need for original, differentiated brands.
Overall this set of processes, along with some fundamental principles, is called management. But pushing, pulling and testing alternatives has eventually become more important than generating good alternatives in the first place. That's what senior management needs to see because it is believed to be the closest thing to reality. But if you do all the right testing beforehand and if you get a good test score, who could really blame you?
The ability to make business sense from messy, ambiguous evidence about consumers, markets and trends has never been more highly valued. Interviewing and analysis styles might differ widely between researchers and across cultures, but the basic format is easily understood, immediate and visible. Typical examples of a mass produced tangible object are the motor car and the disposable razor.
The business may increase or decrease the price of product if other stores have the same product. A certain amount of crossover occurs when promotion uses the four principal elements together, which is common in film promotion.
This method although simple has two flaws; it takes no account of demand and there is no way of determining if potential customers will purchase the product at the calculated price. At the same time, the accountants in the finance department are reluctant to increase any expenses thus curtailing potential investments needed to achieve the required sales targets. As your understanding of the audience improves, you'll be able to design products which cater for their needs better, and you will be able to communicate with them more directly. However, if you have chosen product development or diversification then a certain amount of research and development, and product design will be needed. Positioning is the process of ensuring potential and current customers perceive your company in the intended way. This approach encourages open communication throughout the business and allows tracking of performance throughout the year. ConceptDraw MINDMAP software with Note Exchange solution supports sending the information from your mind map to your Evernote account.
The shopper falls in love with an item and finds herself at the cash register before her rational mind reminds her that she does not need another one of those or one that costs so much.
Brand reputation encourages the consumer to pay a little bit more and is a 'Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval'.
The depth of PR's influence on modern day marketing programs is so great that ignoring it would appear to be an act of gross negligence. The solution came in the form of the Weighted Impact Score, developed through independent and rigorous testing by Delahaye and applied successfully in marketing-mix modeling in industries ranging from telecom to retailing, packaged goods to movie tickets.
CEOs will assert the right of their customers' preference to be engaged intelligently through a company's marketing and communications efforts, without regard to which budget is affected.
Rather, extended focus group discussions used a variety of projective techniques to elicit consumers' feelings and attitudes about the 'globalness' or 'localness' of such brands. It is in this Platonic, idealized world where brands take on life and where they acquire their redemptive role. As with most things, if we are to have any hope of dealing with memory problems and their impact upon advertising and other marketing communications, we must first understand what is going on. A recent advert for Reynolds Wrap illustrates this can be done with a headline 'Sticky Foods Won't Stic' spelled out in cheese on a pan of lasagne, with a portion cut out of the corner cutting off the last letter of 'stick', revealing the aluminium foil, clean, beneath. Unfortunately for marketing communication, not only does using visual mnemonics require a great deal of concentration and effort (and there is no easy way to encourage such effort), but for most people there is really very little evidence of general memory improvement using such techniques. Also, the fact that absentmindedness is more likely for routine experiences that do not in and of themselves require elaborative encoding (e.g. Familiarity is when one has a sense of simply being aware of something without recalling specific details (e.g.
Additionally, too much exposure, especially massed exposure, could lead to lower levels of specific 'recollection' (as we understand from as long ago as Ebbinghaus 1885).
An example of event-based prospective memory would be wanting to buy a new brand the next time you are at the store. In the store point-of-purchase material as well as packaging must be both sufficiently informative to trigger the stored memory of an intention to buy, and be distinctive enough to minimise confusion with other brand memories.
Their perception was that the telephone was expensive and that women in particular indulged in discursive, often purposeless phone calls. M&C Saatchi's campaign strategy was to issue a challenge to which only the right people would respond, both to minimise the number of inappropriate applicants (who would waste resources and money during an abortive screening process) and to create heightened sense of esteem around the job. Other strategic reasons for multi-branding are the coverage of various distribution channels, when the price range within a category becomes too wide, or simply in order to spread risks for the bastion brand. Process inevitably becomes more important than the ideas being processed, because ideas are hard to systematise and hard to make black and white. It has been easy to sell groups, easy to cost them, and there is an infrastructure to support them. Advertising covers any communication that is paid for, from cinema commercials, radio and Internet adverts through print media and billboards.
These early adopters are relatively less price-sensitive because either their need for the product is more than others or they understand the value of the product better than others.
This creates a situation where it appears that its almost impossible to succeed in sales - but there will be few who always seem to achieve their targets with ease. If you have a broad customer base, you might need to split your customers into groups (segmentation).
Justifying the purchase is the essential role of the brand and the reason that companies must continue to invest in building customer relationships. Interestingly, media planning agencies have already grasped this as they now try to evolve towards communications planning rather than mere advertising planning alone. In our analyses we uncover the underlying dimensions along which consumers evaluate brands across multiple product categories. Nondeclarative emotional memory is also involved here, especially in the cases of bias and persistence, which means activity in the amygdala as well. Spaced exposures generally result in better memory, a finding demonstrated in Strong's simulations (1974) of various media schedules based upon Zielske's work, and more recently in fMRI studies conducted by Wagner et al.
Shoppers are almost always in a hurry and preoccupied with other things when they are in a store, and this may get in the way of attending to the appropriate prospective memory cue. This raised the cost of the bill, which in turn led many men to take a hostile attitude towards the use of the phone.
When you get a good test score on a positioning idea or marketing initiative in some packaged goods companies, that's how you are evaluated.
The development of this clear, efficient unit of service fuelled the massive expansion of qualitative research from the late 1970s onwards. Public relations are where the communication is not directly paid for and includes press releases, sponsorship deals, exhibitions, conferences, seminars or trade fairs and events. This strategy is employed only for a limited duration to recover most of investment made to build the product. These are people who are known as "Born Salesmen" - but in reality a good salesman is a good drill master who knows the sales drill down to the last details - which can be learnt.
There is compelling evidence that the amygdala is critical to emotional learning and memory (cf. This difference is important, because when there is divided attention during exposure, there is a significant effect upon recollection, but little or no effect upon familiarity (cf. This is just the sort of thing that goes on when a salesman creates a distraction, hoping you will forget all about your initial good intentions not to be influenced by his pitch, as we know from the literature on compliant behaviour (cf. Word of mouth is any apparently informal communication about the product by ordinary individuals, satisfied customers or people specifically engaged to create word of mouth momentum. To gain further market share, a seller must use other pricing tactics such as economy or penetration.
In this article I will write about what it takes to be a good salesman in a B2B world.Start with ConvictionWhenever I see a business opportunity - the first thing I need to do is to convince myself that this deal can be done. Sales staff often plays an important role in word of mouth and Public Relations (see Product above). This method can come with some setbacks as it could leave the product at a high price to competitors.
Once I am convinced that this is a good deal, convincing others is relatively easy - but you need to work on it on daily basis. Further, researchers, particularly, have argued that segmentations should be ‘holistic’, operating across the range of possibilities, if they are to provide effective ways of discriminating between consumer types (4, 12).Technically, segmentation studies require the collection of data from a population and the application of statistical analysis to split the population into ‘clusters’ of similar-seeming individuals. There are a number of different ways of doing this, of which cluster analysis and factor analysis are the most common. He had developed a very sophisticated spreadsheet model - and all that his model was telling me was that this deal should not be done as we will lose money. These techniques have both advantages and shortcomings, especially if used in combination, which are exhaustively argued over by statisticians (2, 4, 5, 6, 7).For the marketer, who has to use the results, the key considerations are more practical than technical (2, 4, 6).
After some investigation it because clear that his financial model was built on wrong assumptions. This further emboldened my enthusiasm to go ahead with this deal.The situation could have changed quite a lot if I had bought the argument from my finance expert.
He after all comes with excellent credentials - A Chartered Accountant with excellent reputation for financial analysis and a long experience at the company. I was convinced that this was a good deal - and I had to convince our financial expert in order to win the deal.Winning against negative sentimentsEvery winning salesmen can tell you hundreds of stories where he had to go to extreme lengths to convince his own folks in order to win the deal. How is this done?Firstly, restore your enthusiasm to same high level by talking to yourself often about it. Its easy - begin the day with all the deals you have on the table - go over them and tell yourself why you need to win them.Secondly, do not let the negatives of the proposition come in your way of conducting business.

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